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Milan
Milano
#About the fashion and design capital of Italy and Europe as a whole

Milan is the capital of the Italian Lombardy region and one of Italy's most impressive cities. This is a classic city, which is also a center of culture, design and fashion. In fact, this is Italy's fashion capital and a city with a fascinating history and noble beauty. On the other hand, this is the most universal city in Italy, the second largest in Italy, and a central city of Northern Italy. It is also the industrial and economic center of Italy, that forms the economic basis for the entire nation.

Like Rome, Milan has a wealth of historical and cultural abundance, and culinary diversity that will leave your mouth gaping, literally ... Many feel here in a great toy store of tourists. For a moment visitors are viewing Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper," then they are in front of the Duomo, one of the most beautiful and impressive cathedrals in the world. One moment a stroll around the city's splendid cannels, eat wonderful risotto at an excellent restaurant in the city, or cruise the "Milan Sea" in its magnificent park.

Here tourists come to the world fashion capital, and spend endless hours of shopping at the sparkling avenues and fashion and design complexes of the city. Vacations here offer almost everything. Along with museums full of art, and rare artifacts, there are exciting entertainments, wonderful restaurants and bustling bars, pleasant parks and city views, where no one can remain indifferent.

Milan offers tourists the best of Italian charm. With the most beautiful churches and cathedrals in the world, inspiring architecture and wonderful museums, topped with great food, culture and attractions for the whole family - seems that Milan really has everything to offer. Come and be a part of it!


#History
Today's old city center is the Roman city of "Mediolanum," from which modern Milan was erected. The birth of the city of Milan is in the 7th century BC. Back then the Celts established the city. Later it was taken over by the Romans, followed by French, Austrians and the Spanish kingdom.

Milan began to develop into a cultural center during the Renaissance period, when European culture was born as a whole. The rulers of the city began to encourage culture, art and sculpture in the city. Gradually Milan began to attract artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, who was born and worked in Vinci, Tuscany, but moved to Milan for several years.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Napoleon and the French army conquered the city. Half a century later, in the era of the "Spring of Nations", the national spirit was storming Europe, Milan became one of the centers of nationalism in Italy. The struggle of Italian independence was concentrated in Milan. Like many occupied countries, which were struggling at the time and demanded independence, in 1859 Italy won Milan back.

During World War II, when Italy was led by dictator Mussolini, became an ally of Hitler and Nazi Germany, Milan suffered heavy bombardments, mainly because it was one of the most important cities for the Italian industry. Many of the city's most important and historic buildings were destroyed by bombardments, about one-third of all the city's buildings. After the defeat in the war, Milan needed a complex and long rehabilitation time that gradually restored its traditional status as a leading industrial and financial center in Italy.


#When to Visit?
With a warm, humid summer, and very cold winter, the spring months are the most recommended for visiting Milan. Try to visit the city between April and June, or in the fall - between September and October.


#Saving
During the regular sale season (saldi) of Italy and Europe, around July and January, one can find excellent products that are on sale up to 70% off. The peak discounts times are the end-of-season sales, in the second week of July and in the first week of January.

In the Penny Market chain, spread throughout Italy, prices are cheap. Even the supermarket chain commonly used, Coop, prices are not too expensive.

Discounted entrance tickets to Milan's popular attractions and public transport, the "Milan Pass" will save a lot of money for travelers in Milan with children, those who are expected to spend a lot of money visiting various attractions. The card also saves time of standing in line and entrances for these attractions.

The card also offers free tours, transfers to major out-of-town outlets, and discounts at the outlet stores.


#Transportation
You can reach the city from the airport by the "Malpensa-Express" train, a 40-50 minute drive. The train operates 20 hours a day, 7 days a week, with a short break between 1:30 AM and 5:30 AM. The cost of the ticket is 12 euros per person.

Half-price travel is by bus. Terravision's economical shuttle will bring you to the city from the airport for less than 10 euros per adult, and half price for children. Children up to the age of 5 travel free of charge.

Rent bicycles in the city and enjoy the most popular and efficient mean of transportation here. The app called BikeMe allows you to rent according to actual usage times. The app counts the actual hours of use, and does not charge for parking breaks at the many docking stations in the city, which helps reduce the price!


