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#About the Place - The Ancient Prison of Paris

On the banks of the Seine, as part of the justice complex, on the Ile de la Cité, you will find the Conciergerie, the oldest remnant of the Sitta Palace, the first palace built in Paris in the 10th century.

At various other times a chilling prison stood here, where some of the greatest criminals in French history were imprisoned.

The word concierge means the place where the doorman lives, in the broader context - the prison where the prisoners are held. This is also the reason why the place is called like this. The doorman was in charge of the royal palace and its candles. Even today, many apartment buildings have a concierge who is responsible for maintaining the place.

The place is now used as a museum and a historic tourist site. Although you can visit only some of the areas within the historical building, you can touch and feel the history of the city of Paris. The building is maintained and preserved by the National Center for Monuments.

#About its History
In the past, where the Conciergerie stands, stood the Palais de la Cité. The palace was the seat of the French throne from the 10th century to the 14th century.

During the French Revolution, part of the palace became a prison on the ground floor of the building. During the reign of terror, the Conciergerie prison was considered a waiting place until the expected execution. Only a few managed to get released. Queen Marie Antoinette (known to you for her famous "If there is no bread - eat cake") was arrested in 1793 before being executed. Remember the guillotine we mentioned in the Place de la Concorde? To this day you can see tens of thousands of French people coming to honor the Queen's memory.

After the palace was destroyed, the Paris Hall of Justice was built in its place

#What to See During Your Visit
There are two fascinating places to visit:

The first one is the view of the remains of the ancient Cité Palace. The entrance hall to this day remains one of Europe's largest surviving medieval halls. Its area is about 70 by 27.5 meters. Pay particular attention to the Gothic style and stone arches supporting the ceiling. Some of the great stories about the knights, kings and courtiers of those years took place in this hall. The entrance is via a small gate on the northern side of the Hall of Justice.

The second place is the prison of the sentenced to death, which also allows you to touch Paris after the French Revolution. At that time, when terror was in control and the famous decapitation guillotine was established at the Place de la Concorde, this was a place where you waited for the execution that is yet to come. Take note of the women's courtyard, Marie Antoinette's cell and the other death row cells.

Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from November to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.

A Closer Look at the Concierge:

#About the Church
Sainte-Chapelle is a Gothic church located in the Ile de la Cité in Paris. Small and intimate, beautiful and exciting, you will find the most beautiful glass windows in Paris. Note the floor of the lower hall, which is made of tombstones that are located below it.

Go from the lower hall to the upper hall there will be a few steps. In the upper hall you will discover the oldest and most beautiful stained glass windows in Paris, dating back to the 13th century. These windows, made of glass, display more than 1,000 scenes from the Old and New Testaments, covering a total area of ​​618 square meters.

During the Middle Ages, the believers imagined the place to be the Gate of Heaven, and not by accident - the narrow Gothic columns, 15 meters high, the vaulted ceilings, the stars, the colors and the game with the sun's rays that bring in the light of day, make the place enchanting and exciting.

In the upper chapel you will find the glass windows and impressive wooden sculptures. Look for the Round Rose Window. It is called "Rosetta" and describes the vision of the End of Days. The church's organ, incidentally, is the largest in France and has 6,100 pipes.

This church is especially busy during the afternoons and weekends, but this is not excuse to miss a visiting here. Masses are no longer held here, but you will notice that there are frequent concerts.

The church was built by Louis IX, the king of France, after acquiring the crown of thorns of Jesus and decided to build a royal chapel in order to store it. This was at a time when nobles used to steal holy remain and the king feared for the safety of the item. The church was built between 1242-1248 and cost 40,000 pounds.

The construction of the chapel presents Louis IX's ambition to make France an important Christian kingdom. Just as the emperor could pass privately from his palace to the Basilica of the Hagia Sophia, Louis was able to move directly between his palace and Saint Chapelle. In 1297 the church granted Louis IX the status of a Christian saint.

Originally, the lower chapel was built for the residents of the royal palace - servants and ordinary peasants, while the royal chapel above it was used by the royal family.

During the French Revolution, the chapel was used as an administrative office. The windows were hidden in cupboards full of folders. Because of this, the windows were not damaged, unlike the other elements - benches and wooden screens completely destroyed. The turret was then destroyed, and the remains of the holy items disappeared.

In the 19th century Sainte-Chapelle was restored and the turret was rebuilt, beginning in 1862, the church is now considered a national historical monument.

#Sainte-Chapelle Architecture
Although the Church is considered small and intimate, it has always been particularly prominent. It is 33 meters long, 17 meters wide and 76 meters high.

One of the most prominent and most beautiful objects are the stained-glass windows made of the finest materials. The windows are installed inside very delicate stonework.

Most of the church is built in the Gothic style, a style that began to develop in Paris during its construction, but during the 15th century a rose window was added, which is a large round window. It is decorated in the style of flames to the western front.

Above the church you will see a cone-shaped turret, rebuilt in 1853 at a height of 75 meters.

Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from November to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.

A Closer Look at the Church:

#About the Pantheon

The Pantheon in Paris is a burial site and an official monument of the distinguished French people, the people who took a significant part in the history of this important country and of Paris in particular. Pantheon means "all gods." But what does that have to do with the people immortalize in it? - great question... It was originally built in the 18th century as a church. But at the time when France tried to avoid religious symbols and sought more national symbols, so it became the national Pantheon.

In 1744, King Louis the 15th, who was seriously ill, vowed that if he recovered, he would replace the ruins of the holy church of Saint Genevieve with a luxurious building worthy of the patron saint of Paris. The foundations of the building that was soon to be built in a neoclassical style were dug in 1758 and Louis himself laid the first stone in 1764. The construction was delayed due to financial difficulties. Later, in light of the death of the architect Soufflot (in 1780), it was completed, but it happened a few years later, in 1790, after the outbreak of the French Revolution. It was completed it by two of Soufflots students.

Although in a later period, the building returned to its first purpose as a church, not long afterwards it returned to serve as a burial site. The changing purpose of the building and the decorations on it, the dedications engraved on its walls and symbols, allow us to examine the construction of the French nation because of the great writers, philosophers, and intellectuals buried here, which were worthy of recognition by the French nation.


