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Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi
Fiumi Fountain
#The Four River Fountain

The Fountain of Four Rivers, Fiumi Fountain (Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi), located at the center of Rome, was designed by one of the most important Baroque sculptors - Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. This fountain was built as part of the design of the square where it is placed - Piazza Navona.

The fountain is made of unprocessed stone and incorporates several materials: marble, stone and water. In the center of the fountain stands a powerful obelisk, symbolizing the church's victory over paganism The fountain's pool has spectacular dolphin statues.

The four largest rivers in the world - the Nile (in Africa), the Danube (in Europe), the Ganges (in Asia) and Rio de la Plata (America) are part of the design of the fountain. Each of the gods in the fountain is shaped in an authentic style of the inhabitants from its continent. They sit on a rock from which one of the rivers flows. Each river represents a continent which the pope wishes to rule.

The message of the fountain of the four rivers is clear - Rome is the source from which all the rivers flow.
Campo de' Fiori
Campo de' Fiori
#The Market Square that Perpetuates the Sacred of Science

Campo de' Fiori is a rectangular square in Rome, a cultural and business center in the city. Located in the Christian part of Rome, it dates back to the Middle Ages. Today it contains a vibrant food market. This region is colorful and rich, full of fruits, vegetables, colorful pastas, organic honey, spices, cheeses and more. There are plenty of different stands here. Around the square are shopping streets with great prices and cafes, which offer mostly free wireless internet.

In the square is the Giordano Bruno Monument, the scientist who preceded his time and the church which executed him for his ideas in relation to the location and importance of the Earth in the solar system. Note also the iron plaque next to the monument, which is intended to commemorate the books of the Talmud that were burned in this very square.

The name of the square means "field of flowers" ("Fiori" in Italian is a flower). It is assumed that in the past there was an open field with beautiful blossoms and hence the origin of the name. If you inquire on the subject, you will also learn about a rumor that perhaps the square is named after Flora, Pompey's lover - it is unclear whether she was an existing woman or literary fiction.



#Campo de' Fiori Square for Tourists

This is a spot for early risers in Rome. The square of Campo de' Fiori has stand owners who arrive early in the morning to settle into their permanent spots. This is one of the points you will not want to miss if you come to Rome, at least to visit once.

The first tourists arrive at 8:00 am. By 12:00 pm the place is bustling and full. The afternoon will be the most calm time of day. However, do not be mistaken - the day is not yet over and at 8:00 pm the square will wake up again, this time for its night tour and will provide entertainment venues, varied bars and even a nightclub.



#History of the Square

Though today the square is inviting, full of attractions and colors, it was not always so. During the Roman Empire, the river would occasionally flood this square, along with other parts of the city. The area is dried for good only at the beginning of the first century AD. This was when the construction began in the area. Nevertheless, it was still relatively abandoned and served as an insignificant "field of flowers".

The real interest in the area began in the 15th century, when the Popes wanted to use it to demonstrate their wealth and power. Pope Boniface arrived here to build the Church of Santa Brigida. Today, in its place, stands the French Embassy. Next came the third Pope, Calligraphy, who demanded that the square be paved. A few years later, Palazzo della Cancelleria and the Orsini family's palace were built.

In time the square became a local market. Horses and other products were sold and the crowds began to stroll through. However it was not used solely for trading. During the Inquisition, in the 16th and 17th centuries, the square was a central place for the execution of criminals and heretics. One of the most famous executions was of Giordano Bruno.



#Who was Giordano Bruno- A Man the Church Executed for his Astronomical Dreams

Many see him as the "martyr of science". The story of the Italian astronomer Giordano Bruno is a tragic story of a scientist who was ahead of his time and paid dearly for his theories and beliefs. It would only be later that generations would catch up with him.

Among the well-known, Bruno was considered "the first martyr of the world of science." In contrast to Copernicus, who said similar things and proved them mathematically, not many in the general public know Bruno's name, who preceded everyone in understanding the universe and our place in it - or simply - that the earth is not the center of the world and that the universe is infinite.

Bruno, from Naples, is the first cosmological theorist to sacrifice his life in the name of science. Bruno was executed for his "space dreams." It all began when he read a book by Lucretius, a Roman poet who wrote 1500 years ago that the universe is infinite. Bruno had dreamed of a universe where man and the earth took up very little space.