#Food
Milan's cuisine, though it is a bit heavy, is incredibly delicious and includes lots of butter, cheese and cream. The rice in Milan is often seen as more popular than pasta, with the creamy yellow Milanese risotto is the most sought after dish here. Try some more local delicacies like the polenta, which is prepared in all different forms. Other excellent dishes worth sampling are Ossobucco, a veal stew with gremolata sauce, served with a bone full of bone marrow. Also try the local version of the veal schnitzel called "Cotoletta Milanese," the "Pizzocchieri," buckwheat pasta and mascarpone, a ceramic cheese that is usually eaten as a dessert.

Please note that lunch in Milan is served from 12:30 PM until 2:30 PM. Remember that most restaurants are closed until dinner time!
For some of the best restaurants in the city - Click on the tag "Must eat in Milan".

Best Cafés in Milan

https://youtu.be/mZBSW7aIGD0


#Entertainment
With its many clubs, bars and pubs, active until the small hours of the night, Milan's nightlife is young and vibrant. The two main entertainment venues in the city are the Barera and Nabili districts:

The district of Brera, north of the city center - Milan's entertainment center. This district has a big nightlife scene for young people and tourists. It is next to the Sforzesco Castle and the big cathedral, the Duomo is close enough to be the center of it all!

Navigli district, also known as the canal district. At its center are two water channels that create a miniature version of Venice in Milan. The district at night becomes a center of entertainment that pulls in many tourists who spend their time at clubs, bars and pubs.


#Tip
In Italian restaurants and cafés, there is no need to add tip to a check, since is already included in the price (servizio include).


#Italy Country Code
+39


#Shopping
Shopping in Milan usually revolves around the Via Vantage, the Vittorio Emanuele Gallery and Corso Buenos Aires. There are excellent city centers, outlets outside the city, and select shopping boulevards in the center of Milan - Click on the tag "Shopping in Milan".


#Electric Outlets
Possible plugs to use are Type F and Type L (see link below with photos).


A taste of the upcoming trip? - Here's a video that will show you the city in all its beauty:

https://youtu.be/myzzfwB-9Cc


A Bit From the Local street food:

https://youtu.be/BX8nveG8WjI
Rome
Rome
Even if nowadays not all roads lead to Rome, it is still the poster for a good life. Here there is a perfect combination between the ancient world, its ruins, its impressive antiquities, incredible archeology, and a modern, vibrant, fashionable and tasteful city. There are narrow alleyways and broad avenues in this city, beautiful squares, magnificent churches and fantastic houses, alongside amazing ancient sites, museums full of artifacts and many wonderful monuments.

In Rome there are fascinating combinations between ancient and more recent history, and a rhythm of contemporary life. From here the Roman emperors ruled the entire ancient world. Here Christianity was persecuted until the emperor turned it into the religion of the empire and persecuted all who did not accept it. Here the Pope acted and controlled the entire Catholic world. Here the dictator Mussolini spoke and tried to establish a new empire and ended up hanging in the streets like a fool.

However, Rome is also Italy of the Renaissance and the Baroque, of the sublime art of Raphael and Michelangelo. Rome experienced in real time the inventions and discoveries of Leonardo de Vinci, one of the geniuses of mankind. In Rome, high-quality cinema was born, created by an Italian neo-realism. About cinema, "La Dolce Vita," the sweet life, is in Rome. In the city where the heart grew, also grew the pizza, the Italian ice cream, the pasta, the sounds of the Italian opera, the Italian design and fashion, the beautiful and incredibly fast cars of Italy, the handsome young men and of course the Italian women, from the abundant "mamas" that adorn you from delicacies to the beautiful women, who are dressed in the best of fashion and walk around soaring high above.

Rome is a cheeky and provocative candy. Visit to enjoy it!



#Accommodation

Staying near the Trevi Fountain and Via del Corso areas are recommended for young people, as they are city center, easy to get around and really fun, everything can be reached by foot. Staying in the Trastevere area across the river is nice and cheap and fits people who are more well off, remember you will need public transportation to reach almost all the tourist destinations.

Young partygoers choose to stay near the Spanish Steps and Navona Square.

Those looking for a relaxing stay that is easy to get to with public transportation can choose to stay near the Termini area, it is not central or touristy but considered quiet.



#Must See

Want to see the most popular destinations? - Click on the tag "Must see in Rome".