The length of the impressive cross structure stands at 110 meters long and is 84 meters wide. It was designed by the architect Jacques Germain Soufflot and its construction took 26 years. Soufflot planned to combine Classical elements with Gothic motifs in the design of the building, but because he died before he completed construction, he did not fully implement the plan. The plan included a church with a Greek cross-shaped dome, with four short sides of equal length and width. The building is 83 meters tall. This building is mainly built in a Gothic style - a central ship with arches above the side passageways. There are also references to other architectural styles. Byzantine architecture - because of the use of the cover domes. Classical architecture seen in the drum dome and the gallery of the outer pillars. Ancient Greek architecture through the six-pillar gallery. Lastly, the triangular gable (an architectural element in front of the building) that we mentioned earlier and the corinthian pillars (pillars whose upper part is made of leaves). Despite the combination of all styles, the Pantheon is classified as a neoclassical structure, mainly because of the period in which it was built.

#Interesting Facts

The issue of burial in the Pantheon was the source of many debates and sometimes even extreme acts such as the removal of people who had already been buried there, such as Mara (a French revolutionary) and Mirabeau (a French statesman). At the time of the Third Republic, the ministers were the ones who proposed candidates for burial and transfer of several personalities from other cemeteries. There were proposals that provoked violent arguments such as the proposal to transfer Emil Zola in 1908. In 2007, the government decided on 76 people to be buried in the Pantheon, including Victor Hugo, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Alexandre Dumas, Emil Zola, Louis Pasteur, Louis Braille and Marie Curie. Beyond the physical burial, the French nation respects its sons through the etching of names on the walls of the Republican temple, which has already been engraved over 1,000 names. Today the president of the republic has the choice and there is no law or document that defines the criteria for election.

In January 2007, French President Jacques Chirac unveiled a plaque in honor of 2,600 people who were recognized by Yad Vashem in Israel as Righteous Among the Nations thanks to their contribution to saving Jews from deportation to concentration camps.

#What Can You See in the Pantheon?

The beautiful Pantheon was built in spirit of the classic Pantheon in Rome and its dome was inspired by St. Paul's Cathedral in London.

Throughout the lower part of the Pantheon you can visit the graves of distinguished French people - Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Victor Hugo, Emil Zola, Walter, Marie Curie and many others.

Inside the building you can see wall paintings depicting the life of Saint Geneviève. In the center of the building are four ships that together form a Greek cross (which reminds us of the original purpose of the building as a church). Above them is the dome of the Pantheon - decorated with an iron frame. In the gallery surrounding the Pantheon’s Dome you can enjoy a panoramic view over Paris.

Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from November to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.

A Closer Look at the Pantheon of Paris:

Jardin du Luxembourg
Luxembourg Gardens
#Tourists in the Gardens

The beautiful Luxembourg Gardens (Jardin du Luxembourg), located in the heart of Paris, are open to the general public and attract not only tourists but also locals.

In the gardens you can find scattered statues of prominent figures from French history: female figures of French queens and figures of writers and poets.
There is plenty of room to relax, eat ice cream or drink coffee from the many stands in the area. You can enjoy the warm and relaxing sun, rest and gain energy for the trip in the Latin Quarter.
In the center of the garden there is a large pool surrounded by dozens of green chairs ment for tourists and they provide the perfect atmosphere for a moment of comfort and relaxation.

The gardens are not only an attractive destination for the Parisian population, but also for tourists:

You can rent a boat and let kids push it with a long bamboo stick from bank to bank on the big lake.

When you go up, to the center of the garden, you can ride around on ponies or if you a are with younger children you can ride the local carriage.
Deeper in the park, you can find a carousel and a puppet theater that has shows almost every day and in the southwestern corner you can find beehives, and courses on how to raise them.

You can find places to read and play petanca (bowling) for adults, a romantic trip for couples or a lunch break for students, who usually come from the Sorbonne - the famous University of Paris, located right next to the gardens.

It is one of the most beautiful green pieces in Paris, with a proper blend of light and shade, trees and lawns, hidden corners and public spaces for both children and adults. Take a basket with a little food and a blanket - and go for a picnic.

#The History of the Gardens

The construction of the gardens began after the assassination of King Henry the 4th in 1610.

The widow of the king, Marie de Medici, could not bear to live in the Louvre filled with her shared memories with her husband and moved to the Luxembourg Palace.

In 1624 the construction of the Luxembourg Palace was completed for the widow, who ordered the architect, Salomon de Bruce, to build a Palazzo Pitti style palace, like the palace she left behind in her hometown, Florence. The gardens around it were designed to remind her of the landscape of her childhood.

The truth is, that although the Queen planned to spend the rest of her life in the palace, fate must have wanted something else, and in practice the royal widow had not lived in the palace for more than five years. She was exiled to Cologne in 1630 by the order of the new king. During the revolution, the palace was confiscated and for two years served as a prison; It was then designated as the location of the Assembly of Representatives. The monastery next to it was destroyed.

By the way, another historical anecdote - about the famous writer Ernest Hemingway, it is told that as a young man he was hungry for bread and used to go out to the gardens to hunt pigeons for consumption.

#The Luxembourg Palace as Parliament

In the heart of the symmetrical and impressive gardens is the Luxembourg Palace. The palace was originally built according to the design of the French architect Solomon de Bruce, to serve as the royal residence of Marie de Medici, the mother of King Louis the 13th.

After the French Revolution it was re-designed by Jean Chalgrin and was converted into a parliament. The main staircase was destroyed and replaced by the Senate Hall on the first floor. Chalgrin also destroyed the Chapel de Medici. Chalgrin closed the terraces and turned them into a library. At the same time he built a staircase in the western wing, which was surrounded by iconic columns. The construction ended with the destruction of the gallery.

In early 1835, architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden aisle. The new Senate Hall was located in what was then the courtyard area between the gardens. The new aisle included a library with paintings by Eugene Delacroix. In 1850 by the request of Napoleon the 3rd, Gisors created a conference hall.

During the occupation of France by Nazi Germany in 1944, the palace became the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, and in general the palace was a strategic place for the German forces that defended the city.

During the year 1946, the palace was used as a venue for the Paris Peace Conference.

#The Architecture of the Luxembourg Gardens

The park and its beautiful gardens manage to put nature in the heart of the Parisian urban fabric and makes travelers rest and feel embraced by nature.

Not only do the visitors get to experience the nature and space, the garden also has a magical atmosphere, it is beautifully maintained and the garden beds are designed in a meticulous French style. Self-pruning and chestnuts attract Parisians and tourists of all ages.

