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Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
#About Greenwich's Ship

The iconic clipper ship Cutty Sark is a marine monument worth visiting while in Greenwich. In the second half of the 19th century, it was considered the fastest sailing ship in the world.

This ship was an immediate legend when it was created during the technological advancement race between sailing companies in the UK, whose goal was to create the fastest ship in the world. This occurred after the monopolistic company had great struggles around the import of tea for the West India Company.

The winner was Cutty Sark, a sailboat manufactured in Scotland christened by the name which meant "a petticoat" or "short skirt” in Scottish. It was beautiful and impressive, but above all else, it was fast and enabled the manufacturer to obtain the best import contracts of tea from India.

Today, the Cutty Sark is in the British Maritime Museum, illustrating the historical power of the Royal Navy of the British Empire. During the visit one can go aboard and learn about the lives of the sailors in the merchant ships and their work in those times. The ship also features a collection of ancient shipwrecks from around the world.

In addition, the yacht "Gipsy Moth IV" can be found beside it, in which the sailor Sir Francis Chichester circled the world alone when he was 65.



A Closer Look at the Ship :

https://youtu.be/FLYUyjVI2pA
Greenwich Park
Greenwich Park
#About London's Largest Park

Greenwich Park is the largest green park in London and one of the city's most majestic parks. A kilometer long and at the width of approximately 750 meters, the park has a rectangular shape. The park is named after Greenwich, an ancient village in the southeastern part of the city. The name Greenwich means “Green Village” - which remains accurate to this day.

The park has two parts. On its northern side lies the flat part of the park, which slopes down to the Thames River, which runs north of the park. In the center of the park stands the hill on which the Greenwich Observatory, built by King Charles II in 1675 stands. It was the site of a watchtower of Humphrey's Manor House, the Duke of Gloucester, who owned the area at that time. At the southern part of the park there is a slightly raised expanse, which includes many hills.

The hill in the park is one of the most beautiful parts of Greenwich Park. It is possible to observe not only the grounds but also the buildings of the city of London. There is beautiful nature including spectacular flowers, water pools, many squirrels and small animals, and children engaged in sports and ball games.

The park also has archeological Roman ruins, as well as a sculpture by Henry Moore called "Standing Figure Knife Edge" and "The Queen's Oak Tree" - an oak that has survived since the days of Queen Elizabeth I.

Until the 15th century, the area in which today's park stands belonged to St. Peter at Ghent. It became the hunting ground of the king and the English royal family in the 15th century, where the royal nobles were hosted for hunting with the king. During the 17th century, the structure of the park was changed by the aid of landscape architect Andre Le Notre. During the 18th century the park was modernized and public access was allowed.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/MSYZup1d_TQ



A Virtual Visit:

https://youtu.be/4eDvDJGEqjo
Emirates Air Line
Emirates Air Line
#About the Air Line

The cable car passing over the Thames was inaugurated just before the opening of the Olympics in 2012. It was built by private funding from the Emirates airline, though the main initiative came from the London
municipality. City officials tried to kill two birds with one stone: the first problem was providing proper transportation and adding a tourist attraction that would intrigue tourists. The mile-long cable car connects Northern Greenwich with the Royal Docks on the north bank.

The company invested $56 million in the construction of the cable car as part of a 10-year sponsorship agreement.

The cable car has 34 carriages, reaching a height of 90 meters. The bird’s eye view from the cable car is a special experience. The trip in any direction lasts for about 10 minutes. If you catch a sunny day, you can enjoy spectacular views and also take the opportunity to visit Greenwich. However one cannot see the entire city from this point, rather the general area.

Each car can carry ten passengers, however there is generally not a long line. It is entirely possible to catch a car all to yourself. If the weather is stormy (strong winds, lightning storms, etc.), the cable car will be closed for periods of time.



A Closer Look at the Air Line:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TKqj8xPxanU
Diana Memorial Playground
Diana Memorial Playground
#About the Playground in Memory of Princess Diana

The Princess of Wales Memorial Playground is a children's playground set up in Kensington Gardens. Its location is not coincidental. The garden is located near the Kensington Palace in central London, the palace where Princess Diana lived.

The memorial garden was opened to the public in 2000 as an extension of a playground set up in the park by the author of Peter Pan, James Matthew Barrie. That's why the garden contains facilities that are drawn from the story, such as a full-size pirate ship, Native American tents and more. They have swings, sandboxes, a sound garden and a scent garden



#Who was Princess Diana?