#With Children

A trip for the whole family? - Click on the tag "Attractions for children in Rome".


#Food

The Roman gastronomy is divided into two parallel streams: the first takes inspiration from Cucina Romana, the classical Roman kitchen. The second presents a modern and up to date Italian kitchen. Either way, there is no doubt that in Rome the pasta and pizza will be key players on your tables, especially if you are with children, but not necessarily. There are many pizzerias, and in the Forno chain you can enjoy good pizzas and mainstream enough for the whole family to be able to enjoy. Couples can share the heart-shaped pizzas.

Pastas - we recommend Cacio e Pepe, with a sauce of parmesan and Pecorino, butter and black peppers. Another recommendation is Bucatini allwamatriciana.

Additionally, look for typical street food in Rome, like Trapizzino, a sort of pizza that is cone shaped with dreamy fillings. Supli which are risotto balls with Mozzarella and more, covered in bread crumbs and deep fried. There are also fried zucchini with mozzarella and anchovies.

It is worth remembering the excellent Italian ice cream, which many consider the best in the world. Be sure to distinguish the quality ice cream and natural ones by their more natural colors, and not the ones full with food coloring.

As for coffee, of course, in Rome there is Italian coffee - definitely from the top line in the world. Tiramisu next to a cup of coffee is a great combination.


So enjoy your meals and check out the tag "Must eat in Rome".

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NS-QfEfRnGo


#Shopping

The best time to shop in Rome is during the SALDI seasons (sales). Then begin in Italy around January until February. Of course, the easiest to get to are the summer sales that go on for most of August.

Do your shopping in the expensive Via Veneto, or the elegant and expensive Via di Condotti that connects the Spanish Steps to the Via del Corso. Here are much more reasonable prices for Italian designers and famous brands like Benetton, Sisley, Zara, and Pull and Bear.

Continue from here, through the Piaza del Popolo, to Via Cola di Rancho, near the Vatican. Here you can continue your shopping, with excellent brands and designers. Other streets around Piaza del Popolo are Via del Babuino and Via di Ripetta.

Italian fashion at reasonable prices you can find at Viale Marconi, in a simple neighborhood, a little far away from the city center.

With the best designer stock, leading brands and big discounts, Teichner Outlet is one of the best-known stores in Rome. Every day from 10:30 am to 8:00 pm, 4 floors will wait for you with unbelievable prices, brands like GUESS, Armani, Patricia Pepe. The address is Via Appia Nuova 2.


#Saving
In the Penny Market chain spread throughout Italy prices are cheap. Even the supermarket chain commonly used, Coop, prices are not expensive.

If you came for some serious shopping, try getting to the big outlets outside the city, where you will find much cheaper prices.

Be careful of pickpockets in the city market.


#Tip
In Italian restaurants and cafés, there is no need to add tip to a check, since is already included in the price (servizio include).


#Entertainment
You will want to spend the evenings in Rome's entertainment district, the Trastevere district across the Tiber river.


#Interests
Interested in certain things? - Click on the tag "Interests".


#Italy Country Code
+39


#Shopping
See link below for recommendations.


#Entertainment and Clubs
To drink? - In the San Lorenzo district next to the university, you can enjoy along with some students, bars and clubs that are young and inexpensive. Marmo is one of the popular bars here and you can meet many local young people and students.
Piazzale del Verano 71.

Dancing? - The former workers' suburb, the Via del Pignetto, has recently become Rome's unofficial hipster stronghold. Apart from many restaurants, there are popular bars and concert halls. At the Fanfulla Club you will find good DJ's, great performances, in a variety of styles - dance, rock, funk, and electronic music.
Via Fanfulla da Lodi, 5.


#Electric Outlets
Possible plugs to use are Type F and Type L (see link below with photos).


A Taste of the Upcoming Trip? - Here's a video That Will Show you the City in All its Beauty:

https://youtu.be/y_4p6_KsqoE


A Bit From the Local Kitchen:

https://youtu.be/c7TbpsRGCCI
Caracalla Spa
Caracalla Spa
#About the Caracalla Baths

Once, in the place where you stand now there were luxurious baths used by Rome’s elite class. This huge public baths was almost 40 meters high and one hundred meters wide. The entire structure was magnificent, as parts of it were covered with marble, sculptures and decorations made of silver and gold.