In the center, you can see an octagonal pool with a fountain, where you can rent and sail on models of ancient sailboats. This part of the garden is decorated in a classic French style - with straight and symmetrical lines. While later, from the center to the edge, the style becomes like an English garden style, in a less formal way of curving paths and random clusters of trees.

The current design of the gardens was given to them in the 19th century by architect Chalgrin.

#The Luxembourg Gardens Fountain

The Luxembourg Gardens, spread across 57,000 square meters, attract many tourists and locals, because of the well-tended gardens, the wonderful sculptures and the relaxed and Parisian atmosphere.

But one of the true charms of the garden, which is not visited too much by tourists, is the spectacular Medici fountain.

The fountain was built in 1630 and has deep routes in the rich French history. Because of location, in an isolated corner of the garden and because the boulevard of tall trees hides it a little, many visitors are unaware of its existence. The fountain was also commissioned by Marie de Medici in 1624. She wanted to give it typical Italian mannerism features: a complex fountain, an artificial cave decorated with statues, just like the one she knew from the Beauntanti Cave in the Boboli Gardens.

The architect Tommaso Francini, who was in charge of the fountains and water, in the gardens of the Medici villas in Prinza and Rome, was chosen for the construction and planning of the fountain.

He created a large water basin leading to a huge sculpted fountain, topped by two statues of nymphs spilling water from their hands and a gable bearing the Medici emblem.

The fountain was located on the left bank of Paris, where free water flowed and the groundwater was quite deep, and therefore considered one of the wonders of that period.

After Medici's death, in the mid 18th century, the fountain needed serious repairs due to poor maintenance. The neglect was so severe that the statues on the fountain disappeared (to this day they do not know when exactly they were stolen) and the supporting wall collapsed. In 1811 Napoleon appointed architect Jean Chalgrin to renovate the fountain, the same architect who created the Arc de Triomphe.

During the reign of Napoleon the 3rd, it underwent another incarnation (by architect Alphonse de Gizur), which shifted its position by 28 meters to make way for the construction of a street behind it. In the empty space left behind, another fountain was built, the "Leda and the Swan," which stood in one of the adjacent streets and the two matched each other like a glove. To the sorrow of the original Medici fountain, most visitors focus on her new sister.

Another change was the addition of two new sculptures representing the Seine and Heron rivers at the top of the fountain, where the nymphs once stood. He reconstructed the Medici emblem that had been damaged in the French Revolution and set up a sculpture set by the sculptor August Otten.

A Closer Look of the Gardens:


Free in Paris

Muse de Cluny
Cluny Museum
#About the Cluny Museum of the Middle Ages

The best example of Middle Age architecture in Paris is the the National Museum of the Middle Ages (Musée de Cluny), which is located in the fifth district of paris. In 1843 Alexander Di Sommerard, a collector of Middle Age art, purchased the building, housed his collections in it and turned it into a Museum. After his death, the collection was purchased by the country and his son became the museum's first curator. The museum became public in 1833.

In the museum you can find art and furniture from the Middle Ages as well as golden jewelry and ivory artifacts. The museum has a rich collection of sculptures, ceramics, carvings, carpets, various artifacts in gold and bronze, glass works, metal, wood and ivory, weapons, jewelry and everyday medieval objects. The most notable exhibits are the outstanding wall hangings that display the well known piece now known as "The Lady and the Unicorn" - a series of 6 beautiful wall hangings from the 15th century, displaying a female character next to a unicorn.

#Archaeological Exhibits

The importance of the museum is not only in its rich and impressive collection, but also in the combination of authentic archaeological exhibits displayed in it from the ancient times until today. Remains of Roman baths were discovered beneath the building from the 13th century called "Cluny Baths." In the baths you can find items from the Roman period such as "Pillars of the Descendants" also known as "The Sailors Pillar." Carvings from the first century of mythological Roman gods were found on the limestone pillar. It is thought that the pillar stood in the Gallic-Roman temple that was in Paris before. It was originally 5.24 meters high, however, only broken pieces of it are left today. Some of the ancient baths were preserved very well. Such as the 'cooling hall' in which the walls are about 2 meters thick, and the ceiling is 15 meters tall.

In the next hall there are 21 statue heads on display, some of them broken, and they are treated as the kings of Judah and Israel. The truth is that the statues don't belong to that place - they were discovered by accident in an ancient building in Paris, and an examination revealed that the heads were removed from statues that stood on the facade of Notre Dame Cathedral. During the revolution, the revolutionaries mistakenly thought that these were statues of French kings, and in a fury against the royal house, shattered them without knowing that these were all statues of the kings of Judah and Israel who had done them no harm.

In the museum's garden you should pay attention to the ancient well, that was used by the monks at the time, it is no longer in use however, but it still full of water.

#About the Lady and the Unicorn

At the Cluny Museum you will find the renowned piece "Lady and Unicorn", a medieval creation of six wall hangings woven in Flanders in the 16th century.

Five of the carpets describe the five senses: taste, hearing, sight, smell and touch. The last carpet is called "my only passion."

Please note that the carpets are very large and impressive. Come closer and see the colors in which they were painted with. These are natural pigments created at the time by using ancient techniques. Sit with your back to the biggest rug of them all, the one with the blue tent. Now look at your left side. To the first carpet.

In the carpet that describes the sense of taste, the lady is shown taking a candy from a tray held by a servant. The lion and the unicorn stand on either side and hold banner flags.

In the carpet that describes the sense of hearing, the lady plays on an organ that is on a table covered with a Turkish rug. The maid in this case holds the organ. Here too, the lion and the unicorn stand on both sides of the Lady holding banner flags, however, unlike in the other carpets they turn in opposite directions.

In the carpet that describes her sense of vision, the Lady sits and holds a mirror, a unicorn kneels at her feet and looks at his reflection in the mirror. The lion stands on her left side and holds a banner flag.

In the carpet that describes the sense of smell, the lady stands holding a bouquet of flowers. Her maid stands holding a basket full of flowers. On both sides of the Lady stand the lion and the unicorn holding banner flags.

In the carpet that describes the sense of touch, the lady stands and touches the horn of the unicorn. In the other hand she holds the banner flag. The lion looks at her.