Bruno began to spread his ideas about the vast universe, where there are many more planets like ours. He came to the conclusion that the stars shining in the sky were actually suns very far away, which had their own stars around them.In the eyes of his contemporaries, who believed in the centrality of the earth in the universe, this was hallucination. All the different movements in the Church boycotted Bruno and his arguments and regarded him as a heretic. In England, where he traveled to lecture on his ideas, the scientists of the time scorned him. Not long after he returned to Italy, he was imprisoned because of his "foolish ideas." Giordano Bruno was tortured by the the Inquisition for eight years but refused to deny his ideas. It was to this end that Giordano Bruno was executed by the church.

Ten years after his death, Galileo will first create the telescope and join Bruno's ideas, which proved to be accurate. Gradually, the scientific world would come to similar conclusions and at a later stage, the church as well, that the earth is far from being the center of the universe and that Bruno was right. Today there are universities named after him as well as research institutes.



#Tips

Visit the market as soon as possible. Beyond the brand new merchandise, the crowds are thin and the atmosphere is enormously pleasant. You can even start your day there and enjoy breakfast in the market.
Piazza Navona
Piazza Navona
#Rome's Special Square

Welcome to the most beautiful square in Rome! It is impressive and exciting and is located at the heart of the tourist area of ​​the Italian capital. The square was built by the architect Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini for the family of Pope Innocent X during the Renaissance. This square is considered to be one of the most well-known Baroque architectures in Rome. You will see lots of decorations and wealth that characterize baroque construction.

Originally, the square was supposed to be used for the city's athletic competitions. This is the reason for its elliptical shape. It was built on the ruins of the stadium of Domitianus from the first century. During ancient times it was used for horse races and is the only remnant of the nostalgic race track of the Romans.

Around the square there are beautiful Baroque palaces from the 17th century, the most famous of which is the church of Sant'Agnese in Agone.

Please note that the square is inviting and beautiful, but the prices of shops and restaurants are certainly high. Try to walk a little farther from the square and see how the prices gradually decrease.

Entrance to the square with vehicles is not permitted, unless you are traveling on a licensed vehicle. However, public transport will help you reach it and also travel to many places in the area, such as the Colosseum, the Forum and more.



#What Can be Seen in Piazza Navona Square?

This piazza is bustling with tourists, mostly because of its many shops, restaurants, cafés and its fine ice cream parlors. It has spectacular fountains, such as the fountain of the four rivers of Bernini. In the southern corner of the square you can see the fountain of Moro, whi ch was also built by architect Bernini, a very influential architect. The Neptune Fountain, designed in the 16th century, is located on the northern side of the square.

Take special notice of the tall obelisk, which came from Egypt at the command of one of the Popes, to symbolize the triumph of Christianity over the Muslim world. The symbol of the pigeon you see, was commissioned by the Pamphili family from Bernini.

On weekends and in the evening you can see many artists and painters in Piazza Navona. The early morning is the ideal time to enjoy the piazza, as it is less crowded than during the day.
Piazza del Popolo
People's Square
#The People's Square in Rome

People's Square (Piazza del Popolo), is a central spot in Rome. It is located near the Porta Flaminia, the entrance gate to Ancient Rome. This is the first peek that many visitors get of Rome. Today there are only remnants of the Arch and the name has been changed to "Popolo Gate," like the square where it stands.

This piazza is a significant part of historical events. It is not only the entrance to Ancient Rome. Speeches were given here and performances such as horse racing. Another famous event was the riderless horses, whose departure point was this square.

In the past, this piazza was also the site for executions, the last of which took place in 1826. Nowadays the square is open to pedestrians only and is a central meeting place in the city. You will see street performances and local and international artists. There have also been quite a few demonstrations here, such as those of 2010, as well as a few that got out of control. In the evening you can see the young people of Rome who come to see and be seen.



#Architecture of the Square and its Exhibits

In 1818 the architect Giuseppe Valadier was assigned to redesign the square. It is thanks to his genius that the square is as beautiful and impressive as it is today. His style was Neo- classical.