An underground heating system of the water served as the heating for the building, which operated by burning coal. Though it’s hard to believe, this successful system operated from the time of the Romans until the middle of the 19th century.

In the various compounds of the baths were hot and cold baths, shops, brothels and a library. It became a popular location for wealthy citizens of the city, due to its huge size which enabled thousands of people to enjoy the luxurious experience. The green areas added to the pastoral atmosphere of the place.

Over the years, the baths underwent the usual wear and tear, similarly to most buildings in Rome. Earthquakes, such as the most recent one in 2009, also hit a place that has become a historic ruin.

Today the entire area serves as an amphitheater. Sometimes, when the weather is nice, concerts are held there.



#The Rivalry between the Caracalla Brothers which led to Blood Baths

The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, known as Caracalla, was one of the most corrupt and controversial emperors.

When the preceding emperor, Septimius Severus, died in 211 AD, the brothers Caracalla and Publicus Septimius Geta ascended to power together. They took various actions to strengthen the Roman Empire, but beneath the surface there was a hidden competition between the brothers. It was a competition for control.

One day, Caracalla invited his brother Geta in the guise of reconciliation. In the middle of the conversation he sent his men to murder him in cold blood. Thus Caracalla became the single ruling emperor. Caracalla then took measures to ensure his status and popularity. One of the measures was establishing the baths in Rome.



#What did the Compound look like in Ancient Times?

During ancient times, the bath complex was 225 meters long and 185 meters wide. Experts estimate that the height of the building was about 38.5 meters.

The bath complex had a special channel that transported water. The baths themselves had a frigidarium (cold room), a tepidarium (a lukewarm room) and a calderium (hot room). In addition, the bathers were offered two options- a gyms or a boxing room.

However the baths didn’t only serve for bathing purposes. They filled the function of a resort and cultural center that included a public library of two rooms, as was customary at the time. One of them had Greek texts and the other Latin.



Here are the Pools Today:

https://youtu.be/SFr0UWUM_iQ



What the Pools Might Have Looked Like this in the Past:

https://youtu.be/pjLiQdI0U9I
Thermae Diocletiani
Baths of Diocletian
#Baths of Diocletian

The luxurious Baths of Diocletian (Thermae Diocletiani) were built for the Caesars of the Roman Empire, at the request of the Roman Emperor Maximilian in the fall of 298. They were inaugurated in 306 by Emperor Diocletian and are the most luxurious and beautiful of all the baths.

In order to take advantage of solar energy and warm the caldarium, the baths face south-west. The caldarium was a warm room with a "floating" floor; the floor was elevated on pillars, with the space under the floor used as a heating well. It was in this way that the room can be warmed up. The caldarium in all the baths worked alongside the Frigidarium, the cold room, where the pool of cold water is located.

The Roman bathhouses were based on water brought to them via aqueducts. Roman aqueducts are artificial channels whose function was to transfer water from one place to another. In 537, the Goths destroyed the aqueducts that flowed to the baths causing them to cease functioning.

An interesting fact is that the ame of the railway station in Rome, Roma Termini station got its name from the baths.



#What Can be Seen in the Baths Today?

There was once a tepid water room, the tepidarium, which today is the Basilica of Santa Maria.

One of the two towers of the baths is the church of San Bernardo alle Terme. One of the buildings of the National Museum of Rome is located in what was once the foyer of the bathhouse.



#Overview on Roman Baths

There are several luxury spas to enjoy in the heart of Rome. They were built for the Caesars of the Roman Empire. These baths are among the finest Roman works of the empire and they helped the emperors introduce hygiene into the Roman agenda. The baths were aesthetic and ornate places which provided an enjoyable and refreshing experience.

The baths were very popular in the rich and progressive empire of those days. Rome's elite class used to build baths in their homes and villas. Private initiators built public baths in the city's neighborhoods. These were established for business purposes and had entrance fees. In 33 BC there were no less than 170 baths in Rome, a number that has grown over the years.

Initially, these baths were a luxury that was only available to the rich, but there were attempts to make these sites accessible to those who did not have the financial means to gain access to the baths. This was the historical role of Marcus Agrippa, the Roman general who became the vicar of Augustus Caesar and became a governmental superintendent of Rome and an innovator. Among other things, he took care to supervise the public baths, inspect their heating facilities and ensure their order and cleanliness.