In the last rug, called "my only passion," the lady stands in the middle of a the carpet and her servant stands to her right and holds a box. The Lady puts the necklace she's wearing in the box. To her left you can see a bag with coins. The lion and the unicorn are also here on either side of the Lady, holding the banner flags.

Free entry of the first Sunday of the month.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.

A Closer Look:
Petit Palais
Petit Palais
#About the Petit Palais - The Parisian Museum of French Art

The two buildings that house the Parisian Museum of French Art, the Petit and Grand Palais, were built at the end of the 19th century for the Paris International Exposition in 1900, the same one for which the Eiffel Tower was built. This world exhibition was designed to sum up the 19th century and celebrate the opening of the 20th century in the center of the "Belle Epoque" period (The Golden Age of Europe, that was created thanks to the peace that prevailed at the time between the powerful countries, it brought prosperity and growth in the fields of science, and also for a significant improvement in quality of life). At that time, the exhibition was the largest ever to exist and included 50,000 visitors. The exhibition covered 112,000 square meters.

Within the framework of the magnificent buildings that were created for the exhibition, we can also find the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais.

Today, the Petit Palais serves as the Parisian Museum of French Art. The permanent collection includes paintings from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 18th-century furniture and the offcial city of Paris painting collection (including works by Rembrandt, Delacroix, Monet, Pissarro, Modigliani, etc.). There were several impressive collections in the palace, including ancient Egyptian and Greek sculptures, Renaissance painting art, china and furniture, medieval books, and more.

A small staircase with glass doors and gold decorations leads visitors in the palace to a collection of classical French art. After a short walk around the museums inside and underground section, visitors will be able to go to the inner courtyard that has the glass dome, Greek columns, golden angel statues, special plants and a cute cafe. In the courtyard, which is shaped like a half moon, the gardeners have re-planted different kinds of palm trees that have existed there since the early years of the 20th century.

Entrance to the permanent exhibition is free and entrance to the changing exhibitions has a fee.

#The Architecture of the Petit Palais

At first glance of the Petit Palais, one might think that the building was once home to elegant and royal aristocrats. But in fact, it was built in 1900 in honor of the Parisian Universal Fair, just like its neighbor, the "Grand Palais." Both buildings have always served as museums. The Petit Palais, the smaller palace (which, by the way, is not really small, only in relation to the huge palace opposite of it), is located between the Seine and the Champs-Elysées. It is a delicate and beautiful structure that displays French art.

The building was designed by Charles Girou in the Art Nouveau style, and in its center is a flowering garden with a blue fish pond and gold decorations. The painted ceilings, the magnificent mosaic floors, the huge windows, the golden gates and the beautiful patio were designed solely for displaying art for the people, it is simply amazing.

The small palace also serves as a fine display of architecture - the front door is full of thin, complex gold designs and invites visitors to enter the large marble lobby, with huge windows and sparkling chandeliers. It is set in a vaulted structure of gilded iron and Italian mosaic. Inside is the Museum of Fine Arts, you can find the permanent creations of Delacroix and Corbé. The renovation restored the exterior of the stone from which the palace was built and revived its original white color; In addition, the ceiling panels were renovated in bright blue, depicting motifs of beauty, thought, mysticism and matter.

A Closer Look at the Petit Palais:

Notre-Dame de Paris
Notre-Dame Cathedral
#About the Cathedral

The famous Notre-Dame Cathedral (Notre-Dame de Paris), one of the highlights of Gothic architecture, attracts thousands of tourists every year. Its name means "Our Lady's Cathedral," named for Maria, the mother of Jesus. Many kings were crowned and married in this cathedral, among them Napoleon.

The construction of the cathedral began in 1163 and ended about 200 years later, around 1345. You can see a variety of sculptures, but look especially for the "marginal sculpture." Pay attention to the monstrous and imaginary figures placed at the ends of the rain gutters, figures that symbolize the evil and the questioning and provide a glimpse into the world of the people of the Middle Ages.

After the French Revolution, the beautiful Cathedral was neglected, then in 1831 the building served as a background for the famous work of Victor Hugo, The Hunchback of Notre Dame. After the publication of Hugo's book, the French began to rehabilitate it. This was also the time when the famous gargoyles were added, who to this day are kneeling on the cathedral and making mocking faces at visitors.

Gargoyles are statues that were very common in Gothic architecture. These statues were usually used as decorative water gutters. They were always placed on the roof of the Gothic buildings, as decorated marshes. Interestingly they were designed as demon-like monsters or dragons, monsters who turn outwardly to frighten passers-by who stand at the foot of the building.

The cathedral is located in Notre Dame Square, on the Ile de la Cité, the island which is the historical starting point from which Paris developed. Geographers refer to the cathedral as the zero point from which distances are measured all over France. You can see the metal plate of the "zero point" in the square in front of the church.

#A small detective mission for children

Find the metal plate "zero point" in front of the church square, then explain to the rest of the family its meaning.

#The Hunchback of Notre Dame

The combination of one of the most respected writers in history, with one of the most fascinating and beautiful cities in our world, is a winning combination. Victor Hugo, who lived in Paris, incorporated the building as the central setting for all his works, and therefore this magical city is full of sites connected to him, his work and creations. The novel the Hunchback of Notre Dame, one of the greatest novels of its period, was published in 1831. The book has stirred up many generations of readers with a fascinating and powerful plot.

At the center of the plot is none other than the amazing cathedral where you are at these very moments. However, contrary to reality, in the book the building is located in the slums of Paris. The cathedral is the residence of a stern and severe Catholic priest, Claude Frollo, who adopts an abandoned child, whom he calls Quasimodo. Quasimodo is a distorted, deaf hunchback whose duty it will be to ring the church bells.

The novel is about the love story of Quasimodo the hunchback to Esmeralda, a Gypsy dancer. It is an epic story, full of beauty and sadness, that describes human suffering with strength and compassion. After Quasimodo is accused of trying to kidnap Esmeralda, he is tortured in front of all the city's residents. Whoever rescued him would be none other than Esmeralda herself. Priest Frollo, who is also in love with the dancer Esmeralda himself, tries to overcome the torments of his love and jealousy and plots an evil plan that will lead to the tragic development of the novel.

Hugo wrote the book after discovering in the bell tower a Greek inscription meaning "necessary / must" and was curious to know who wrote the inscription. Hugo's goal in writing the book was to present the treasures of the cathedral to the public at large, after the mass destruction of the cathedral during the French Revolution, which he saw as the symbol of power.