Diana, Princess of Wales, was an English noblewoman married to the Crown Prince of England. Regardless of her symbolic roles and personality, beauty and charisma, the British Princess Diana became one of the most popular and beloved figures in the kingdom and the world. The world media turned her into a real icon, and the crowds were captivated with her marriage, the birth of the princes, struck by the depression that followed the births and the divorce from aprince.

Diana, nicknamed "Lady Di" or "Princess Di", was the most popular and beloved in the royal family and symbolized the era in which television and the media crowned their own kings, regardless of the tradition or blood connection in the traditional world.

Particularly notable was Diana's charitable activities and her vigorous action against the use of landmines throughout the world. Her aid was instrumental also in reducing the fears and negative attitudes of the world against HIV / AIDS, a disease that in the 1980's erupted and caused anxiety throughout the world. Diana was the first public figure to dare and lend a hand to AIDS patients without fear of infection.

However, Princess Diana ended her life tragically. She was killed along with her lover in a car accident in Paris, France, after trying to evade Paparazzi photographers who followed her everywhere. Thus the beloved princess of the masses was buried on a small island in the middle of her family estate in Northamptonshire, England.

Her funeral service was a world event. Her loss was, to a large extent, a farewell to a world icon and a person who was loved by and intrigued the public. The ceremony was broadcast live on television and became one of the most viewed events in history. Viewers from all over the world watched it, estimated at 2.5 billion people, who viewed the entire ceremony or at least part of it.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/XJ-s6VRskAw



Pictures from Diana's Life:

https://youtu.be/4yU7Gd1-HRU

Attractions for Children in London

Golden Hind
Golden Hind
#About the Ship

On the southern bank of the Thames River lies the reconstructed ship of Sir Francis Drake, the famous 16th century pirate who was also the first Englishman to circle the world.

This ship sailed around the world between 1577-1580. Today it serves as a museum comprised of its five deck floors. When there are no private events, you can tour it with a map and locate the deck, the weapons depot, the staff accommodation areas and more. The crew on duty is dressed in Elizabethan sailor clothes, and the ship also accommodates nighttime activities. Among the sessions you can attend a detective night where you will be asked to solve a murder mystery, or participate in a pirate party. Other activities include enjoying a sailor's meal in the sailor's dining room, spending the night on the cannon deck, or buying souvenirs like sailor shirts and more.

Although the original name of the ship was Pelican, in the middle of the voyage, Drake changed its name to the Golden Hind. The story is that Drake wanted to honor Sir Christopher Hatton, who was one of the chief superiors on the voyage. The symbol of his aristocratic family was a golden deer.



#Sir Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake was what they call an "authorized pirate." Drake held the ship (which he received from the authorities) and received permission to attack enemy ships and rob them. Although he acted as a pirate, in the eyes of the authorities he was an "entrepreneur" and was therefore nicknamed the Queen's Pirate.

Drake was the first English navigator to circle the world in one voyage. He was the first captain to command the entire expedition. Drake was considered a hero by the English, but the Spaniards saw him as a threatening pirate and called him a "dragon." Philip II of Spain even offered a 20,000-ducats bounty ($ 6.5 million) to anyone who turned him over to the authorities.

Drake’s journey around the world began when the relations between England and Spain were on the brink of war. Drake convinced Queen Elizabeth that he would capture Spanish ships as they left the ports of Peru. The officers on the mission were told that the ships were going to discover the unknown continent of Australia. Only those involved, namely Drake and the Queen, knew that the true purpose was to ambush the Spanish transport routes and rob the gold ships sailing from Peru to Panama.

Due to storms and hitches in the ships, two of the three ships were abandoned. Drake was left alone with his ship and the crew, though all along he was convinced the others were following.
In 1580 the Golden Hind returned to Plymouth. Drake and 50 crew members who survived were on board, along with expensive spices and their plunder. Drake was greeted enthusiastically as "the first Englishman to orbit the Earth." He then pursued a career in politics, as mayor of Plymouth and a member of parliament.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3gbFIuNEfM
London Canal Museum
London Canal Museum
#About The Museum

The building of the London Canal Museum where you are now, was once an ice storage facility. It is ancient and has historical significance. In the museum you can learn about the development of the canal network that surrounds London, which served as the main transportation routes in the country.

The first-hand tour of the museum includes a short boat ride that tries to simulate the sailing in the 17th century, while listening to interesting information about the life of the sailors, the horses who were responsible for pulling the boats and the life under the city.