When Agrippa was rich and wise later on, he made an amazing gesture. He took upon himself the cost of the entrance fee to all the baths for the period of his supervision. He did it to let everyone in - both the rich and the poor. Later he also built the free baths that bore his name - the Agrippa Baths. This noble attitude towards the masses was unusual in the imperial days and made him a popular figure in the empire. A good shower was considered of great importance in those days!

Italy

Gianicolo
Gianicolo
#About the Hill

In the western part of Rome lies Gianicolo Hill, formerly known as the Vatican Mountain. It is located along the banks of the Tiber River and on the right side, opposite the Aventine Hill. This hill is the second tallest in Rome and its highest point is on its northern end, which is 146 meters above sea level. From it, of course, you will see breathtaking panoramic views of the entire city. The length of the hill is 5 kilometers.

A pleasant stroll on the hill will include the lawns, many trees and plants, boulevards with famous head figures and spectacular vantage points.

One of the interesting points on the top of the hill is the church of San Pietro in Montorio, which is believed to have been built here, where St. Peter was crucified. The Fontana dell'Acqua Paola can be seen as well, which is a Baroque fountain built on the orders of Pope Paul V.

One of the unique things you'll find in this park is puppeteers. Children can also find attractions such as riding ponies, bumper cars, a carousel and a puppet theater.

The recommendation is to visit this hill after a trip to the Vatican and complete the trip in the Trastevere district.



#History of Gianicolo Hill

During the Roman Empire the hill served as a sacred site for Janus, the God of beginnings and passages in Roman mythology. At that time, there were ritual rites, including the bird watching ceremony, which was meant to predict the future.

During the reign of Caesar Uralianus, the Aurelian Walls surrounded the seven hills of Rome as well as parts of the Gianicolo Hill. The entrance of the hill into the walls was intended to include the water mills that were on it and served as flour mills for the city.

In 1849 a battle was held on the hill between the forces of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the general, the patriot and the great Italian leader, and the French forces defending the Pope and his rule in Rome. Following the victory of Garibaldi, from Italy, Rome became the capital of the kingdom. On top of the hill you will still see a monument to the fallen in the struggle for Italian independence.

Ever since the year 1847, every day at 12:00 pm, shots can be heard here from the castle of Sant'Angelo - to announce the time. In 1904 the custom was transferred to a cannon placed at the top of the hill. It lasted until 1939, when it was stopped at the outbreak of World War II. Following a public demand, the ancient ceremony was renewed and it takes place everyday at noon on the plaza in front of the main building.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/Sg5z3xQIpIE?t=2m53s
Teatro di Marcello
Macello Theater
#About the Theater

The purpose of establishing the Macello Theater (Teatro di Marcello) was to compete with the theater of Pompey, the theater established in the Field of Mars in ancient Rome, and was also one of the largest. Its construction began in 44 BC, by Julius Caesar. Incidentally, Julius Caesar was also murdered the same year.
Construction ended sometime between 13 and 11 BC. The theater was built of stone, concrete and brick and its exterior walls are made of white travertine stone.

One of the most beautiful elements of the theater was that it faced the river, turning the river into an integral part of the setting. Later in history, the theater became a fortress and then a residence. Today the site is a concert site and can accommodate 15,000 viewers.

During the summer months you can enjoy concerts held here every evening, in the magical and romantic atmosphere of this theater.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UDcpk5hQ9Fs
Catacombe di San Sebastiano
Catacombs of Saint Sebastian
#About the Catacombs

As Christianity spread in Rome, the Christians were persecuted by the Roman authorities. Therefore, they buried their dead in underground chambers. This was a method of protecting the graves from Roman desecration. The remains of these tombs are the catacombs, underground burial complexes dug by man and usually hewn into the walls.

The Catacombs of Saint Sebastian (Catacombe di San Sebastiano), located just below the Basilica of San Sebastian, is only a small part of Rome's many burial complexes. You will see examples of a variety of burial methods which characterized the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. You can enter the catacomb on a guided tour that runs every half hour.

The catacombs along Via Appia in Rome are considered to be the most famous, as well as the most interesting sites along its route.



#What are Catacombes?