#Changes in the Cathedral

The decision to build the Notre Dame Cathedral was made by the local bishop who decided to establish a complex for the kings of Europe, in the classical Gothic church style - that is, a tall, illuminated, decorated church. The ambitious architectural design made it so a large number of architects were involved in the construction work that began in 1163 and ended about two hundred years later, around 1345.

Over the years, the original structure of the cathedral was damaged. During the French Revolution, the place was heavily damaged - the heads of the statues at the front and above the gates were "beheaded." All bells were melted down for use during the height of the weapon industry. The building itself was then used as a food storehouse. Kings as well tried to make their mark in the place over the years, adding rooms and renovating corners. Other minor damages were caused to the structure during the various world wars that severely hit it, but the structure retained more or less its original shape and is very similar to the structure that stood here during the Middle Ages.

#Saint Denis

All of Paris knows the image of Saint Denis, with his decapitated head, above the entrance to Notre Dame Cathedral. It is told that the Romans had shaved his head, Saint Denis didn't even notice and carried his decapitated head in his hands ... Another statue of the saint is found in the Museum of the Middle Ages also located in Paris. But who was he?

Saint Denis, by his full name Dionysius, was a Christian saint of the 3rd century CE, who was the first Bishop of Paris. Dionysius was sent by Pope Fabianus to rebuild the Christian community in Paris. He built a church here, on an island on the Seine, and converted many residents to Christianity. But the Roman governor's mother-in-law took a stance against him, and the governor ordered to imprison Dionysius and his two companions, torment them, and decapitate them immediately.

Legend has it that after his head was cut off, Saint Denis lifted it off the ground and began to walk away, carrying his head and preaching to those around him. A few kilometers north of Montmartre (where this event was carried out), he met a Roman Catholic noblewoman, put his head in her hands and collapsed. The Basilica of Saint-Denis was built in the place where Dionysius collapsed, and this place became the burial grounds for the kings of France.

#The Notre Dame Church's Organ

An organ is a large keyboard instrument (in fact it is the world's largest instrument), producing a shuddering sound of air, unlike other keyboard instruments that produce sound from shaking strings. The sound in the organ is produced using air blowing through the tubes.

In the Notre Dame Cathedral organs have been installed since the building was first built, and today there are three organs - the large organ, the oldest of the cathedral's organs and installed under the window of the western Rosetta. There is the choir organ (a 30-year-old organ that was installed in the 19th century), and a mobile organ, whose purpose is to accompany the choir and singers.

The first organ was installed in the 18th century by Cliquot. Some of the original pipes by Cliquot are still being used today, more than 270 years after they were installed for the first time. The organ was renovated and almost completely rebuilt in the 19th century. At the beginning of 1989 another renovation was made that was finalized in 1992.

The big organ in the cathedral has 7,800 pipes, 900 of which are considered historical. There are 109 rows, 5 full rows with 56 keys each, and a pedal keyboard with 32 pedals.

The person who plays the organ in the Notre Dame Cathedral is considered one of the most lucrative and sought after positions in France.

Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from November to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.

A Closer Look at the Cathedral:

Muse Rodin
Rodin Museum
#Rodin Museums History

The Rodin Museum (Musée Rodin) is housed in a beautiful 18th century palace called Hotel Biron. The palace was built in 1731 as a luxurious residence of a wealthy barber and sought to establish for himself the most beautiful house in Paris of that time. After the death of the original owner, the palace changed several ownerships until, in 1905, the palace was purchased by the French government and divided into several luxury and expensive housing units.

The unique design of the palace and the magnificent gardens surrounding it attracted various artists such as Henri Matisse, and in 1908 the sculptor Auguste Rodin rented part of the ground floor of the palace to store his works. In the rooms he rented he used as a studio, where he worked and entertained his many friends. At the same time, Rodin began talking to the French government to fulfil his life's goal: to turn the palace into a museum dedicated to his works.

In 1916, as part of an agreement to establish the museum, Rodin donated all his works, sculptures and paintings, photographs and archives, as well as the private collections he had accumulated over the years. But Rodin did not live to see his dream come true - he died in 1917, while the museum opened its doors to the general public only two years later.

#What's at the Museum
In the 17 galleries of the palace, and in the nearby sculpture garden, you can see the famous works of Auguste Rodin, among them also those that have earned him great fame such as "The Thinker", "The Bourgeois of Calais" and more. Alongside Rodin's works are the works of Camille Claudel, who was his student and his beloved and a gifted sculptor, and works by other artists such as Van Gogh, Renoir, Monet and Monk.

One of Rodin's famous sculptures, the "Bronze Age", caused great rage when it was first shown in 1877. It was a statue of a naked man who looked so natural and real that the artist was accused of casting him on a living model. After it became clear that the accusations had no basis, the rage was replaced with great admiration, and Rodin was regarded as one of the greatest sculptors in the world.

Another famous sculpture, perhaps the artist's most famous sculpture, is the statue of "The Thinker" - a self contained human figure, who rests his head on his hand in a 'thinking' pose. This sculpture was part of a comprehensive work by Rodin. "The Gates of the Underworld" inspired by Dante's Divine Comedy, was also presented as an independent sculpture. In 1906 "The Thinker" was placed at the front of the Pantheon in Paris, thus becoming the first sculpture of the artist to be exhibited in a public place in Paris. After the opening of the Rodin Museum, the sculpture was copied to the sculpture garden of the Biron Palace, where it stands to this day.

#Auguste Rodin
The Rodin Museum is named after the French sculptor Auguste Rodin, who is known for his realistic style and for his famous sculpture "The Thinker."

Rodin was born in Paris to a poor family and despite his talent, at the beginning of his artistic career, he could not take off. For twenty years he made a living by carving, his application was rejected three times by the "Ecole des Beaux-Arts" (National High School of Fine Arts).

The turning point began in the mid 1870's, when he toured Italy and saw Michelangelo's works, from which he drew inspiration for his creation, "The Bronze Age." Rodin's characters were so realistic and distant from what was customary at the time that they accused him of casting with the bodies of living models. After it became clear that the charges against him had no basis, he received tremendous admiration for his impressive achievement and he was recognized as one of the greatest sculptors in the whole world.

