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New York City Hall
New York City Hall
#About the Ancient City Hall Building in New York

The City Hall of New York is located in lower Manhattan. This is the third building City Hall built for the city, and its construction took 9 years, between 1802-1811. The building presents a historic site, and it is the oldest building among the operating City Halls in the United States.

In 1802, because of the need to change the old municipality building, a competition was held for the design of the new building. The winners were John McComb Jr. and Joseph-François Mangin. Even with the respectable title, they only won a $350 prize. No more, still back then the dollar was worth much more.

The royal dome, decorated windows, and ancient columns are all hallmarks of the building, located in a small and lovely park. Notice the back part of the building. In the past, the planners thought that no one would see the back part of the building, and so the walls were covered with cheap brownstone. Since then, of course, the entire exterior was redone, except for the marble under the dome, that has maintained exactly as it was built.

In the lobby of the building you can see the prestigious stairs, made of white marble. If you ascend them, you will reach the governor's room. In the room you will see a gallery of portraits, and from its windows you can overlook the park. The council room is also interesting, as there is a huge ceiling painting, an impressive painting of New York City.
Flatiron Building
Flatiron Building
#About the Building Shaped like a Flatiron

This skyscraper, also called the Fuller Building, attracts attention because of its triangular shape. Its height is 87 meters and has 22 floors. In 1902, with the end of construction, it was considered one of the tallest buildings in the city. The building was planned by architect Daniel Burnham, who tried giving the building the style of a "vertical Renaissance palace," in the Beaux-Arts style. If you were wondering about the name of the building, Flatiron, is a nickname given to the building because of the similarity the shape has...to a flatiron!

The building is considered one of the symbols of New York, mostly because of its love from the public. But if you think it received this title quickly, you are greatly mistaken. Journalists and others did praise the building but criticized the project and the insane number of windows that the building had. There were those who even said it did fit to stand at the center of the city and to attract too much attention. The New York Times called it "Monsterous." With the years' criticism declined, but until today there are those who still challenge its existence.

The Flatiron Building has a historical site standing since 1979.



#Architecture

Interestingly, the original design of the architect Daniel Burnham was a little different from what you see today. Sketches show that the original design contained a clock and a decorated top with many refinements.

However, despite the plans, the one in charge of the construction was the designer Frederick Philip Dinkelberg, who worked in the same office with Burnham, which must be the reason for the changes.

Want an interesting story about the building? The special shape of the building created fears that it would collapse after a short time, and it even created a wind tunnel in the nearby streets. At the beginning of the 20th century, men would stand on the street corner and wait for the wind to lift up women's skirts or dresses. Don't try this yourself!



A Closer Look at the Building and its Surrounding:

https://youtu.be/nxpDIemxxUI
Tweed Courthouse
Tweed Courthouse
#About the Old New York Courthouse

The old Courthouse of New York City, located on Chambers Street, number 52, in Manhattan, was built in a style that developed in the 19th century, based on the classic style of the Middle Ages. Though it has its own design, and is based on simple architecture with many windows.

The name of the building was given it because of the initiation of William M. Tweed, who stood at the head of the party controlling New York City at the time. Back then, he was also one of the most corrupt politicians around. Tweed was convicted by the court for stealing dozens of millions of dollars from the municipality, and died in prison.

Because of the corruption saga that prolonged the process, the construction was finished only twenty years later, and the design of the building changed from American, to Classical.

The building itself contains 30 courtrooms. In 1984 the building was added to the list of National Historical Buildings, and was declared one of the historic and important buildings in the city.

In 2001 renovation work was completed, and today it is a building for the education department of New York.
Manhattan Municipal Building
Manhattan Municipal Building
#About the New York Municipal Building

An impressive skyscraper, it stands at 177 meters tall, and has 41 floors, located at the junction of Centre and Chambers.

The purpose of the building was to provide space for the city municipality of New York. Up to that time, city municipality offices were spread around different areas of the city, from lower Manhattan to Midtown. The municipality also needed more offices for legal work, especially after the decision to connect the five boroughs in New York into one city in 1898. The Town Hall could not be expanded because of architectural constraints.