Catacombs are man-made burial chambers dug underground. The plots are organized in corridors whose walls are hewn with graves.

The best known catacombs in Rome are those of the first Christians in the Roman Empire's capital. In the years between 64 AD and 313 AD, Christians were persecuted by the Roman authorities, who did everything in their power to hinder the Christians’ efforts to attract the citizens to the new religion. It is for this reason that the Christians were buried underground. In this way they protected their graves, out of reach of the Roman pagans.

There are decorations on the tombs from the early days of Christianity, which inspired many painters and artists in ancient times. You may be surprised to know that the Catacombs of Rome have Jewish tombs, and are not solely Christian.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/SENK3kEOsNA
Isola Tiberina
Tiber Island
#About the Island

Tiber River is the third longest river in Italy. The island you see has an elongated shape, 270 meters long and 67 meters wide.

Tiber Island (Isola Tiberina) is also known as the "island between the two bridges," because both sides were connected to either bank of the river by bridges - the Four-Head Bridge and the Cestius Bridge.

Each year, during the summer months, the "Isola del Cinema " festival is held here. It features classic and modern Italian films alongside international films. They are screened at the festival on large screens, across the island, under the sky.



#History of Tiber Island

In 291 BC a temple for the god of medicine Asclepius was built on the island of Tiber. The entire area became sacred and the sick and crippled would arrive here to be healed.

The medical tradition of the place continues to this day. Among other things, you can find a Jewish hospital on the island. This hospital was established in 1881, because it was near the Jewish ghetto of Rome at the time. The food in it was kosher and had no Christian features.



#Legend of the Island Created During the Revolution

If you are interested in a more exciting story about the creation of the island, Roman legend has it that when the raging crowds brought to the downfall of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last king of Rome, they threw his body into the river. It is then told that the dirt that accumulated around the body which sank to the bottom of the river became an island.


Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
#About Rome's Ancient Hill

Palatine Hill is the most ancient hill of the seven hills of Rome. Its height reaches 70 meters and it is located between the Circus Maximus and the Roman Forum. If you were looking for a spectacular view of all of Rome – you have arrived at the correct place.

Legend has it that the roots of the city of Rome are located on this hill. Indeed, the earliest buildings of Rome were built right here - the first citadel of the city, the "Institute," the most symbolic building called Mundus, and the square around it.

The Emperors came here to build their own palaces, the ruins of which are scattered on this hill. In the year 1000, monasteries were established in this place. Today, couples arrive to be photographed on their wedding day.

Notice the interesting shape of the hill, which resembles an incomplete square. This was also the reason the hill was called "Square Rome."

Today there is a museum open to the public on the hill.



#The Legend of the Founding of Rome

The twin brothers Remus and Romulus were tiny babies when a she-wolf suckled them and took them under her wing. After a while, their foster father, Faustulus, found and raised them together with his wife. As they grew older, the two decided to establish Rome. They resolved the bitter competition between them over control of the region in a painful way: One day, Romulus killed Remus in cold blood. Rome got its name from the first syllable of Romulus' name.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbU07sv6fCo
Capitoline Hill
#About the Hill Overlooking Rome

In the past, Rome was situated atop only one hill, called Palatino Hill. However over the years the territory of the city sprawled out over six other hills in the area. One of the most well-known ones is in the heart of ancient Rome - Capitoline Hill, which is considered to be the highest of the hills of Rome, along with its neighbor Palatine Hill.

It is impossible to overlook the stunning view from this hill. It is located between the Forum and the Field of Mars, two important points in ancient Rome.

At the top of the hill are two interesting and important religious and political centers:

The first is the most important temple of ancient Rome, dedicated to the Capitolians. In this temple they worshiped the family of Gods composed of Jupiter (King of the Gods), Juno (queen of the gods and patron of Rome) and Minerva (their daughter, goddess of wisdom and spirit) - all three were called the Capricorn Trinity. The temple was large and very impressive.

The second is Asylum, a refuge area used in ancient times by criminals who fled the law. Among them, by the way, were also the murderers of Julius Caesar.

Today you can see the remains of the temple and its reconstruction on the hill.



