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London Wall
London Wall
#The London Wall from the Roman period

Upon reaching the bridge from St. Paul's Cathedral, remains of the London Wall built by the Romans can be seen on the left. This wall surrounded the place where London was born and was then called the Londinium Roman.

Hard to believe yet true, even London was once ruled by the Roman Empire. Of course, much of the Roman period of London has no remains, except for London Wall Street, where you can see the Roman Wall of London.

The Roman Wall of London was built around 200-220 AD. It continued to defend the settlement for about 1,000 years, long after the Romans were expelled from England in 410. In 457 this wall protected London from the onslaught of the Saxons.

In the Middle Ages the people of London strengthened the wall and it continued to play a part in the defense of the city. Unfortunately in 1666 almost the entire city with the wall was destroyed in the Great Fire of London. When the city was restored, the wall was forgotten and disappeared after new houses were built on either side.

In 1940, 300 years later, the wall was discovered when the German bombing of the Blitz in London destroyed the buildings beside it. It was restored after the war, and has since been preserved. The London Wall became a corner where you can come in contact with London of the past- the Roman city of Londinium.



A Closer Look at the London Wall:

https://youtu.be/jSgNaSZJuPs
Lloyd Building
Lloyd Building
#The Tower of Radical Architecture

The Lloyd building is a relatively old landmark in London, an icon that was opened in 1986, and remains a controversial building to this day. Its futuristic style is rich in glass and metal, mostly silver, cold and metallic, a structure that exposes its pipes and stairwells and preserves its softness and its beautiful rounded columns for its interior.

Richard Rogers, one of Britain's most famous architects and architectural stars planned and designed Lloyd's Building. The style was rightfully named the "Inside Out Architecture", because he took out all the systems that generally lie inside a building – pipes, ventilation ducts, air conditioning systems, power cables, elevators and more.

The debate over what made it one of the most important modern buildings in the world is related to the fact that the building, designed for the Lloyds insurance company in the 1980's, is the London equivalent and ultra-modern version of the Centre Pompidou in Paris. Richard Rogers was a partner in the design of the Pompidou Center as well. This masterpiece of the high-tech style of architecture is followed through the in the Lloyds Building.

There are those who consider the building a masterpiece of high-tech architecture. Others criticize the building’s style saying it reminds one of an oil refinery befalling London. The argument is that the architect forced his ideals and ideas of innovative design on the residents, and didn’t take their basic needs as tenants into account.

The supporters on the other hand, emphasize the advantage of removing the innards, enabling for a large, open interior space once the systems were removed.

Either way, the famous exterior staircases and its strikingly exposed design, despite their stunning visual effect, makes the Lloyds building a difficult and expensive building to maintain. It requires constant (and expensive) maintenance.

Despite its misgivings, this building is easily one of the most architecturally prominent in London. Before the construction of the Gherkin (the "cucumber" building) also located in London, Lloyds was the symbol of modern construction in the rich business district of London. It provoked debates on beauty and perverseness. One thing is certain; this building is not to be overlooked.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/BzFdjRKnR2Y



A Virtual Visit:

https://youtu.be/KVmbq8gTRlM
Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
#About London's Most Famous Bridge

The Tower Bridge connects London's Citadel Hill to Southwark Quarter. It stretches above the Thames and combines elements of a suspension bridge and a raised bridge.

The reason for this is that at the end of the 19th century, the London municipality tried to solve two main problems in a creative way: one was allowing pedestrian and buggy traffic flow, while on the other hand maintaining ship passage entering the harbor near the bridge, also known as “The Pool of London." The public was invited to try come up with a creative solution and out of 50 different proposals the city engineer Horace Jones was chosen.

The bridge has a sophisticated mechanism designed for its diverse functions. There are two main bascules which lift in order to allow river traffic to pass. These parts of the bridges rise to an angle of 86 degrees. The passage of the ships causes no harm to pedestrians, who can continue walking on the special elevated passage designed for this purpose (61 meters). Despite this, the elevated passage was not very popular due to dozens of stairs pedestrians were required to climb in order to reach the crossing. They preferred to wait until the ships passed. The elevated passage, which was abandoned most of the time, became a refuge for prostitutes and thieves, and it was closed in 1910. It reopened in In 1982, this time with an internal exhibition documenting the history of the famous bridge ...