The building was built between 1907-1914, and is the first building in New York to be connected to a metro stop station. Populating the building began in 1913, and the offices themselves opened in 1916. Today, you will find 13 city departments, 2,000 employees, and the area of 90,000 square meters.


#About the Planning of the Building

All the savings from not having to pay rent to the different municipal offices around the city, gave it the option to expand, but in the municipality many preferred to reduce the renting and move to a new building, bringing all the offices together. So the government opened a competition for the design and construction of the building.

Until 1907, 4 different competitions were held. The offer that at last won was by William Mitchel Kendall, a young associate in the architecture firm of McKim, Mead and White, back then it was the largest architecture firm in the world, with 100 employees.

The one who pushed him to send in his application was the mayor at the time, George B. McClellan, Jr. Even with the impressive reputation of the firm, this building was their first skyscraper.



#Architecture of the Manhattan Municipal Building

In the building, that was built in a Classic Roman style, you can see different statues and plaques.

Notice the top of the building, where a golden statue was placed in 1913 at 8 meters high, called the Civic Fame. The golden lady, holding in her hand a Mural Crown, a crown designed in the shape of a fence with steeples. The crown has 5 steeples, representing the 5 boroughs of New York.

In the statue's right hand, you will see a shield and branch of leaves, representing victory. The statue was designed by Adolph Alexander Weinman, and is the third of its size in Manhattan.

The main arch of the building allows the transition of vehicles underneath. This arch is neo-Classic, designed in inspiration of the Arch of Constantine, the Victory Gate in Rome. The five domes in the buildings symbolize the five boroughs.

Notice the vaults, the arched roofing of the building's ceramic mantle. They were inspired by the Palace of Farnese in Rome.

Architecture in New York

Manhattan Bridge
Manhattan Bridge
#About the Manhattan Bridge that Shakes in the Wind

The well-known bridge of New York connect between lower Manhattan and Brooklyn, it is a huge suspension bridge, with a particularly strong presence. The total length of the bridge from end to end is 890 meters. It was open for crossing on 1909, about one year before construction was officially finished. The cost of the bridge was $31 million.

Originally, the bridge was only supposed to service trains, however with time, it was expanded for new uses. The design of the bridge was by Leon Moisseiff. If the name is not familiar to you, we will let you know that Moisseiff planned the Tacoma Narrows Bridge that collapsed in 1940.

Because this was the third bridge to be built in New York, after the Brooklyn and Williamsburg Bridges, it received the fascinating name - Suspension Bridge Number 3, until the name was changed to the name we all know today.

The bridge has 7 lanes, 4 train tracks, a bike line, and walking paths. About 75,000 vehicles cross the bridge every day, and about 3,000 pedestrians. Another amazing fact is that the trains carry about 320,000 passengers over the bridge every day.


#Design of the Manhattan Bridge

Originally, the design of the was supposed to be innovative and unprecedented. The architect, Gustav Lindenthal, offered to replace the cables that were typical for construction at the time, with steel chains. Even for the innovative and modern idea, it was moved to the side with the coming of a new Mayor, George McClellan Jr.

Finally, Leon Moisseiff was in charge of the construction of the bridge, without much success. The bridge sways and shakes to this day. The train tracks on the sides of the bridge cause the bridge to shake and sway the bridge, and as trains have become more and heavier, the shaking increases. Throughout the years a few renovations have been made to the bridge.

The bridge attracts many tourists who like crossing the bridge, or climb the bridge to get a nice city view.


A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/bjHVtwZLM30


A View from Above:

https://youtu.be/1maozsEGfnc
Crown Building
Crown Building
#About the Building with a Crown that Needs to be Seen at Night

The Crown Building is a building that is used for all sorts of purposes. In 1923 the building was used as the house of the American Mercury magazine. In 1929 it became the official residence for the Art Museum. Throughout the years the first floors were used as displays and the higher floors for offices. In 1981 the building was purchased by the President of the Philipines, Ferdinand Marcos, what turned the building to a target of lawsuits of all kinds, after the rule of Marcos fell. The plaintiffs claimed that Marcos had purchased the building with money that was not his own, and that the rights belonged to the Philippine government. The parties involved agreed to sell the building and split the proceeds.