#The View from the Hill

The buildings surrounding the hill were designed by one of the most famous Renaissance artists - Michelangelo. He built a lot of buildings on Capitoline Hill, which became very significant over the years. Among them were the palaces of Campidoglio, facing the Old City, the Capitol Square with its wide and spectacular stairways and the Vatican compound, the World Center of Catholic Christianity. Dating back to the Renaissance Era the hill had the Capitoline Museum, the National Museum holding classical works of art, archeology and science.

Another interesting place on the hill is the Capitoline Jupiter Temple, the most important and impressive temple of ancient Rome. A lot of stories have been told about this place, stories of murders, betrayals, wars, politics and inheritance.
Campidoglio Square
#About the Piazza

Campidoglio Square (Piazza del Campidoglio) is located on Capitoline Hill and is considered an architectural gem.

The square was planned by none other than the famous artist Michelangelo in the 16th century. He was the one who gave the piazza the look you see now - a trapezoid square surrounded by three magnificent palaces. On the fourth edge is a wide staircase designed by Michelangelo in order to allow the nobles of Rome to ascend these steps riding on their horses.

Notice the special flooring from which the square was built. Despite the brilliant design, Michelangelo did not live to enjoy his work, for he passed away some time before the construction was completed.

In the three palaces surrounding the square are the Capitolini museums, where marble statues and paintings from the Renaissance and Baroque era are exhibited.

In the center of the square you can see the bronze statue of the Roman Emperor and philosopher Marcus Aurelius. This is only a reconstruction of the original statue which is located inside the museum.

Although not particularly crowded, there is no doubt that this square is one of the most popular and touristy spots in Rome.
Planetarium and Astronomical Museum
#About the Planetarium

If you've been looking for some attractions for kids - you've come to the right place. The Planetarium and Astronomical Museum (Planetario e Museo Astronomico) allows children to have a fascinating experience stargazing, including interesting tours of a variety of exhibitions which display information about the stars and space. Here you can even listen to music concerts with the backdrop of stars.

Here you will also find the Museum of Italian Civilization (Museo della Civilta Romana), where you can see a huge model of Rome during the Empire Era.

It is important to emphasize that the explanations are given here only in Italian and English.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/4e8Kr59epxs
Santa Maria della Pace
#About the Church

One of the Baroque masterpieces is the Church of Santa Maria delle Pace ("The Virgin Mary of Peace"). This church is one of the most important churches in Rome. It also demonstrates the Baroque architecture of that time.

The Church of Santa Maria delle Pace is located near Piazza Navona, in the Ponte district ("the bridge district"), which is a popular quarter of the city. Though built in the 15th century, it has undergone several improvements over the years, and that is what you see today.

The façade was designed by Pietro da Cortona, the artist and architect who was one of the prominent figures of the Italian baroque period. The most famous wing of the church is the interior courtyard designed by Donato Bramante. Occasional exhibitions are held in the yard.

There are several works of art from the 15th and 17th centuries in the church. Among them are the works of the artist da Cortona and another famous artist, Raphael.

There is also a souvenir shop, a bookstore and a bistro, and there are concerts and exhibitions to be enjoyed.
Villa Medici
#About the Magnificent Villa Above Rome

Villa Medici is a magnificent building, located on Pincian Hill, in a perfect location above Piazza di Spagna.

The Villa Medici is the location of the French Cultural Center and the French Academy. It is usually closed to the public, except for days of exhibitions and concerts, when the villa is open to visitors.

The interior of the villa faces the charming gardens of the building, gardens designed in the Renaissance style. The building is covered on this side with magnificent Renaissance carvings, which have been well preserved to this day. You can find the tall Obelisk walking through the well-tended gardens as well as charming fountains and neatly trimmed bushes typical of the Italian gardens.

Go inside the garden and see a charming Orangery building, a pavilion where you spend your time alone or at least peacefully. It is lined with wonderful frescoes with vivid descriptions of animals and birds. In the garden there is also a magnificent sculpture typical of the Italian gardens, where a nymph with her 12 children are attacked by animals sent after them by a jealous Hera.

The beautiful carvings and beautiful gardens make Villa Medici the most surprising and beautiful gem in Rome.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/wB9ZaoViSRo
Roman Ghetto
#About the Jewish Ghetto in Rome

About thirty years after the establishment of the first Jewish ghetto in Venice in 1555, a ghetto was also established in Rome. Pope Paul IV sent a public letter at the time, in which he claimed that the Jews were the murderers of Jesus and that they should not be allowed to live as equal citizens in one city with the Catholics.