Due to the interesting history of the building as an ice storage facility, you will also find fascinating information on the import of ice from Scandinavia. You will have access to information on the ice block voyage on the giant ships, through the small boats that roamed the alleys of the city directly to the huge ice warehouses.

The canal museum is suitable for the entire family and the children will be engaged by the enriching learning experience.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1KPmkxw_sW8
London Transport Museum
London Transport Museum
#About the Museum

The museum, dedicated entirely to the development of transportation in London, joins the list of museums associated with the history of the city. It is located in Covent Garden, and it is especially appealing to children. The fascinating tour includes a simulation ride on an old bus, a visit to an old train, attractions and games. The little ones will find a unique opportunity to drive a bus ...

The museum was opened to the public as early as 1980, but during this period it presented only exhibits relating to London's public transport. Its original name was "Transport Museum London". When the museum management was replaced in the year 2000, the exhibits were expanded to include all modes of transport in London. Today you can see ancient and modern exhibits, all standing next to each other: old buses and trains besides new motorcycles. General information is also available on London's modern transport.

The museum also includes military vehicles. In the range of topic surveyed in the museum, the future means of transport is pondered on as well as examining the influence of transportation on the design of other cities in the world. As part of the changes that have taken place in the museum over the years, additional sections have been added, such as a lecture hall. Most of the items in the museum are not displayed because of their size and are held at another branch of the museum located in the town of Acton, London.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXfZGKXD_pY
V&A Museum of Childhood
V&A Museum of Childhood
#About the V&A Museum of Childhood in London

Located in Bethnal Green, the London’s Museum of Childhood houses the Victoria and Albert Museum's collection of childhood objects, ranging from the 1600's to the present day. As well as toys, dolls and games, the museum has a wealth of objects relating to aspects of childhood including home, childcare, play, learning and clothing.

The museum was founded in 1872 and presented various collections, including the Wallace Collection. The Victorian style building underwent serious renovations at the end of the last century.

The 1920's brought about a turning point in the themes presented at the museum, focusing instead on topics related to childhood and children. This purpose was defined as "learning and researching products made for children and by children."

The museum has three wings: the first wing consists of moving toys, and the second wing contains toys and games designed to develop imagination and creativity. The third wing is dedicated to girls – both past and present.

Temporary exhibitions can also be found alongside the permanent displays. In addition, films and workshops are offered to enrich the experience. The museum offers arts and crafts, drama classes and other activities for children.

The vast collection of toys in the museum includes toy trains, cars, dolls and dollhouses of different sizes. The largest of which is 16 rooms …

A carousel and trains adorn the Museum Garden, an attraction in its own right. If you are a vintage fan, copies of children's books from the 18th and 19th centuries are available for observation.

Most of the museum's activities are free of charge. The museum hosts creative festivals for children and adults in the months of July and August.

#Tips

Admission to the museum is free.

The focus of the museum is toys ranging from the 17th century to the present. There are over 8,000 dolls, 6,000 garments and costumes for children, and a large variety of games and toy production demonstration.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://youtu.be/bNGtxjVFL3g



https://youtu.be/fgisL9A6lEs



https://youtu.be/1z3dHKk7J9s


Speakers' Corner
Speakers' Corner
#About Hyde Park's Speakers' Corner

Hyde Park is famous partly because of Speakers' Corner, where many people gather and conduct public debates to this day.

It's not just a street parliament. At the "Speakers' Corner" everyone can stand on a stool and speak at will. People who are present or arrive especially at the park gather around the speakers and listen to them. There are those who make remarks to the speakers, interrupt or protest against their opinions. Others just giggle or remain fascinated ... it is democracy at its best.

These are not just hipsters or enthusiastic young people. Some are elderly folk looking to "educate", others opinionated students, Christians and Muslims who explain how their religion is better than other, and many political opinions.

Some of the speakers here are particularly intelligent. People like Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin and George Orwell, all legendary in their respective fields spoke here in the past. In contrast, some of the speakers who come today may simply poke fun or provoke arguments and ridicule...

The practice of the speeches has been partially preserved to this day, and every Sunday you can hear various speakers addressing political and economic topics, just to name a few.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/5G0v6NjsqZo

https://youtu.be/qiYVUdFoJSI
National Maritime Museum
#About the Museum

This is the most prominent maritime museum in Britain and around the world. This museum captures its visitors by its uniqueness and illustrates Britain's great power as a great historical maritime power.

The National Maritime Museum is located in Greenwich, near the park. Most of its exhibits are available online so that those who cannot visit firsthand can still experience it from afar. The museum belongs to a series of historic buildings located on the National Heritage Site of Greenwich.