#Construction of the Bridge

The construction of the bridge lasted 8 years and was built by 432 workers supervised by 5 engineers. The length of the bridge is 244 meters. It is comprised of two identical towers 65 meters high. The weight of each of the bascules that rise to allow river is 1,000 tons. In 1974, with the development of technology, steam engines were replaced by electric motors.

The colors of the bridge (identical to the colors of the flag: blue, red and white) were painted only in 1977, in honor of the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's rule.

Recently, a glass floor at the height of 42 meters was added to the bridge, providing a spectacular view of the waters of the Thames, the roads and pedestrians. The cost of its construction amounted to $1.7 million. The glass panels are 11 meters wide and 8 inches thick, and their weight is approximately half a ton.
Great Fire of London Monument
Monument to the Great Fire of London
#About the Monument

A monument built to commemorate the fire from 1666 is located at the northern end of the London Bridge.

According to the tale, the fire broke out after the king's baker forgot to turn off the oven in his house. The fire burned for five days. Although there were only six victims, the damage – in the form of thousands of buildings, churches and houses – was extensive. After the fire was extinguished, the city's leaders and citizens realized that the great fire of London was so devastating that it destroyed nearly 80 percent of the city's buildings and institutions. The destructive fire combined with the poor condition of the city brought ruin upon London, which was almost completely destroyed.

The damage was so great that the English had to rebuild the city.
The height of the monument is 61 meters, which is also the exact distance from the monument to the bakery where the fire broke out. There is a stairway of 311 steps leading to the balcony at the top of the monument. In the past the terrace was open, but today there are bars that protect against fatal falls. This is because of six individuals who committed suicide by jumping from the monument.

Each foundation of the monument has inscriptions describing different points relating to the fire: In the south, the measures taken by King Charles II following the fire. In the east, there are inscriptions describing the construction of the monument. In the north there are inscriptions describing the outbreak of the fire and the damage done to the city.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2_hfo-Yl0o

City Tour of London

The National Firefighters Memorial
The National Firefighters Memorial
#About the Monument

The firefighter monument is dedicated to the memory of firefighters in the Blitz during World War II. The National Firefighters Memorial is composed of three bronze statues depicting firefighters in action at the height of the Blitz. It is located on the Jubilee Walkway to the south of St. Paul's Cathedral in the city of London, and it is approachable from the south bank of the River Thames via the Millennium bridge. It was ordered by the Fire Memorial Fund and established in 1990.

At first it was a tribute to all those firefighters who fought valiantly during the blitz while the city was bombarded for 57 consecutive nights. Queen Elizabeth unveiled the monument on May 4, 1991. In 1998, the decision was made to make the monument a memorial not only for World War II firefighters, but for all firefighters throughout the United Kingdom who were killed while carrying out their duties.

A total of 1,192 names are engraved on the monument.
Borough Market
Borough Market
#About London's Food Market

The Borough Market is certainly the most enjoyable of London's food markets. For hundreds of years, this market operated as a food market and popular English dishes were available. In recent years the market has become a colorful market, full of fresh agricultural produce and gourmet food.

Despite the expensive products, and the lack of breakfast- the stands and restaurants only open up later, most of the experience is roaming about, walking through the stalls and looking around. Many of the stands offer a taste of their merchandise.

If you happen to be in the market past noon, you can wait for the market to switch over to trendy bars. These fill up quickly with the Londoners who come for an afternoon beer.



#Recommendation for a Tasty Market Dish

If you are in search of a fish and chips dish, try the restaurant Fish, or the stall Fish! Kitchen on the road that cuts across Borough Market. You can choose several types of fish. You can then venture to the sitting area or the church courtyard to enjoy your meal.

For those not interested on spending money- if you arrive an hour before closing time, you will find that many stalls sell their goods at half price. You can buy pastries, bread, cakes, cookies, soups and cooked foods.



#A Short History of the Market

The Borough Market dates back to the days the Romans ruled the area that would one day be London. The market was placed elsewhere 2000 years ago. In the Middle Ages, the entire area adjacent to the London Bridge continued to serve as a commercial center. In 1756, the Borough Market was relocated to its present site. The market has been here for 250 years.

