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Bloomfield Science Museum
Bloomfield Science Museum
#About Jerusalem's Science Museum

The Bloomfield Science Museum is one of the best science museums in Israel. The museum is located in the museum plaza, not far from the Israel Museum, and the Hebrew University on Ram Hill.

The museum exhibits temporary exhibits about science and technology. Displays here are usually interactive, giving visitors the options to play with the displays, and not just look at them.

The museum deals with science education, and public events and for higher learning. Among other things, it runs a competition for young scientists and inventors, and organizes science meet ups for kids of different ages.

A Closer Look at the Jerusalem Science Museum:

Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
#About the Biblical Zoo

The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo is the zoo of Jerusalem. This zoo has a collection of animals from around Israel, some of which were mention in the Bible, located on the Northern bank of Nahal Refaim. The zoo is unique, and attracts many tourists from around the entire country.

The Biblical Zoo today lays in a valley on the foot of a hill, and along the hill are displays about animals. In the different areas of the zoo are different areas of pools, a large lake surrounded by lawn fields, a lot of shaded areas to relax under, waterfalls, and especially - walkways that connect the different areas.

Visitors to the zoo walk in a circular manner around the park, around a large lake. This lake is artificial and its waters are purified and recycled.

The valley where the zoo is located is 250,000 square meters wide, and was expanded to 400,000 square meters.

A Closer Look at the Biblical Zoo in Jerusalem:

#About the Monster Garden in Jerusalem

The monster garden in Jerusalem, or the official name "Golem Garden", is an entertaining and beloved Jerusalem garden, there is a huge statue of a three-colored monster, whose three tongues are slides for children.

The park's official name was never accepted by the public in Jerusalem, which rejected it for the popular nickname "The Monster." With this nickname, the garden became a central landmark in Jerusalem and there is no resident of Jerusalem who does not know the Monster Garden.

The garden, which is located in Rabinowitz Park in Kiryat Yovel, was created in 1971 by Niki de Saint Phalle. This artist, you will not believe, began as a famous French model and later became a considered modern sculptor, painter and film producer. She, incidentally, also sculpted the sculpture garden at the Biblical Zoo in the city.

Here is the Monster Garden of Jerusalem:

Time Elevator
Time Elevator
#About the Jerusalem Attraction, the Time Elevator

The Time Elevator in Jerusalem is a fun attraction, that enables you to go on a simulated journey in a kind of time elevator to the secrets of Jerusalem, the capital of Israel. Using cutting edge technology, the viewers feel as though they are going down to the depths of history and the city, and are becoming part of it.

In the Time Elevator visitors are accompanied by a Jewish man named Shalem, played by the famous Topol. Descending down the elevator with Topol, to Jerusalem's underground, going to different time periods in the city's history.

During the tours of the different time periods in the city, we meet face to face famous figures from the past, people who have built the city, ruled it, and played important roles in its past. Figures like King Solomon, the prophet Jeremiah, the kings Zedekiah and Herod, and many others who were important, all a part of this 3,000-year-old journey.

This attraction is available in many languages like English, Russian, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, and Mandarin.

Besides the Time Elevator's journey through time, this place also offers different attractions, such as a journey to space, a journey into the human body, and a journey into the wonderful past, present, and future of Jerusalem.

A Closer Look:


An Example of the Movies in the Time Elevator:


Attractions for Children in Jerusalem

Mahane Yehuda Market
Mahane Yehuda Market
#About the Market that Lives During the Day and Comes to Life at Night

Mahane Yehuda Market is the largest market in Jerusalem. It mainly sells food and clothing, fresh vegetables and fruits, meats, cheeses, spices, pastries and delicacies.

Over the years, the colorful market has been widely publicized as a magnet for politicians and protesters of national politics, as well as being a stronghold of Beitar Jerusalem soccer fans.

Once this market was a daytime market, but the night of Mahaneh Yehuda Market has become popular as well. Today's popular falafel stands and popular restaurants are joined by quality chef restaurants, lively bars and cozy cafés. Young people have made it the center of Jerusalem's nightlife and its pleasant atmosphere in the evenings attracts many from around the city and surrounding communities.

#How Was the Market Born?

It seems that the Mahane Yehuda Market was born on its own. This happened towards the end of the Ottoman period in Jerusalem. The years were at the end of the 19th century, when many of the Arab villages around Jerusalem, such as Lifta, Deir Yassin and others, began to sell their agricultural produce here, on Jaffa Road, near the Mahaneh Yehuda neighborhood. They took advantage of a large vacant lot belonging to affluent families from Jerusalem, in order to sell their products to the nearby residents of Nachlaot neighborhood and passers-by. The improvised market succeeded immediately, mainly because it saved the Nachlaot residents from shopping in the distant Old City markets.