#The Rodin Museum for Tourists
The house, cafe and garden of the Rodin Museum are dedicated to the work of the genius sculptor, Rodin, who lived and sculpted here during his last years. This is a small museum and one of the most unique and beautiful in the city. Many choose this museum as a favorite for them in Paris because of its beauty and pleasant and artistic atmosphere, along with the magnificent sculptures that make Rodin the successor of the Classical period sculptors.

The museum opened in 1919 and is located in the Hotel Biron, which was built in 1727 and where Rodin lived since 1908.

If you come here with children and the museum is not able to intrigue them enough, you can stroll through the museums garden and look at Rodin's sculptures. You can also sit in the museum's café, because it is open to the garden and while your sitting, the adults, can let the kids go wild in the lawns and learn about Rodin's works through the sculptures.

Hotel Biron underwent a three year and 16 million euro renovation, it reopened in November 2015. It also revealed 600 items that were never displayed before.

#Rodin's Most Prominent Works

At the museum you can find some of Rodin's familiar sculptures:

#The Gates of Hell

This is a huge sculpture project commissioned by the French government - a large bronze gate called "The Gates of Hell." The gate was to be the entrance of a decorative art museum, but it was not executed because it was never finished and the gate itself was not completed for 37 years until the sculptor's death.

#The Thinker

One of Rodin's most famous sculptures. It describes a bronze man immersed in his own thoughts. It's construction was completed in 1902 and two years later the statue was released to the public. The truth is that Rodin called it "Dante, the Thinker," but the more common and known name is "The Thinker."

#Les Bourgeois de Calais

The sculpture was completed in 1888 and describes the surrender of the city of Calais in 1347 to Edward III, after a siege that lasted over a year, during the Hundred Years War. Edward III offered not to destroy the city, provided all six of the most important dignitaries of the city came and sacrificed their lives. After the six dignitaries agreed and were persuaded by Queen of England, Philippa of Hainault, Edward III agreed not to carry out the execution. The sculpture presents the different characteristics of each of the six figures. The statue was controversial because Rodin chose to present the city's representatives as broken people rather than heroes.

#The Bronze Age

This is one of Rodin's most famous statues, and it sparked a great rage when it was first shown in 1877. The reason was because the statue of the naked man seemed so natural and real that the artist was accused of casting him from a live human model. After it became clear that the accusations had no basis, they recognized him as a genius and he was admired and appreciated as one of the greatest sculptors in the world. Many have since regarded him as the successor to the great sculptors of the classical period.

#Rodin Gardens

The Rodin Gardens are a magical wonder, like a gem inside a museum. There's a lot of beauty in them. Not luxurious, but a combination of simple, comforting and relaxing beauty at the same time. Classical symmetry and classical sculptures. You can not say that the sculptures scattered in the garden are only beautiful, but also arouse quite a bit of thought. From time to time tourists can be seen trying to imitate the more or less complicated poses of the statues.

The gardens spreads over 3,000 square meters and are divided into a rose garden and a large ornamental garden.

Between the two main buildings of the museum is a charming garden where passerby can see "The Thinker" and the famous roses of the gardens. But in order to really discover the large and wide gardens, one has to go through the wide structure.

To reach another magical garden, smaller than the previous ones, go all the way to the large pool surrounded by sculptures. When the garden seems to be over - continue beyond the big arches. There you will see a small garden, with an English ambience and dimness.

Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from October to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.

A Closer Look at the Museum:


Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes
#About the French Botanical Garden

The central French botanical garden will provide you a relaxed atmosphere and an important learning experience. This is mainly because it is part of the country's national nature museum. The gardens were planted in 1626 by Guy de La Brosse, who was King Louis XIII's physician. The primary purpose of the gardens was to grow medicinal plants. They were called the "King's Gardens" at that time. They were opened to the general public in 1640.

The stunning garden is decorated in a classic French style. It has elements of straight lines, precise gardening and exemplary order.

The botanical garden area is 280,000 square meters, with about 4,500 plants arranged by species, covering an area of ​​10,000 square meters. 30,000 square meters of gardens are dedicated to formal French gardens.

Entrance to the gardens is free, but if you want to visit the museum you will have to pay.

#What About the Garden and Museum of Natural History?

The botanical garden is divided into plant beds with thousands of species; tropical species, roses, irises and a large botanical garden. You will also find plants growing on high plains, tropical plants and medicinal plants. A particularly enjoyable experience is to rotate through a convoluted maze, and in the center a building. If you climb this building, you will be impressed by the view of the garden surrounding the maze.

At the edge of the park you will find the Natural History Museum where you can see realistic models of animal species. On the eastern side of the park is a small zoo, the oldest in the world, where you will find rare animals.

More in the garden - a greenhouse for plants from Mexico and another greenhouse for plants from Australia and a rose garden. There is also a botany school, which operates programs for the conservation and exchange of seeds with other botanical gardens in the world.

In the gardens are four wings belonging to the Natural History Museum, including the Great Gallery of Evolution, the Museum of Minerals, the Paleontology Museum and the Museum of Entomology.

A Closer Look at the Botanical Gardens:

Picasso National Museum
#About the Museum

The Picasso National Museum (Musée National Picasso) is relatively new in the Parisian landscape and has become one of the flagship museums of Paris. The museum is dedicated to the works of an artist known as Pablo Picasso, probably the most famous artist of the 20th century, and it includes more than 3,000 works of art: paintings, drawings, illustrations, sculptures and pictures of the artist's own life. The works were created between the years 1894-1973.

The museum is built in such a way that while you wander through it, you go through the original and chronological creations of Picasso himself and are exposed to informational items and relevant events from his time, year after year. Thanks to this form of presentation, you can understand Picasso's complex artistic development process and the points of reference in his artistic history and historical events during the creative process - the blue, pink, Cubist and surreal period. For example, you can see, along with pictures of Picasso from the 50's, cartoons depicting the attitude of the people of the period to his works. The museum also tries to show the influence of Picasso's granddaughter on his works, which have become much less abstract ever since she was born.

The museum is located in the Marais area in the third district of Paris.

In the museum you will also find works by other famous artists of his time - Matisse, Cezanne, Degas and others, and you can take note of the mutual influences of the artists on each other's works. On the second floor of the museum there is an area with temporary displays and on the third floor are the museum offices and the library.

#The Museum's Building

The building where the museum is located was originally built for Pierre Aubert, the lord of Fontenay. Aubert's great wealth came in the wake of his role as a "salt taxer," which is where the building got the name "The Salt Building".