A collection describing the maritime history of Britain can be admired in the museum, along with archives of seamanship and shipping, some of which are located in the Queen's House which has been here since the 17th century. The museum has a variety of interesting historical items, including marine uniforms, paintings, maps and anchors.

The ground floor displays a large map, on which you can "travel" and let the children (and adults) study, take pictures and enjoy their time together.

The museum's beautiful gardens were designed in the 1870's. A railroad connecting Greenwich and London runs beneath the garden. It was only after the construction of the railway that the gardens were replanted in the fashion you see before you now.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5v8O1i6TQPM
Buckingham Palace
#The Palace of the British Monarchy

The royal palace is the most famous palace in London. It is the main residence of Queen Elizabeth II. Buckingham Palace is one of the symbols of the British monarchy, along with Victoria Square, just around the corner.

The palace was originally built in 1703 for the first Duke of Buckingham, John Sheffield. In 1762 it was purchased by King George III, who expanded and enlarged it. In 1826 King George IV hired John Nash to transform the building into a magnificent palace. In 1837 it became the main palace of the British royal family and Queen Victoria moved in.

The eastern front which you must be facing now, was added after the wedding of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert. In 1847 another wing designed by Edward Blur was added to the palace. He created the courtyard with its familiar square shape in the middle of the palace. Once completed, the palace contained 19 guest rooms, 52 royal bedrooms, 188 bedrooms for servants, 92 offices and 78 bathrooms. The exterior wall of the palace underwent further renovation and a monument was built for Queen Victoria in 1912.

Like many UK buildings, Buckingham Palace was also hit during the Blitz during World War II.



#Tourism

Though the palace hosted well-known artists and celebrities (from government officials to famous composers) in its early years, the palace was not open to the general public. This was due to the fire in Windsor Castle in 1992. After the fire the Queen had to pay for its renovation. She agreed to allow visitors to visit the Buckingham Palace for a fee in order to finance the necessary renovations.

Since it opened to the public in 1993, the palace attracts crowds of visitors. Please note that only 18 of the 600 rooms in the palace are open to the public, so you can only imagine the true size of the palace. Only 100 out of a collection of 7,000 oil paintings in the Queen's possession are presented to the public. It is of-course known, that this is only one of the Queen’s residences..

It is important to note, that when the royal flag is raised, it is a sign that the queen is in the palace. On the days when the queen is in the palace, it will be closed to visitors, but you can still admire it from the outside.



#Changing of the Guard

Many visitors like to wait for the changing of the guard ceremony at the eastern front of the palace. The guards are soldiers belonging to military units subject to the royal family. They wear traditional military uniforms, which are remarkable and no longer used by the British army. The soldiers begin a half-hour march, accompanied by a military band from St James' Palace to Buckingham Palace. The march is impressive, majestic and elegant. After the new group of guards arrives at the entrance to the palace, the exchange itself takes place, in which they salute each other. At the end of the switch, the new group takes its place at the entrance to the palace and the old group makes their way back to St. James' Palace. If you want to ensure a good spot for observation, you should arrive at least an hour before the ceremony and occupy a place as desired.


#Tips

The ceremony is free to watch, be sure to come early to get a good spot to watch!

The changing of the guard is at 11:00 am daily, and 10:00 am on Sundays.


A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/18Z7BC6rEIg


A 360-Degree View:

https://youtu.be/FtGN2wK9g_s


Changing of the Guard:

https://youtu.be/p8Y8rhLirRw
Madame Tussauds
# About the Madame's First Wax Museum

Madame Tussauds is now a chain of museums, which span over several cities around the world. Though it is known to children and adults alike, the main and original museum was founded right here in London.

The museum was founded in 1835 by Madame Tussauds herself. Tussauds was a French wax sculptor who emigrated to London. Her talent and knowledge in wax sculpture was inherited from her mother, who was the housekeeper of an artist and sculptor who specialized in wax.

Wax sculptures of historical and famous figures of all kinds can be found around the museum: from famous politicians such as Churchill, Kennedy and even Shimon Peres, through actors and athletes, singers, cultural personalities and other celebrities.

Madame Tussauds is one of London's primary tourist destinations. Different experiences in the museum range from watching and photographing the various wax dolls, through interactive games, to a tour of the horror cellar where you can see figures of criminals and hangmen, executioners and actors to spice up the experience. Photos of important historical events of the city are on display, a train ride and a section where visitors become famous comic dolls.