The market had no infrastructure at all, but gradually the village sellers began to add wooden sheds and stalls, and over time built permanent structures made of tin and wood. The name of the market, which was originally called "Valero Market", after the owner of the lot it was all built on, later became the Mahane Yehuda Market, after the adjacent neighborhood.

A Closer Look at the Mahane Yehuda Market in Jerusalem:

The Shiloah Tunnel
The Shiloah Tunnel
#About the Tunnel that Brought Water to Jerusalem

The Shiloah Tunnel, or Hezekiah's Tunnel, is a half-kilometer long tunnel in Jerusalem, through which ancient Gihon Spring water was transferred to the city.

The Shiloah tunnel was quarried in the days of King Hezekiah, around the 8th or 7th century BCE. This is considered one of the most impressive water plants in the history of ancient water plants in Israel, if not the most impressive one, and it is also the first in the history of Jerusalem, which provided water for the city's residents, inside the walls. This was a factor of decisive importance in times of war and what enabled the inhabitants of the city to withstand the siege of its enemies.

The tunnel led the water to the annexation hall, an underground water pool in Jerusalem that had collected water in ancient times. The water, which was stored from the nearby Kidron Valley and the Gihon Spring, passed under the houses of the City of David and was supplied throughout the year to the city's residents for drinking and daily use. The differences in elevations caused the water to flow, by force of gravity, with the difference of heights of 33 cm between the spring and the Shiloah Pool.

#Tunnel Excavation

When the King of Assyri besieged Jerusalem in 701 BCE, Hezekiah King of Judah fortified the fortifications of the city as part of Jerusalem's defense against the siege, and surrounded the new neighborhoods that were built there, so Hezekiah decided to divert the Gihon waters to the pool dug inside the walls: "And Hezekiah took the exit from the days of the upper Gihon, and straightened down westward to the city of David ..." (2 Chronicles 32:30).

Although bringing the water into the walls was an important consideration for the creation of the tunnel, it seems that no other consideration was equally important to the king in deciding to quarry the water. Its purpose was to prevent water from the Assyrian enemy. This could only be done by shifting the flow of the Gihon to an alternate path, which the shaft actually did. From the spring, which until then had passed through the walls, in an area that was not protected, the water was diverted out of the reach of the Assyrians, who were undoubtedly besieging the canal and its waters.

Thus, at the order of the king, the water diversion was performed by cutting the stone at length of 533 meters, an operation that in terms can be defined as nothing less than an engineering marvel.

The excavation operation was conducted by two groups of diggers who dug opposite each other. The researchers know how to determine this according to the marks of the quarrying, since the signs of the quarrying are opposite. After the ax was raised in the quarry, a kind of archery movement was created, and therefore the marks of the quarrying also received a different angle from each direction. The arches of the two groups of quarries are the opposite, which is a sign of quarrying in opposite directions. Confirmation of this is also found in the inscription, indicating the meeting between the groups, in the middle of the rock-cutting.

#How The Tunnel was Found

The excavation describes an inscription in ancient Hebrew script that was discovered in 1880. It was discovered when two Jewish boys found an inscription in the niqaba that tells the story of the tunnel dug by Hezekiah's men. The inscription was published all over the world and at that time became a very famous archeological finding.

The inscription was discovered when Yaakov Eliahu and his friend decided to examine whether it was possible to pass along the whole length of the tunnel. They entered from the direction of the pool and after a few yards Jacob slipped and fell into the water. As he rose, he noticed the letters on the sides of the tunnel. He told his teacher at the school, Konrad Schick, who was a well-known German scholar and architect and a resident of Jerusalem.

The teacher went out to check the discovery with the necessary instruments and after he found the address he realized that the letters were Phoenitic, in ancient Hebrew script. Schick published the discovery and he was published all over the world as the address detector. The boy who found the address remained anonymous.

According to the inscription, which was found on the side of the shaft, 6 meters before it reached the Shiloah Pool, the tunnel was hewn in two directions at the same time. The inscription bears witness to the pride of the quarrymen, upon completion of the complex and complicated operation.

#About the Evil Spirit that Came Out of the Tunnel

The Shiloah Tunnel was discovered over and over again through the years. It seems that in the Roman-Byzantine periods the shaft was unknown and its existence was then completely forgotten. Above the Shiloah Pool, the Empress Eudokia built a church. The parts of the columns at the outlet are the remains of this church.

During the Mamluk period the Gihon Spring was discovered and the Mamluks even installed steps to it, which exist to this day. Since then, history has been telling us about travelers who visited the Shiloah Tunnel, quite a bit, at least from the beginning of the 17th century.