The buildings architect was Jean Boullier and is considered one of the most beautiful historical buildings in the Marais district.

Over the years, the ownership of the building has changed and its uses have been replaced. In 1671 the building was under the patronage of the Embassy of the Republic of Venice. During the French Revolution the building was confiscated and became property of the authorities and in 1815 it became an urban school of art. The building was purchased by the city of Paris in 1964 and received the status of a building for preservation.

After a competition in which they tried to decide what the purpose would be, it was chosen to serve as a museum showing the works of the artist Pablo Picasso.

#The Items in the Museum

In 1968, a law was passed which allows heirs to pay the inheritance tax through art objects considered part of France's cultural heritage. Picasso, who used to say "I am the greatest collector of Picasso in the world" - has accumulated thousands of his own works, several works by other artists and a large number of primitive sculptures from around the world. Thus, after the death of Picasso in 1973, his heirs were persuaded to donate his works, in order to avoid a huge estate tax they could not pay. This collection, which included about 5,000 items, became a museum. Over time, another 1,000 items were added to the museum.

The museum has four works that deserve special attention:

"Self Portrait" - a painting painted during a hard and lonely winter in 1901 in one of the most difficult periods in Picasso's life.

"Two Brothers" - a painting drawn in 1906 in Spain.

"Two Women Running on the Beach" - a painting that served as a Decorative curtain for the ballet "The Blue Train".

And "The Kiss" - a painting drawn in 1969. This picture was drawn a few years after he married his wife Jacqueline and began to paint also familiar subjects such as love life.

Free entry of the first Sunday of the month.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.

A Closer Look at the Museum:

Arc de Triomphe
#About the Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe of Paris is a huge stone building that stands in the center of Charles de Gaulle Square, at the end of the famous Champs Elysees. The gate can be seen from great distances - it's about 50 meters high, 45 meters wide and 22 meters long. The structure is so large that in 1919, during the World War I victory parade, an airplane flew through the arch successfully!

General Napoleon ordered the erection of the Arc de Triomphe in 1806 to glorify the names of those who fought for France during the French Revolution and during the wars of his time. However, the construction of the Arc de Triomphe ended only thirty years later, in 1836, years after Napoleon's death.

Many pictures and many figures of Parisian history were associated with this gate. The gate became a permanent point from which the victorious military parades emerge after successes, and the annual military parade on Bastille Day. Even after the victory of the French in World War I, a parade was held in the Champs-Elysées to celebrate the victory over the Germans.

#Architecture of the Arc de Triomphe

The structure of the gate was influenced by the Arch of Titus, built by the Romans, but the decorations characterize the neo-classical style of the 19th century. The gate is full of sculptures and decorations depicting historical moments related to victories. At the base of each foot at the gate is a group of central sculptures, each of which was built by another famous French sculptor. On the walls of the building are the names of the generals who were killed during those wars, alongside the names of 128 battles. Below the Arc de Triomphe is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, a site that was added to the compound in 1921 and at 6:30 pm every night, the eternal flame is lit in their memory.

At the base of the Arc de Triomphe is a small museum, which reviews the history of the gate's construction, as well as the heroism of Napoleon.

From the balcony of the building, located at a height of fifty meters, you can see the 12 avenues that split off from it. This is an excellent vantage point for Paris. Although the climb involves climbing about two hundred steps, the view from the edge is a worthy reward.

#Historical Route

The Arc de Triomphe is part of the "historical route." What is the historic route, you ask?

The historic route is a route of sculptures, buildings and roads that pass through central Paris towards the west. The route is also called "the road of victory" and "the royal road". The starting point of the route is the statue "Louis XIV on Horseback" located at Napoleon Square in the Louvre. The route begins in the first district and ends in the eighth district of the city.

The construction of the route began alongside construction for the Avenue des Champs-Elysées in the 17th century, designed by the gardener of Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre. The construction approach was similar to the planning of French gardens built in the palace of Versailles. After changes over the years, it was only in the 20th century that the route became as familiar as it is today. From there the historic route of Paris continues to the small Arc de Triomphe, the Place de la Concorde, the Avenue des Champs-Elysées, the Grand Arc de Triomphe and the Paris 2000 area, La Défense.

#Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

"Tomb of the Unknown Soldier" is a nickname for many monuments around the world that were built to commemorate soldiers who fell in wars without being able to identify their bodies. These graves are the focus of state memorial ceremonies.

Even under the Arc de Triomphe there is such a grave. The bones of soldier buried during World War I were transferred to the site on the day of the armistice (the day the cease-fire came into effect in World War I) in 1920. In memory of these anonymous soldiers, the eternal flame is lit for an indefinite period. The eternal flame was lit for the first time in an official ceremony in 1920, and each year a ceremony is held on November 11, the day the war ended.

The coffin was placed in the chapel at the top of the arch on November 10, 1920, and was buried six months later. On the grave is written in French: "Here is the burial of French soldiers who fell for their homeland 1914-1918." The truth is that the French government intended to bury the anonymous soldiers in the Pantheon, but following public protests it was decided to bury them under the Arc de Triomphe. In 1961, US President John F. Kennedy and his wife placed a wreath on the grave, together with the French President Charles de Gaulle. Following Kennedy's murder in 1963, his wife Jacquelyn Kennedy asked that her husband be buried with an eternal flame, similar to the one she had seen in the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Paris, and so her wish was granted.


Above the arch of the Arc de Triomphe is a friese, above which are 30 knights' symbols and names of their victories in the French wars.

A friese is an architectural element originating in ancient Greek architecture. The friese is the thickest layer of the entablature, the upper part of the structure above the columns. It is located above the architrave and below the carnation and the gable. The friese is one of the horizontal layers that appear on the typical facade of classical and neo-classical structures. In some cases these frieses will be decorated with stone decorations intended to convey a message, a historical or religious story.

The dimensions of the friese in classical construction vary but are proportional to the other components.

Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from November to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.

A Closer Look at the Arc de Triomphe:

Tuileries Gardens
#Some History

The Tuileries Gardens (Jardin des Tuileries), or the beautiful Tuileries, are a large public park, located between the Place de la Concorde to its west and the Louvre on its east. The gardens were planted by Caterina de Medici (the wife of Henri II of France) starting in 1564. Their main purpose was to decorate the Tuileries Palace, whose construction began simultaneously that year. The whole area is named after them - the Tuileries area. In the garden you will also find a big fountain, a zoo and a cave. The Musée de l'Orangerie was added in the early 17th century.