Some of the characters in the horror cellar were brought from Paris to England by Madame Tussauds herself in the early 19th century.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IrJLeWh3e8k
London Eye
#The Largest Ferris Wheel in Europe, The Eye Gazing of London

London Eye, known as the "Millennium Wheel," was opened for the millennium celebrations on December 31, 1999. 8.5 million visitors road the wheel in its first two years alone, and is undoubtedly one of the top tourist destinations in London. It stands at 135 meters high. The ferris wheel is located on the south bank of the Thames, north of the Westminster Bridge and across from the Westminster Palace.

The construction of the ferris wheel was conducted with the cooperation of several European countries. The wheel was supposed to operate for only five years, but was later given permanent approval. Since 2005 the London Eye has been used as an area for the celebrations of New Year's and dozens of spectacular fireworks are sent from the body of the wheel itself.

Architect Richard Rogers said: "The Eye has done for London what the Eiffel Tower did for Paris, which is to give it a symbol and to let people climb above the city and look back down on it. Not just specialists or rich people, but everybody." The wheel has 32 air-conditioned and pleasant capsules, each seating up to 25 people. Each capsule weighs 10 tons and represents one of London's neighborhoods. The ride in the wheel is very slow. It takes about half an hour while you look down at London. London itself is flat and has no hills or mountains. Therefore, the owners of the wheel claim that on sunny and pleasant days visitors can see for a distance of 40 kilometers. The capsule seats are comfortable to sit on, or, if you opt for it- there is enough space to stand up and enjoy the ride.

Have you noticed something interesting? Even when new passengers board it, the giant wheel does not stop! The huge wheel of London, the eye of the British capital, continues to move slowly, all the time ...



A Closer Look at the Wheel:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0DSDUR5Ww4
The Cartoon Museum
#About the London Museum for Comic Art

This interesting comic museum has over 1,500 drawings, 3,000 books and 1,200 visual images from a 300-year period spanning the British heritage of humorous paintings.

On the first floor, children will be interested mainly in the characters of comics and animation. However, you can also find exhibits that appeal to adults, such as scandalous comic drawings depicting the exploits of Tony Blair and George Bush. Among the works in the museum's collection you will find some of the most famous cartoons. There are also three-dimensional works in the museum on loan.
Hyde Park
#About the Park

Hyde Park is one of the Royal Gardens of London. It is located in the center of London and was originally purchased by King Henry VIII, from the Westminster Abbey monks in 1536. Like many royal gardens at the time, it was also closed to visitors at first, and the roads were open to the carriage of the aristocracy only.

In earlier periods, the area served as a hunting ground and an arena for battles, horse races, executions, and more. During World War II, the land in Hyde Park was used to grow potatoes.

In 1728 Queen Caroline took 300 acres from the west side of the park and turned it into Kensington Gardens. It was also the same period the Serpentine lake was built. This is a snake-shaped lake where you can sail or watch the ducks.

It also has a touching memorial to Princess Diana, the "Princess of Hearts", may she rest in peace.

You can stroll around the park easily and see its monuments, enjoy the café or the children's playground.

In 1851, the Crystal Palace was built in Hyde Park for a large exhibition held in London that year. In 1857, the Marble Arch was moved here - a marble arch designed by architect John Nash as the entrance gate to Buckingham Palace and inspired by the Arch of Victory in Rome.



#The Speakers' Corner in the Park

A popular point in the park is "speakers' corner," where many people gather and conduct public discussions to this day. At the "Speakers' Corner" any person may stand and speak at will. People milling about or those who come especially may listen and participate.

Some of the speakers are particularly smart, for example past speakers include Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin and George Orwell. Others might poke fun or provoke arguments... This particular custom of speeches has been partially preserved to this day, and every Sunday you will be able to hear various speakers who talk about political, economy and other issues.



#Hyde Park

This park is the perfect pace to take a break from your demanding routine. Locals come here to wander about, get some fresh air and exercise or bike around. The park is one of the eight royal parks within the capital of the United Kingdom and is one of the most prominent green spaces in London.

This park, with 350,000 square meters of a pastoral and green landscape, has hosted quite a few exhibitions, demonstrations and large concerts. The name "Hyde" may be related to a unique space measured in according to the fertility of the soil. The area contains a range of 60,000 to 120,000 square meters.

The southeast corner of the park is actually connected to the backyard of Buckingham Palace, which incidentally is also connected to St. James Park. The palace cavalry uses the park on a daily basis.