In 1991 the building was purchased by Bernard Spitzer for $95 million. His son and former Governor of New York Eliot Spitzer took over the building after the death of his father in 2014. At the end of 2014, the building was supposed to be sold in a public auction. The building was now worth $1.75 billion for the tower and ground floor.

The Crown Building is located on the corner of 57th Street, the area is considered the most expensive commercial and office real estate in the United States.
The building of the tower was finished in 1921, and it consists of 26 floors. The height of the building is 120 meters, and the building received the name Crown Building in 1983, thanks to its top, similar looking to a crown while it is lit up.

Because of the prestige of the commercial land in this area, the lobby to this building is relatively small. The building can be seen from Central Park. In 2005 the building was purchased again for $1.8 billion, one of the largest purchases in the history of American real estate. Recently the offices have been converted to luxury apartments.
Trump World Tower
Trump World Tower
#About the Tower Built by a President

The skyscraper located on First Avenue in Manhattan, is full of impressive presence and height. It is 262 meters tall, with 72 floors. The building cost no less than $300 million, and its construction took two years. During its first two years it was crowned as the tallest residential building in the world.

The architect of the tower was Costas Kondylis, a Greek architect, who planned the residential tower. All the exterior is transparent, with dark glass panels with a bronze/golden shade, giving an amazing view of the East River and Midtown. It was built out of a concrete skeleton, to protect the high floors from hard winds, and maintain the building stable.

Before its establishment, many people protested the building. There was a fear that it would overshadow the UN Headquarters nearby. There were those who feared it would be pointless, for its massive height and lack of character and external decorations.

The prices of apartments in the tower are really expensive. Prices vary between $625,000 for a studio and $28 million for the larger apartments. Though its large size, 1,858 square meters, the penthouse, taking up the uppermost two floors, did not manage to sell. the original price of sale was $58 million. After a few years with no avail, it was decided to divide the penthouse into 4 apartments, and these were sold away quickly.



A Look Outside:

https://youtu.be/qykbwyywPDw


From the Inside:

https://youtu.be/zPVAqozW3no
The Frick Collection
The Frick Collection
#About the Museum

This special museum, located at the palace of a rich industrialist, Henry Frick, is considered one of the most beautiful museums in the city. Henry Frick was a great art collector, that was also the head of the company Carnegie Steel. The palace was the prestigious home of his family members, and the most grandeur in the area, even though almost all the homes on Fifth Avenue were mansions or private exclusive clubs.

The impressive artistic collection, with about 1,000 items, the entire family collected together. Among the collections are ancient furniture and art pieces by famous artists such as Degas and Rembrandt. The pieces are scattered throughout the 16 halls of the museum.

The museum itself is small and pretty and was designed by architects Carrère & Hastings in 1914. In 1935 the architect John Russell Pope expanded the building to fit it to a place for the public. The building is in the neo-Classic style, and the garden was planned according to the model of a Roman atrium, with palm trees in the garden. In the courtyard, you will also see a round music hall used for concerts and conferences.




A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/_SEtCYsD-WA


Walkthrough of the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DO3rGlSZuQg


New York
United Nations headquarters
#About the Complex

The large complex of buildings located in New York is used as the headquarters of the United Nations since the buildings were built in 1952. The United Nations is an international organization whose goals are to create collaborations in the themes of law, security, financial development, and human rights between nations, and achieving world peace. Because the territory of the headquarters is international, the United State's laws do not rule here.

The land for the headquarters was purchased for the good of the organization by a donation from John D. Rockefeller Jr. On the land, the complex was built with several buildings. The Secretariat Building, the main building of the complex, and is identified by its impressive facade, made of greenish glass. It is 156 meters tall and has 39 floors.

Another building in the complex is that of the General Assembly Building of the United Nations. The purpose of this body is to serve as a forum for discussion and planning of peace, economic and human rights programs. The third building you'll see here is the Dag Hammarskjöld Building, the UN Library Building.