In 1664 Jean-Baptiste Colbert ordered the redesign of the gardens by André Le Nôtre, a French landscape architect and gardener of Louis XIV. Le Nôtre gave the garden its wonderfully symmetrical shape, with its clear lines, which can be seen to this day.

Le Nôtre built a central avenue on the Palace's axis, on the east a pool of rounded water, on the west an octagonal pool. He built two terraces-one by the water's edge, along the quay, and the other along Rivoli Street; In addition, he built two terraces along the current border of the Place de la Concorde.

In 1871, the Tuileries Palace was set on fire by the Paris collective. After the arson, some of the building remained in its place, and it was only more than 10 years later that it was decided to completely destroy the remains, and the palace was never restored.

The garden has sculptures of various statues spread around the park, including Rodin, Alberto Giacometti, Maillol and others. From the 19th century, the gardens became the Parisians' leisure and recreation spot, and were mentioned in many works of art.

#About the Gardens

The Tuileries were once the gardens of the royal palace of the Tuileries. In the past, the kings and queens of France used to calmly stroll through these gardens. They became a public park in 1667, after the French Revolution. From the 19th century, the gardens became the Parisians' leisure and recreation place, and were mentioned in many works of art.

If you wondered about the origin of the name, it is named for the tile factory that was located on this spot (tiles in French at called 'tuiles').

The gardens have many cute corners where you can read and relax, as well as attractions and amusement facilities for children. Sculptures of various statues are scattered throughout the garden, including Rodin, Alberto Giacometti, Maillol and others. In recent years, modern sculptures have also been placed in the gardens to give an atmosphere of renewal. In 1988, a statue of Alfred Dreyfus was also added. You can walk around the two big fountains, sit on one of the chairs scattered around them and watch the miniature boats floating on them. On both sides of the central avenue, you can sit down and breathe the air on the benches in the shade of the trees and watch the Parisians playing on the grass surfaces with ball games. Children can play in the playgrounds, go horseback riding, watch a puppet theater, or sail small sailboats in the water pools. The gardens have cafes and ice cream parlors with drinks.

#The Gardens Throughout History

The garden's story begins in 1564, when Caterina de Medici decided to build herself a palace, and a garden to accompany it and be in her favorite Italian style. But the person who is responsible for the great change that the garden has undergone is actually a family member of de Medici, Marie, the mother of Louis XIII. She decided to plant a line of elm trees that formed a promenade, between the southern border of the Tuileries and the Seine. The ultimate goal was to allow the aristocracy of the city (at first it even blocked entry to the commoners) to travel in the new carriages and showoff their wealth to everyone.

This was a great success, and thousands came to watch the noble's carriages. Within a short time, peddlers began walking around offering fruit and sweets between the carriages. Afterwards, the Parisians arrived in the neighborhood and began to provide the aristocratic dynasties matchmaking services, and pass lover notes between prospective grooms and brides.

The success of the garden led Louis XIV to transform the Tuileries gardens into a larger and impressive garden, appropriate for a royal garden. The architect André Le Nôtre redesigned the gardens and gave them their current appearance - the style of the traditional French gardens, landscaped gardens, cuttings of geometrical shapes and organized flower clusters. All arranged in symmetrical and precise areas.

Some interesting events took place in these gardens. In 1783 the Montgolfier brothers chose the gardens for their first hot-air balloon flight. A few years later, in 1792, during the reign of Louis XVI, a revolutionary mob burst into the Tuileries Palace and slaughtered the bodyguards. Two years later Maximilien Robespierre celebrated the "Feast of Reason" in a lavish ceremony held by the pool.

#The History of the Gardens

The subject of taking a stroll, especially when it comes to such pleasant and calm gardens, is almost self-evident for us. Although the main avenue of the Tuileries was wide and adapted for carriage travel, the nobles decided to do something they had not done before - to walk. In Paris in the 17th century it was a tremendous innovation, because there were no sidewalks in the city that made it possible to walk comfortably without getting your feet muddy, or risking being trampled by passing carriages. When the residents of Paris began walking, the Tuileries became the first public park in Europe. It is therefore inevitable that in 1678 the first public benches, made of wood, would be created on which young lovers and leisurely travelers could sit.

The gardens had different uses during that period. Couples who were lovers could come around in the afternoon and meet in one of the side alleys of the garden. A trip on the main boulevard is still a meeting point for all the Parisian residents, where they can chat and drink cool lemonade together.

During the 19th century, the garden underwent changes as a result of the paving of Rivoli Street by Napoleon I. Napoleon III, who was his nephew, added the building of the Orangerie which became a very successful museum in the 20th century. Shortly afterwards, a fire destroyed the Tuileries Palace started by a mob in Paris.

Since the end of World War II the Tuileries Gardens have become more beautiful and inviting than ever, especially because of the impressive statues and green chairs that invite visitors to sit and enjoy all of this beauty.

#Tuileries Fashion

From the moment the Parisians started walking around in public gardens on foot, they discovered that their clothes were a source of attention. In a moment, the Tuileries became a model for the aristocracy to display the most interesting clothes and fashion trends. The rumor spread, and thousands of foreigners would come to the gardens to catch up with the passing fashion to try to imitate it in their country. As a result, at that time the first fashion magazines were created.

Despite the prosperity of the fashion industry those days, there were some less pleasant cases. The women of Paris, who saw the attire of the royals throughout the garden, wanted their tailors to sew them exactly the same clothes. In so doing, they tried to blur the lines between them and the nobles. During this period, professionals began to teach the French how to behave politely in society (basic rules, like how during a French meal it is accustomed to spit only to the right side). This helped women succeeded quite quickly in their goal, and it soon became almost impossible to distinguish between the classes.

Surprisingly, there were equally the same stories about noblewomen who wanted to pose as simple peasants. For example, the story of 1698, in which a Marquise (a title for a European aristocrat) decided to dress up as someone who had just arrived in Paris, began to speak to a Baron she had met at the Tuileries Gardens. After a conversation of more than an hour, she stunned him by saying "goodbye" and went to her luxurious carriage that took her to her Parisian palace.

A 360-Degree View of the Gardens:


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.