#Hyde Park for Tourists

Entrance to the park is possible between 5 am until midnight. There are about 5 million visitors each year. The park has miles of bicycle lanes, special pathways for horses, hiking trails, playgrounds and sport fields for football, tennis, golf, bowling and cricket. The park has street lamps which allow a pleasant atmosphere in the evening, benches which allow relaxation, taking in a view of the park, cafes, restaurants, water fountains and even a police station. In the summer, about 500 green and white sun loungers are regularly placed in the open air.

Children can also be entertained here, especially in the park named after Princess Diana located inside the big park, where children can play in sand and water. Admission to adults is only possible if they have children.

Some very large musical performances took place in this park. Among others; Rolling Stones, Pink Floyd, Kevin, Red Hot Chili Peppers, and many more. Hundreds of thousands of spectators attended the performances.

If you're looking for what to incorporate on the day you visit the park, you can add Westminster, Oxford Street, Notting Hill or the Museum Quarter to your plan.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wG-vnMLaMlE
Tower of London
#About the Tower

The Tower of London is a majestic castle, located on the north bank of the Thames in central London. It was established in 1066 as part of the conquest of England by the Normans. The fortress is a complex of several buildings surrounded by two ring-shaped defensive walls.

The innermost ward contains the White Tower and is the earliest phase of the castle, and gave the castle its name “Tower of London". It was built by William the Conqueror around 1078. Inside the tower you will find St. John's Chapel, a collection of weapons and medieval armor, and a reminder of a terrorist attack that took place here in 1974. At the entrance of the citadel courtyard you can see the "Bloody Tower”, where it is presumed that King Edward V and his brother Duke of York were murdered.

Next to the "Bloody Tower" is the Wakefield Tower where the crown jewels were kept. In the Jewel House building you will find the Crown Jewels exhibition and on the ground floor you will see the Armor garments, noble and gallantry symbols, jewelry and crowns.

In the Middle Ages the Tower of London served as a prison. In this prison those opposed to the crown were arrested and beheaded. Over time, the Tower of London gained a reputation for the torture and death that took place within its walls. Seven people were executed at the Tower, and for 400 years there were more than 100 executions. Among the prisoners was Queen Elizabeth I, who managed to escape the execution.

The tower served as the residence of the British monarchs. The truth is that the control of the fortress in that era was critical for anyone who had aspirations of ruling the country. However, it was much more than a house, for it had many uses-starting from a gun warehouse, a treasure house, a zoo, through the residence of the Royal Coin, a public documents office and the home of the crown jewels of the United Kingdom.

Today, the Tower of London is a popular tourist attraction. It is crowded by visitors who come to watch the towers, the guards with the red uniforms and the crowns.

Every evening at 9:00 pm, you can watch the "ceremony of the keys," performed by the guards. During the ceremony the gates of the fortress are locked. This ceremony has been done for 700 years!



#Terror in the Tower

There are some chilling stories to tell about the Tower of London. The truth is, however, that it is not surprising considering what went on inside these walls. For hundreds of years, torture, murders, executions, suicides, and mourning have taken place here. To this day, it seems like a soft sobbing resonates throughout this vast structure, probably to remind us that the past is still a part of our present.

Ghost stories are an inseparable part of life for anyone who grew up in England. 40% of the city's inhabitants believe in ghosts and one in seven people can swear they saw one. Historically, the Tower London is one of the most prominent places for such stories.

For the record, 2,900 prisoners were held here over the years serving as a prison. These people were from all ranks and social classes. If you look in the direction of the White Tower where the torture chamber was built, know that quite a few people have died there in agony. The guards of the fortress, who used to patrol around, once testified to shouts being heard piercing the from the door of the White Tower. They assumed it was Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII. Queen Anne Boleyn’s fate was sealed when she was executed on the grounds of adultery and treason against the king.



A Closer Look at the Tower:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfhbVmU4A-o
Royal Observatory Greenwich
#The Observatory of 0° Longitude

The famous Royal Observatory of Greenwich stands atop a hill in the heart of Greenwich Park. It was the observatory that gave Greenwich its unique geographic location called the 0º longitude, which many recognize as the Greenwich Line. This observatory is now used as a museum. It is at the top of the hill in Greenwich Park overlooking the Thames.

The observatory was established for Charles II in 1675. Originally it served as the study of the Royal Astronomer of the United Kingdom. The astronomer John Flamsteed was a director of the observatory and responsible for analyzing the exact location of the stars, correcting the charts of the sky movements and, in general, anything related to the knowledge of exploration and navigation.