The Borough Market underwent serious renovations before becoming what it is now: a market for good quality gourmet food, with prices to match. The market began to function as a social and cultural center, offering many culinary activities. The best chefs of Britain and Europe frequent the market, venturing to see and be seen.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nN4OE4_WBrk
The Gherkin
The Gherkin
#About the Tower that Became a London Icon

Thanks to its unique shape, the 40-story and 180-meter Swiss Re Tower is one of London's best known towers. But this official name is generally unknown, making way for more amusing nicknames, including names such as "the sour cucumber", the erotic sour cucumber, the "Dick" and the "high hint."

This famous skyscraper was given these amusing nicknames due to its unique shape, reminiscent of something between a cucumber and a vibrator. Designed by architect Norman Foster, one of the world's leading architects who has already built some iconic buildings which are hard to forget.

Since the inauguration of the "Gherkin" tower, or simply the "cucumber," it has become one of London's most prominent symbols. Its location in the city of London, the central business district of the British capital, has made it one of the most sought after office buildings among London businessmen.

The unique building has appeared in several films and television series that have been filmed in London since it was founded. It can be seen in movies like "Harry Potter", "Basic Instinct 2" and "Star Trek."



#History of the Gherkin

The "cucumber" tower was built in the city of London upon the ruins of the Baltic Stock Exchange, an old building destroyed by a bomb planted in 1992 by members of the Irish underground, the IRA. After the stock exchange building was completely destroyed to with no hope of reconstruction, the landowners decided to build an entirely new, modern and environmental building in its place.

Construction began in 2000 and the "cucumber" tower was completed in 2004.



#Architecture of the Building

Shortly after its construction, the "cucumber" was chosen as the world's most prestigious new building by a panel of judges comprised of professional architects in 2004. Currently, the "cucumber" is the second tallest tower in the city of London. The "cucumber" is not only an impressive building in its shape, it is also a "green" building, a structure that optimizes the use of environmental resources and reduces its environmental pollution to a minimum.


A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/OujTCU6IBWc



Virtual Tour:

https://youtu.be/ug0R_U_6BDU
Golden Hind
Golden Hind
#About the Ship

On the southern bank of the Thames River lies the reconstructed ship of Sir Francis Drake, the famous 16th century pirate who was also the first Englishman to circle the world.

This ship sailed around the world between 1577-1580. Today it serves as a museum comprised of its five deck floors. When there are no private events, you can tour it with a map and locate the deck, the weapons depot, the staff accommodation areas and more. The crew on duty is dressed in Elizabethan sailor clothes, and the ship also accommodates nighttime activities. Among the sessions you can attend a detective night where you will be asked to solve a murder mystery, or participate in a pirate party. Other activities include enjoying a sailor's meal in the sailor's dining room, spending the night on the cannon deck, or buying souvenirs like sailor shirts and more.

Although the original name of the ship was Pelican, in the middle of the voyage, Drake changed its name to the Golden Hind. The story is that Drake wanted to honor Sir Christopher Hatton, who was one of the chief superiors on the voyage. The symbol of his aristocratic family was a golden deer.



#Sir Francis Drake

Sir Francis Drake was what they call an "authorized pirate." Drake held the ship (which he received from the authorities) and received permission to attack enemy ships and rob them. Although he acted as a pirate, in the eyes of the authorities he was an "entrepreneur" and was therefore nicknamed the Queen's Pirate.

Drake was the first English navigator to circle the world in one voyage. He was the first captain to command the entire expedition. Drake was considered a hero by the English, but the Spaniards saw him as a threatening pirate and called him a "dragon." Philip II of Spain even offered a 20,000-ducats bounty ($ 6.5 million) to anyone who turned him over to the authorities.

Drake’s journey around the world began when the relations between England and Spain were on the brink of war. Drake convinced Queen Elizabeth that he would capture Spanish ships as they left the ports of Peru. The officers on the mission were told that the ships were going to discover the unknown continent of Australia. Only those involved, namely Drake and the Queen, knew that the true purpose was to ambush the Spanish transport routes and rob the gold ships sailing from Peru to Panama.

Due to storms and hitches in the ships, two of the three ships were abandoned. Drake was left alone with his ship and the crew, though all along he was convinced the others were following.
In 1580 the Golden Hind returned to Plymouth. Drake and 50 crew members who survived were on board, along with expensive spices and their plunder. Drake was greeted enthusiastically as "the first Englishman to orbit the Earth." He then pursued a career in politics, as mayor of Plymouth and a member of parliament.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3gbFIuNEfM


St. Paul's Cathedral
St. Paul's Cathedral
#About the Cathedral

St. Paul's Cathedral sits atop the hill of Ludgate in the center of the city of London. It is the seat of the Bishop of London. Prince Charles and Princess Diana were married here, and Queen Elizabeth celebrated her 80th birthday.