Outside the buildings, in the open space, you can see gardens and statues. The big square constitutes an inseparable view for many visitors who arrive here.

The complex was designed by 11 international architects, headed by Wallace K. Harrison. In the halls and spaces inside building you can see a variety of art pieces, mosaics, frescoes, and unique carpets that have been collected from around the world.

Enjoy!



A Closer Look at the UN Headquarters:

https://youtu.be/vpRm7GAtZIo?t=1m36s
Empire State Building
#About the Tower that Became the Symbol of New York

The Empire State Building, a tall skyscraper in New York at the height of 443 meters, with 103 floors. It is one of the most dominant symbols of the Big Apple, and is located on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 34th Street. The Empire State Building was planned and built between 1929-1931 in the art-deco style, by William Lamb. It is considered by the American Society Of Civil Engineers as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.

Pretty fast after the launch of the building, this building became a Hollywood star, and has starred in quite a few movies, from romantic comedies to dramas, and action movies. There is almost no cinema enthusiast that is not familiar with the image of King Kong climbing the building from 1933. This tower is a common place for marriage proposals and in general, the amazing landscape view that extended from its upper floors made it one of the city's romantic places.

In 1931 the President of the United States Herbert Hoover pressed on a button in the White House that lit the lights of the Empire State Building. This is how this incredible building was inaugurated, back then it was the tallest building in the world. As of 2016, the building is the fifth tallest building in the United States, and 29th in the world.

The building's stairs are also somewhat of an attraction, once a year an annual race takes place in New York, where hundreds of people climb the stairs from the bottom all the way to the top of the tower.

A few statistics - this building has 6,500 windows, 73 elevators, and 1,860 stairs. It weighs no less than 365,000 tons. Occasionally, for very special events, the Empire State Building is lit up in colorful and impressive colors.



#"Dare to Dream" Exhibition

To a certain extent, the story of the Empire State Building is the story of the American dream. The exhibit "Dare to Dream" that is displayed here, presents the history, the architecture and the construction of the building. There is a lot of content from the archives of the well-known skyscraper of New York. The exhibit provides a perfect experience that lets you learn about the work of the pioneering work of the architects, the builders and workers who built it. In the exhibition you will be exposed to original documents, photographs from the time period, architectural sketches, lists and financial accounting daily documents. Additionally, you can see the photos and souvenirs that belong to more than 3,400 workers that helped make history.



#The Lights of the Empire State Building

Since 1976, the Empire State Building has been an international symbol of the New York skyline. The lights that light up on the building protect the reoccurring tradition of changing the lights according to different events along the year.

In 2012, the system was further upgraded with an LED lighting system, capable of displaying 16 million colors, which can be changed instantly. Sometimes the lights are even synchronized with music broadcasts on different radio stations and this makes the building the world's largest light organ.

On Halloween, the holiday always makes its mark on the building.

The international lighting designer Mark Birkman, is the one who planned the lights and placed the LED lights, synced with the beat of the music played in the background. 100 meters of colorful lights, spectacular and festive, can be seen from almost every corner of Manhattan.

Different artists gained the right to use the lights as part of their creations: the artist Alicia Keys, Frank Sinatra, and rapper Jay Z.



#The Story About the Plane that Crashed into the Building

The Empire State Building was the tallest building in New York for many years, with the building of the Twin Towers in 1972 the Empire State Building was bumped down to second tallest. It is unnecessary to mention that after the attacks on the Twin Towers on September 11th, 2001, it regained its title as the tallest building in New York for a certain time.

During World War II, from an airport in Massachusetts a plane departed that was meant land at the airport in New Jersey. The flight's purpose was to partake in the fighting, and was piloted by Captain Smith, who had been through 30 bombardments attempts on the European front.

When the plane got near New York it faced thick fog that limited visibility in the area. Captain Smith asked for permission to land in La Guardia Airport, but was told visibility was also bad there. The control tower ordered Smith to continue the flight over Manhattan keeping an altitude of 457 meters.