This was building to be built and dedicated to scientific research, which explains its great importance to the culture of science. After World War II, due to heavy air pollution in London, the use of the building was discontinued. Today you will find attractions for the whole family: rooms with giant telescopes, an advanced astronomy center and an advanced planetarium.



#Meridian Courtyard

In the courtyard of the museum you will find the Greenwich Line (longitude 0°), marked as a green laser beam coming out of the building in the north. Many visitors like to be photographed on both sides of the line (one leg on the west side of the earth and the other on the eastern side) and set their clocks according to Greenwich Mean Time.

Greenwich Mean Time was set according to the 0° longitude, which served as an international clock in the past.

Every day at 1:00 pm, the fall of the red "ball of time" can be seen from the top of the pole. The purpose of the time ball, which is on the observatory, is to mark the exact time for the Thames sailors.



A Closer Look at the Royal Observatory Greenwich:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0JvpVd8URU


Big Ben
#Important - the Big Ben will be under construction until 2021

#About the Name "Big Ben"

Many tend to think that Big Ben is the name of the clock you're facing. The truth is that the nickname "Big Ben" refers to the bell above the clock.

Can you see it at the top of the tower? The truth is that the name of the clock is The Great Bell, but even on Big Ben's official site they gave up the official name in favor of its more popular nickname- Big Ben.

The clock was named after Sir Benjamin Hall, who was in charge of the bell’s installation in 1859. It is told that Benjamin was a large man, prodding his co-workers to call him Big Ben.

The project of raising the bell, which weighed about 12 tons of cast iron, to the top of the tower, was complex and required great effort. Due to its size, it took 30 hours to hoist it up. This was done while the giant bell was tilted parallel rather than perpendicular to the ground. When they finally managed to place the large bell at the top of the tower, they naturally called it Big Ben.

Who would have thought that the director’s name would become one of the most prominent symbols in the kingdom?!



#Is the Big Ben Collapsing?

A survey published in 2011 revealed that the clock tower of the British Parliament is leaning sideways. The tower is 98 meters high, has apparently shifted by 48 cm to the northwest, with a slant of 0.26 degrees (one-sixth of the Pisa tower’s slanting angle).

In the past, Big Ben's slant was only a rumor, and only engineers seemed to notice. Today, if you look well, you will see it with your own eyes: the tower seems to have "bent." It is widely believed that the gradual deflection was caused by intensive construction work around the base of the tower, construction of an underground parking lot for members of the parliament and the introduction of a sewer line laid in the 1960's and underground trains. These all affected the land on which the structure stands and caused its instability.

According to the engineers' measurements, since 2003 the tower is slowly leaning over at a rate of 0.9 millimeters a year. The report also revealed that a "mysterious" incident occurred between November 2002 and August 2003, which caused the tower to tilt sideways by 3.3 millimeters. But you can remain calm at the pace of the current shift, it will take Big Ben at least 4,000 years to fall!



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4ZeLMPects
London Science Museum
#About the London Science Museum

The Science Museum in London presents the world of technology and science in a fascinating and experiential way that is suitable for children and is an important attraction in London. The museum is located in the Museum Quarter. The museum is designed in a youthful, colorful and inviting manner.

When the Museum was first established in 1857, it contained the surplus exhibits left from the Great Exhibition held in London in 1851. Today it houses a collection of 300,000 items, including steam engines, jet engines, DNA models and the “gathering time” gallery, featuring a rich collection of more than 500 timepieces. The museum has interactive exhibits and a 3D cinema, in which documentary films are screened.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mqh7uqpu-sE
Natural History Museum
#About Britain's Natural History Museum

The Museum of Natural History is one of the three museums on London’s Exhibition Road, along with the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. From a distance, the museum appears to be a palace with turrets. Its Victorian building features white decorations of various colors and animal sculptures on the walls. At the entrance to the museum you will be greeted by a skeleton sculpture of a giant dinosaur - the diplodocus.

The museum presents exhibits from life sciences and earth sciences, where the museum holds about 70 million specimens, a small fraction of which are displayed. Botany, insects, dinosaurs, geology and zoology are just some of the topics you will find here. One of the Museum's most fascinating collections is the collection of skeletons of its fossilized dinosaurs, though the museum also contains many other interesting exhibits, such as sensory exploration, animal research, the Earth's ecosystem, and more.