Over the years, various rulers have added more objects to the square to glorify their own names. One of them was the Egyptian Obelisk from the time of Ramses II (13th century BCE), which was placed in the center of the square, the Obelisco Flaminio and the second oldest obelisk in Rome, 24 meters tall, and together with its base is no less than 36 meters high. On the obelisk are hieroglyphs describing the life and the time period of the king of Egypt. Water pools at the foot of the obelisk are made of marble and are surrounded by marble lions made in the 19th century. Four small fountains surround it, which have Egyptian characteristics to fit in with the obelisk.

The obelisk was brought to this square by the architect Ernesto Domenico Fontana in 1589, for the obelisk had previously stood in another square.

On both sides of the square you can see the beautiful water fountains, designed by Giovanni Sicherini in 1822-1823. In the square you can also see three impressive churches, among them the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo, "Maria of the People".

Connection Tour in Rome

Piazza di Spagna
Piazza di Spagna
#About the Piazza with the Staircase

The Piazza di Spagna, built in the 18th century, is the square that became very popular to tourists thanks to the Spanish stairs that ascend to the Church of Trinita di Monti. These steps are by far the most popular meeting point for tourists arriving in Rome.

At the center of the square you will find the Fontana della Barcaccia. This fountain was designed by the renowned architect and sculptor Bernini in 1598. At the center of the fountain you will notice the statue of the little ship. The inspiration for the statue is from a real ship that got stuck in the Tiber River and could not move.

Around the Spanish square are some of the city's glittering and elegant streets. Are you interested in purchasing or window-shopping for some Prada or Gucci? - Head out into the surrounding streets, where Rome's most prestigious shops are located.

Among the houses surrounding square is the home of the poet John Keats, one of the most important romantic poets of England, who moved to Italy on the orders of his doctors after the English weather harmed his health. Today the house functions as a museum named after him.

Another attraction in the square is the 15th century palace of the talented Italian general Lorenzo Sibu. Among his ancestors were, among others, the rich Medici and two Popes.


A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/-3RN8NoOw8Q


The fountain:

https://youtu.be/J_VsEoQkgXI
The Spanish Steps
The Spanish Steps
#About the Staircase

The Spanish Steps of Rome connect Piazza di Spagna and Piazza Trinità dei Monti. Try to count how many steps you take during climbing, as there are more than 100 steps here. Many more. How many did you manage to count?

This staircase was built between 1723 and 1727 by the architect Francesco de Sanctis, financed by the French diplomat Stefano Gufierre. Ironically, French-sponsored stairs are called the Spanish Steps!

As you can imagine, at the time this construction cost a lot of money. The stairs connected the Spanish embassy to the church and the Vatican, so they were immediately called the Spanish Steps.

The Spanish square was once a residential center and a gathering spot of many European artists and writers. The well-known poet John Keats lived in a house near the square where he also died in 1821. His house became a museum in his memory.

Since we are mentioning the arts, perhaps you came across this staircase in the famous scene from the film "Holiday in Rome" (1953). The two heroes passed these steps in one of the scenes in the film. You must not miss this place!

At the bottom of the stairs you can see the "boat fountain" or the barcaccia - the old boat. This was built by the father of the famous artist Bernini. The theme of ​​the fountain came after the Tiber River flooded the entire area and the boat drifted up to this spot. Beautiful statues of biblical figures such as King David and Moses were placed around it.


A closer look:

https://youtu.be/-3RN8NoOw8Q


A visit:

https://youtu.be/3jdNvh0dEJ0


Guidance:

https://youtu.be/IJqjmBHUzpY


Prohibition of sitting:

https://youtu.be/0dqAaqdDSP8
Pantheon
Pantheon
#About the Temple of the Roman Gods

The Pantheon is one of the symbols of the Roman Empire, so popular, in fact, that it is always immediately associated with Rome. Pantheon means "all gods," since it was dedicated to the 12 Olympian gods.

The 16 Corinthian pillars were brought directly from Egypt and weigh no less than 60 tons each. They stand at the height of 12 meters and have a 1.5 meter diameter. These columns support the triangular roof of the structure, where an inscription explains how this building was built by Marcus Agrippa.

You will also see the graves of some Italian kings and that of the artist Raffaello Sanzio.

If you want to enhance the experience, come to Pantheon when it is raining. It is special to see the water entering through the holes in the ceiling before trickling down to the center of the building. In case you were wondering what happens to the water here, the floor is slanted in such a way that the water gathers quickly in the drainage holes. Another interesting point is that on April 21, when the sun rays hit the metal plate above the door, the entrance to the temple is quite a spectacular sight.