The cathedral was built in the late Renaissance and Baroque style. If the combination of styles sounds strange to you, know that in quite a few churches built by Christopher Wren this style appears, and is now called "Wrenaissance." It was in this cathedral that revolutionary architectural elements such as the Dome of the Cathedral – inspired by St. Peter's Basilica in Rome – were built.

The Cathedral’s height is 108 meters. Two rows of Corinthian columns adorn the main entrance.

259 steps from the ground floor you will find the "whisper gallery," which got its name because of the echo created when people talk at one end and can be heard at the other. 119 steps above it is the "Stone Gallery," and yet another 152 steps lead to the top "Golden Gallery." The dome has a small window through which one can look down and see interior of the cathedral from a height of 85 meters.

The church organ installed here is the third largest in the UK and has 7,189 tubes.

The cellar of the church has various treasures: the tomb of architect Christopher Wren, the grave of Admiral Horatio Nelson who was the fallen conductor of the Battle of Trafalgar, and several memorial plaques including numerous ones in the memory of soldiers killed during the British Mandate in Palestine.



A Closer Look at the Cathedral:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7hJzhVRjv48
Tower of London
#About the Tower

The Tower of London is a majestic castle, located on the north bank of the Thames in central London. It was established in 1066 as part of the conquest of England by the Normans. The fortress is a complex of several buildings surrounded by two ring-shaped defensive walls.

The innermost ward contains the White Tower and is the earliest phase of the castle, and gave the castle its name “Tower of London". It was built by William the Conqueror around 1078. Inside the tower you will find St. John's Chapel, a collection of weapons and medieval armor, and a reminder of a terrorist attack that took place here in 1974. At the entrance of the citadel courtyard you can see the "Bloody Tower”, where it is presumed that King Edward V and his brother Duke of York were murdered.

Next to the "Bloody Tower" is the Wakefield Tower where the crown jewels were kept. In the Jewel House building you will find the Crown Jewels exhibition and on the ground floor you will see the Armor garments, noble and gallantry symbols, jewelry and crowns.

In the Middle Ages the Tower of London served as a prison. In this prison those opposed to the crown were arrested and beheaded. Over time, the Tower of London gained a reputation for the torture and death that took place within its walls. Seven people were executed at the Tower, and for 400 years there were more than 100 executions. Among the prisoners was Queen Elizabeth I, who managed to escape the execution.

The tower served as the residence of the British monarchs. The truth is that the control of the fortress in that era was critical for anyone who had aspirations of ruling the country. However, it was much more than a house, for it had many uses-starting from a gun warehouse, a treasure house, a zoo, through the residence of the Royal Coin, a public documents office and the home of the crown jewels of the United Kingdom.

Today, the Tower of London is a popular tourist attraction. It is crowded by visitors who come to watch the towers, the guards with the red uniforms and the crowns.

Every evening at 9:00 pm, you can watch the "ceremony of the keys," performed by the guards. During the ceremony the gates of the fortress are locked. This ceremony has been done for 700 years!



#Terror in the Tower

There are some chilling stories to tell about the Tower of London. The truth is, however, that it is not surprising considering what went on inside these walls. For hundreds of years, torture, murders, executions, suicides, and mourning have taken place here. To this day, it seems like a soft sobbing resonates throughout this vast structure, probably to remind us that the past is still a part of our present.

Ghost stories are an inseparable part of life for anyone who grew up in England. 40% of the city's inhabitants believe in ghosts and one in seven people can swear they saw one. Historically, the Tower London is one of the most prominent places for such stories.

For the record, 2,900 prisoners were held here over the years serving as a prison. These people were from all ranks and social classes. If you look in the direction of the White Tower where the torture chamber was built, know that quite a few people have died there in agony. The guards of the fortress, who used to patrol around, once testified to shouts being heard piercing the from the door of the White Tower. They assumed it was Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII. Queen Anne Boleyn’s fate was sealed when she was executed on the grounds of adultery and treason against the king.



A Closer Look at the Tower:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfhbVmU4A-o


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.