But in 1817 a Catholic priest named de Mezier was enlarged and entered into the tunnel. At that time there was a break in the flow of water in the tunnel and the priest passed through it with quite a few difficulties and dangers. Finally he managed to get to and out on the other side.

When the locals saw the 'creature' coming out of the cave, a wild, wet, spider-web man, they thought he was the evil spirit that made springwater stop. They began to beat poor de Mazier with sticks and stones. The priest felt it was the end ...

But suddenly, in an unbelievable coincidence, unless it is a religious legend full of lesson and faith, at that very moment water began to flow from the spring. The ardent beaters stopped their blows and the poor priest was saved from a terrible lynching. He was not holy, but hey, at least he managed to live a few more years!

A Closer Look at the Shiloah Tunnel:

Tower of David
Tower of David
#About the Citadel

The Tower of David is a medieval fortress near the Jaffa Gate, the historic entrance gate to the Old City. Remains of impressive fortifications from the Second Temple period, dating to the Byzantine period, the Middle Ages and the Ottoman period, were exposed in the fortress.

The most familiar part of the fortress is the one located in its southern part and protruding far away. This is the turret of the mosque from the Ottoman period, which is known as the Tower of David. Despite the name of the fortress named after it, the Tower of David is only a nickname. There is no historical connection between King David and the fortress. Although it has defended the city for thousands of years, King David was only many generations later.

Either way, it is a fascinating archeological site rich in archeological remains. These remains attest to the past full of vicissitudes of the Old City, and can be seen as representative of the history of the city of Jerusalem, its different periods.

By the way, from the citadel towers you can see a magnificent Jerusalem landscape. There is a 360-degree view here, eastward to the Old City of Jerusalem and to the new city in the west.

#Why is the Name a Citadel So Confusing?

If the name of the citadel reflects a connection that does not really exist to King David, then where did the name "Tower of David" come from? - the source of the name is apparently an incorrect Christian interpretation of the writings of Josephus, and perhaps also the Muslim name of the fortress "Marhab Nabi Daoud" - both tied "David" to the fortress, which created confusion or perhaps even a kind of marketing branding ancient place. In any case, during the 19th century, visitors from Western countries attributed the wrong name on the turret of the Turkish mosque.

So much so that this name "caught on" until it seems that many members of the Jewish community are sure that this fortress was built by King David and imagine that here, right here, near the elevator, he once stood waiting for her to come ...

#History of the Citadel of the Tower of David

The fortress was first built during King Herod's reign. Three guard towers were built there. Today, only one of them survived, probably the one now known as the 'Fasael Tower' - the largest of the three.

This fort was the last point the Romans faced during the Great Revolt. After the destruction, the Romans set up their legion camp on the ruins of Herod's towers. In the archaeological excavations there were tiles and bricks with imprints of the Roman legion.

The Arabs, in turn, turned the place into a large fortress and created an inner courtyard. Jerusalem was then ruled by the Crusaders, who added large halls around the fortress for the use of their garrison.

Days passed and the Ayyubids and the Mamluks came, thickening the walls of the fortress and surrounding it with tall towers. The Turks, who came after them, turned the fortress into a military camp and placed cannons inside. In the 17th century they added to it the minaret of the mosque, the "Tower of David" we know today. If you look around the fortress, you will see the "moat", the deep trench that the Ottoman Turks added to protect it from attack.

Part of the moat, incidentally, was filled with earth in 1898. This was done on the side of the Jaffa gate, in order to create a convenient passage for the carriage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, who came to visit Jerusalem. To this end, a small section of the wall of the moat was also removed.

It was the British, who during the British Mandate period turned the fort into a museum. In the 1920's they allowed exhibitions of young Israeli art to be exhibited here. The tradition of those "Tower of David" exhibitions continues today, and in the State of Israel, the small museum has become a real museum, transforming the citadel into a cultural and tourist center.

#The Tower of David Museum of the History of Jerusalem

In the Tower of David is the Museum of the History of Jerusalem. This museum is considered one of the leading historical museums in the world. It presents in Hebrew, Arabic and English the story of the city of Jerusalem, its importance to the three great religions and prominent events in its history, from the beginning of the second millennium BCE to the present era and its transformation into the capital of the State of Israel.

The museum presents the story of the city in modern and sophisticated ways and with digital and interactive means that enrich the experience and enable visitors to learn about Jerusalem in unusual ways. All this is done through computers and screens, as well as games and apps developed for all ages, including children.