Through experiences and attractions- including games for the visitors- the museum succeeds in making this knowledge clear and accessible to all. The presentation of the exhibits here teaches visitors how to explore and observe them. In order to facilitate the visitors’ experience, the museum is divided into five sections marked by different colors.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98Y0U3HS_tA
The British Museum
#About the Historical Museum of England

The British Museum is acknowledged as one of the largest and most famous in the world. Founded in 1753 by a scientist and physicist named Sir Hans Sloan, it is located in the Bloomsbury neighborhood of Camden. The museum was opened to the general public in 1759. Over 6 million items are distributed throughout the museum representing the development of the human race from prehistory to the present, from different cultures.

This large building includes a combination of Grecian style architecture (the entrance plaza) and an indoor courtyard with a glass dome, which is by far the largest in Europe.

More than 5 million visitors arrive each year to the museum. Initially it was designed for a more general display and not primarily antiques. Approximately 40,000 books, texts, stuffed animals, fossils, engravings and antiques were found in the first collection donated to the museum by Sloan. Over the years, the museum served as a showroom, mainly for archeological and cultural exhibits. The museum's exhibits are divided into complexes, each relating to a different continent - from Africa and Asia to South America and Australia.

Entrance to permanent exhibitions in the museum is free. This is because there is an ongoing debate today over the ownership of the items displayed at the museum. Many items date back to the expansion of the British Empire and therefore the Museum's right to hold them was not agreed upon. On there behalf, the British claim that the items will be kept in in good condition and anyone will be allowed to come and enjoy them. In addition, British law does not allow the return of the exhibits. The Egyptian and Greek antiquities collection, for example, is one of the largest in the world. It also contains remains from the Parthenon in Athens. Therefore, some governments, like Greece and Nigeria are still fighting for the right to receive the remains for display in their respective museums.



#The History of the Museum

The purpose of the British Parliament in building the museum in 1753
was very simple: to allow citizens to discover the whole world in one building. This is one of the few buildings in the world that really makes it possible to learn and think about the whole world under one roof!

In 1750, the museum was actually a library of Gentleman's House, where visitors were able to draw, print and read the about the world. At the entrance, a visitor would receive a ticket from the library, that was also an entrance ticket to the museum. This way, a visitor would receive invitations to view the various collections presented at the museum. The idea of showing these collections to the commoners whenever they pleased was truly revolutionary at the time.

The new idea of allowing commoners to enter and behold collections in 1815, after Napoleon’s time, was truly a game-changer. The original building was replaced by the new building you see today. The museum is open to everyone today and all the collections are exhibited there. By the way, children were not allowed to enter the museum at all. This was due to the damage they caused to the stuffed animals when they got excited. The children returned to the museum as soon as the stuffed animals were transferred to the Natural History Museum. Today, by the way, children also visit there and do not inflict any real damage ...

A big change occurred in 1851. That same year, a fine exhibition was presented at the museum, and for the first time, a large number of tourists, lovers of art and culture, arrived. It was a huge success for museum in London, which became particularly popular. To this day there is an unimaginable amount of people in line, waiting to see the items in the museum, which are increasing continually in number.



#A Museum for Visitors

The museum's approach to visitors and tourists has been a special one since the early days of the museum. The founders wanted to allow people access to the objects, to think about them and discuss them, to paint them, to admire them or to swing by them – whatever they chose. The approach is that the collection is a private collection belonging to all citizens who can come and use it as they please and not a royal collection that is only intended for them.

The building you know is well suited to the large number of visitors who come here, but museum directors continue to devise new ways to give visitors better access to the collections available. Therefor the building has indeed undergone all sorts of changes over the years.

The visitors, then, do not come to the museum only to view the items of any given collection. They especially enjoy having lunch on the broad steps. In recent years, museum directors have been thinking about how to rethink the museum building in order to continue to achieve its original goal.



#About the Historical Museum of England

The British Museum underwent several architectural changes over the years. Its core, the oldest part, to date, was designed by the architect Sir Robert Smirke in 1823.

The large, modern courtyard, named after Queen Elizabeth II, was designed by Foster & Co. Architects. The courtyard was first opened to the public in 2000 and is the largest indoor courtyard in Europe. The magnificent ceiling of this courtyard is made up of no less than 3,000 transparent panels that form the harmonious and wondrous shape of the building. The waves, incidentally, are not symmetrical and the size of the panels is uneven. Also note the amount of light in the indoor yard - it is not as bright as the natural light outside – there is special material wrapping the panels, allowing only part of the light to sift through which created a special atmosphere and lighting inside.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygkWTK8nbmo


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

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אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
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