With that, the fog made its mark, and caused the pilot to lose his way. He began lowering the plane towards the landing in New York, while almost crashing into the GE Building, 259 meters high. In the last minute the pilot managed to avoid the disaster and moved out of the way, however, unfortunately, the pilot crashed into the tallest building in New York at the time, a building with 103 floors, the Empire State Building.

The plane hit the 79th floor of the building, and created a huge hole in the side of the building. One of the two engines of the plane went right across the building and fell about 270 meters until it hit the roof of another building and caused a fire. The second engine dropped down the elevator shaft in the building to the bottom, and other fragments scattered in the street below.

In the building a fire erupted, which the firefighters managed to put out miraculously after 40 minutes. Luckily, the foundations of the building were not damaged. The accident cost 14 lives, 3 crew members (2 pilots), and 11 people from inside the building. 26 people were injured. Until today, there is a mark of a missing stone in the building's exterior from the plane crash.

And, if not enough miracles happened in this building, one of the injured people were put into the elevator by the paramedics not knowing the elevator was damaged. The elevator fell down 75 floors - however the injured woman survived this insanity. This affair won a Guinness World Record.



#Architecture of the Empire State Building

The Empire State Building is considered the cultural symbol of America and is an example of the art-deco architecture, that developed in France and is characterized in geometrical vertical decorations. Art-deco is a style that began developing at the start of the 20th century and gathered speed between the years 1920-1930.

To avoid the sun's light, the building was designed in a staircase like shape - the lower floors are wide, and as the floors go up they become thinner, until reaching the top of the building.



A View from Above:

https://youtu.be/ZZrmjwwTghI



King Kong from the 1933 Movie - On the Building:

https://youtu.be/CuRQH_hLcTw
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
#About the Museum Whose Building Became an Icon

This interesting spiral building, a museum for modern art, was inaugurated in 1959, and it is named after Solomon R. Guggenheim. He initiated the establishment of the museum in order to display the rare collection of art he owned.

The special design of the building is the creation of American architect Frank Lloyd Wright, and there is no doubt that the building's exterior draws many visitors to enjoy the beauty. The building is a cultural symbol, and an icon for architecture that is modern and new, creative and curious.

Though its beauty, many criticize the design of the building which brings with it failures, and lack of conformity to its location. For its spiral shape, observing the art inside is not completely straight, but crooked, what can be difficult to see the art in the same perspective that the artist was aiming for. The ceilings in the Guggenheim Museum are lower than usual, and some say this gives a sense that paintings and other artists do not receive the respect they deserve.

A few years after Wright passed away, in 1992 the building underwent renovations, where more floors were added to the museum, with higher ceilings. There the pieces of art were moved that required bigger spaces.

In the museum you will find works by a variety of talented artists: Chagall, Picasso, Kandinsky, and more. Most of the collections include paintings, though there are also statues. On the fifth floor you will find a balcony with a view of Central Park.



#The Guggenheim Museum's Design

The Guggenheim Museum in New York was designed by the well-known architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright took 700 sketches and 15 years until he was able to arrive at what he had wanted - a building that was different than all the 'boxes' around, the same old buildings of New York.

Indeed, the structure of the Guggenheim Museum in New York has a unique shape that many consider an art piece no less important than the abstract works that are presented inside. The rounded shape, asymmetrical, irregular, and whose wide part is precisely above, is unforgettable. It was also the first museum where the gallery flows through- no floors and no rooms, but only one space curving a gentle slope down the building, up to the entry level.

What made this magic possible, is the design of the structure according to the Fibonacci series, and according to the Golden Ratio. Just like the nautilus shell, the oldest shell that still exists in the world and has not changed since the dinosaur period. The idea was accepted by the architect after a wealthy Baroness, who commissioned the work, demanded that the structure be rounded. From here the road was short for imitation of the nautilus shell, all calculated on the basis of the Fibonacci principle. It is a principle based on the Golden Ratio, the most effective form of nature for reduced replication.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a51J5hzHg4U


A Tour of the Museum:

https://youtu.be/FWFeDzKGA78


Stunning Screening on the Museum's Spiral Structure:

https://youtu.be/osc8Gvz40C4


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.