A night show in the citadel tells the story of Jerusalem, through a nightly spectacle, a stunning video display, breathtaking animation, effective sounds and narration, all-enveloping the viewer in a multi-sensory experience. All these bring together visitors with the ancient cultures, religions, rulers and myths that are projected on the walls and archeological remains themselves. The Night Spectacular of the Tower of David is a real attraction for children.

In addition to the walking paths built between the archaeological finds in the courtyard of the citadel, you can go up and walk on the walls of the fortress, on the promenade that offers a spectacular view of both the Old and New City.

A Closer Look is the Exhibition at the Tower of David:


A Closer Look at the Tower of David from Above:

#About the Central and Ancient Street in Jerusalem

There are not many streets in the world that you can see different time periods, such as at the Cardo in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem. On this ancient street, we will start moving towards the Roman period, continuing to the Byzantine period. Remains of the Crusader and Ottoman periods are seen - the periods when it was buried underground and we see its awakening to life in the modern Israeli era.

In general, "Cardo," which in Latin means "heart," means the center. The Cardo Street in the Roman cities is the heart of the city - the same street where most of the city's commerce and traffic take place. The model of such a street among the Romans was permanent and they used to replicate it in many cities and military camps. It can be found mainly in the Roman cities of the Middle East, North Africa, Syria and Jordan. In Israel, too, it is located in the remains of the cities of Caesarea and Antipatris, Tel Afek, near Rosh Ha'ayin.

The Cardo in the Jewish Quarter is a wide, stone-paved street that was discovered here in the 1970's. It was excavated and then restored to an active trading street today, with shops and services, allowing to experience a little of the past in today's modern age.

The total width of the cardo is 22.5 meters and only part of it is exposed. At its center, there is a passage, some of which has an open top, and 12.5 meters wide. On both sides of the cardo there is a row of shops and above it a tiled roof, supported by a row of stone pillars 5 meters high. The roof protects the street from rain and sun. Incidentally, except for one column, all the exposed pillars were broken. Only one column was discovered intact, beneath the foundations of the Tzemach Tzedek Synagogue at the southern end of the Cardo.

The cardo is one of the rare cases in which it has revived around 2,700 years later, and turned it into an active trading environment. This did not happen in other places in Jerusalem, where such initiatives were refuted by archaeologists who said, and generally rightly, that everyday life should not be allowed to destroy ancient, historical and scientific heritage. Here, in the Cardo of the Jewish Quarter, they were able to connect contemporary and ancient history and turn them into one.

#About the Architects Who Told the Archaeologists Where to Dig

This wonderful story is told in architectural schools all over the world and it deals with the ancient street discovered by modern architects diligent and talented, the power of study and originality of thought.

The Cardo was not normally excavated by determined archaeologists. In fact, it is an archaeological discovery that was born in the minds of three young architects who won a bid for the restoration of the Jewish Quarter, in order to restore life to it, after it became a poor slum during the Jordanian rule.

The young architects examined the map of Madaba, an ancient map discovered on the floor of a church in Jordan, in which Jerusalem appeared in some detail. They saw that the cardo appeared on the map, the main colonnade of the Old City. They pointed to a certain place and claimed that the cardo was hiding below. A senior archaeologist, with whom they consulted, laughed. However, he agreed to dig and examine the place where they claimed to be hiding the route of the ancient street. Quickly he encountered a hard layer and then again and again, in many places. There's a floor there, the experts determined. As you already understand, there was a street there. But is it the Cardo?

The excavation began with the aim of discovering the neat foundations of the columns, exposing the drainage channel into which the rainwater flowed from the roofs of the street houses, and from there exposing the ancient street itself. It turned out that the architects were right all along. Archaeologists have also agreed that this is indeed the famous cardo.

In the next stage the builders began to renew the old cardo and integrate it into a modern commercial street. From a pile of workshops and neglected houses, next to ruins of the War of Independence, they created a reconstructed commercial street, on the lower floors of which were shops and residential units on the upper floors, which were built above them.

Today, the Cardo is one of the most famous reconstructions in the world, a street that combines old, new, antique with renovated and modern shopping in a complex that has the scent of antiquity.

#What is a Map of Madaba?

The map of Madaba is a mosaic map made around the 6th or 7th century and is located in a church in Medina, Jordan. The map depicts the Land of Israel and its surroundings, with special emphasis on religious sites. The famous section on the map is the section describing Jerusalem.

The map of Madaba is an example of an ancient map that is not intended for navigation in the field. This is because it was not drawn according to a geographical scale, but according to the religious-spiritual importance of the places that appear in it (more important places are highlighted and large on the map). This is also why it was found in an ancient Christian prayer place, St. George's Church. In addition, the map is the earliest historical evidence for the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

A Closer Look at the Cardo in Jerusalem:


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.