Opposite the Pantheon stands the impressive Pantheon fountain, built by the architect Giacomo della Forte in 1575 and carved by Leonardo Sormani. Later on, pharaoh's obelisk from Egypt, dolphin carvings and a new base were added.



#The Ceiling of the Pantheon

One of the most interesting things about the Pantheon is its amazing ceiling, which is constructed as a dome on the roof of the building. Its diameter is 43 meters and at its center you will see a skylight called Okulos. Through this opening, light showers down into the building creating a beautiful atmosphere. This is the only light source in the structure and its diameter is 8 meters.

This dome of the ceiling is the largest in the world without support. Do not take it for granted, as it was a rather challenging architectural feat. Due to the massive weight of the dome, and in order to avoid its collapsing, the Roman engineers tried to make it weight as little as possible as they designed the ceiling to be higher. This was also the reason that the upper parts of the dome are made of lighter materials and have more internal spaces. Due to this interesting construction, the dome looks flatter from the outside than it really is.



#The Pantheon's History

The Pantheon was built in the year 27 AD following an order by Marcus Agrippa, commander of the Roman army and consul during the reign of Augustus. Following a fire that took place 60 years later, the building was completely burned down. It was rebuilt in 125 AD by Emperor Hadrian. The Pantheon was a temple, and in 609 it was converted to a church called Santa Maria Rotonda, though this was subsequently destroyed during the Middle Ages. It was the first time in history that a temple of idolatry became a Christian place of worship.



#What is the Pantheon? (Courtesy of Eureka.com)

The Pantheon in Rome is the most preserved building in the world, left over from the Roman period. It is the most ancient building in the world, still covered by its original ceiling and roof. This is one of the most impressive places in the city of Rome, a city with many fascinating archaeological sites.

Architecturally speaking, the Pantheon is a significant achievement in the ancient world, since the dome is made of concrete, from soil from Pozzolana. It is the largest domed structure in the ancient world and is so strong that it has survived to this day.

The word "Pantheon" means "rule of the gods" in Greek. In various ancient mythologies, such as Sumerian and Greek, this word described a temple. And indeed, the ancient Roman structure that remains intact to this day was originally used as a temple for all the gods - Pantheon.

However the Romans later changed its use to the court of the emperor, a law court, and after Christianity took over, it became a Christian church called Santa Maria Rotunda. It must be admitted that this is an interesting use of a structure originally intended for idol worship and contained a number of altars dedicated to the many gods of the ancient world.

The date of the inauguration of the Pantheon as a gift to the Pope, by Emperor Phocas, is celebrated to this day by the Christian world as "Halloween Night." Among those buried in the floor of the Pantheon is the painter Raphael and the kings of Italy.



#Tips

There are guided tours of the Pantheon free of charge. There is no need to book a spot in advance.

The Pantheon is one of the most popular sites in Rome. Still, it is not very crowded here. If you want to see it in a pleasant way, it is best to arrive after 4:00 pm.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rx6-sjKBTg
Sant Eustachio
Sant Eustachio
#The Best Coffee in Rome

This café, Sant Eustachio, is said to be the best coffee place in Rome. It may seem like a casual shop, but the coffee you will order here is said to be the best by the locals. If this isn’t convincing enough, just remember that Italy is also a coffee empire.



#Tips

The big line at the entrance indicates that this is a special spot. Here are some recommendations for beginners:

Order "coffee" which is actually an espresso. This is the only way to enjoy the entire aroma of the place. This is not the time for an Americano or cappuccino friends! - You have reached the temple of coffee. With the ability to order coffee comes the responsibility to order coffee ...

At Sant Eustachio Coffee they will automatically sweeten the coffee unless you say " Amarro," which indicates you want your coffee left bitter.


Forno Campo de Fiori
Forno Campo de Fiori
#About the Recommended Pizzeria in the Popular Market

At the edge of the Campo di Fiori Market is a pizzeria, the kind that pizza lovers remember for years. Forno Campo de Fiori makes great pizzas with a variety of toppings.

There are a variety of four types of cheese, sausages, and almost any vegetable you can put on pizza, onions, peppers, tomatoes, zucchinis and more.

The fragrant and crispy pizzas are great and the price is nothing in comparison with the enjoyment you'll have. Enjoy your meal!


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.