With the establishment of the Roman Ghetto (Ghetto di Roma), the Jews were ordered to leave their homes within a period of six months and concentrate within the closed, walled quarter that was then located in the southern part of the Field of Mars. This became the Jewish Ghetto. Its gates were locked every night and it was impossible to enter and exit. Before entering the ghetto, the Jews were forced to sell their property and businesses to the Christians, at a price of about one-fifth of their real value.

It is important to understand that this area was not arbitrarily chosen. According to the principles of the Catholics, the Jews were not to be exterminated, but it was possible to impose on them extreme conditions of poverty and sanitation, and humiliation. Such was the location of the ghetto, on the banks of the Tiber, a poor place to live, which did not allow for proper living conditions. It was muddy and riddled with fever and floods. Sometimes the river would overflow and flood the whole neighborhood.

For 242 years, Rome's Jews were forced to live in the ghetto until Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Rome and the ghetto was temporarily abolished. The Jews had the hope that this was the end of life in the ghetto, but when the Pope returned to rule the city, the order was renewed and the Jews were returned to the ghetto of Rome. It was finally abolished only in 1870.

The original area of ​​the ghetto was more than 23,000 square meters. At the end of the 17th century, there were approximately 10,000 inhabitants, living in very close quarters. In 1823, the ghetto was expanded on its northern side.

To this day you can meet the elders of the quarter, who sit down and tell the stories they cannot forget. You will also find kosher restaurants, the Jewish Museum of Rome, the large and magnificent synagogue on the banks of the river and remains of the original ghetto displayed in art galleries.
Trastevere
#Rome's Entertainment District

The Trastevere district beyond the Tiber River is the city's entertainment district. Although up to the 20th century this area was populated by poor workers, today Trastevere quarter is the most trendy and popular area in Rome. There are a lot of students here, studying at the American John Cabot University which runs here.

Trastevere, known for its picturesque alleys paved with stone, contains a labyrinth of alleyways with excellent restaurants, popular bars, cafes and tea shops, and a variety of cute stores

Santa Maria Square is the main square, and a fountain with four giant oysters and wolf heads stands in its center. Every evening the square fills with vacationers and becomes the entertainment center for the city's young people. Talented street artists and a variety of stands with jewelry and art objects complement the wonderful atmosphere in the square.

In general, Trastevere is a lively district, especially known as the center of the entertainment scene of the Italian capital. This place is happening at all hours and one can also go shopping almost every hour of the day until late at night.

Located south of Vatican City, it is the 13th quarter of the city.



#The History of the Quarter

Etruscans settled in Trastevere dating back to the 8th century BC. The people of Rome themselves did not want to build houses there. They used to call it "the quarter across the river." Only a wooden bridge connected it to the city back then.

The writings of Philo of Alexandria, who arrived in Rome in the middle of the 1st century CE, attests that in this period the city's Jews were concentrated in this area, on the right bank of the Tiber River in a place called Trastevere. The Latin name, by the way, means "across the river Tiber."

In the time between then and now, the Roman settled their captives here as slaves and servants to the capital of the empire, Rome.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/n7YqQCCR2Yc



At Night:

https://youtu.be/LwgL4ZhilHA
Aventine Hill
#About the Hill

Among the Seven Hills of Rome is the beautiful and romantic Aventine Hill. From the top of the hill you can see the magnificent view of Rome.

Rumor has it that it is named after King Avantinus, who was buried at the top of the hill. Another theory holds that the hill is named for Avantinus’ the son of Rhea and Hercules.

The short walk to the green hill is up glass-covered access stairs. The glass prevents the crows from harming the railing. At the end of the walk you will see the green park and enjoy the magnificent view of Rome. This spot is great for a photo of the city. Entry to the monasteries on the Avantine is free, where you can enjoy two hours of quiet and a stunning view.

The famous Orange Garden is located on this hill, together with the keyhole through which one can peek at the special perspective of a tree-lined avenue that converges to the Basilica of San Pietro of the Vatican.


#The Curse of Aventine Hill

An age old rumor has it that a curse lies on this hill because of the tragic story about the two brothers - Remus and Romulus. The twins were very young and very powerful, hunters who led a group of shepherds. They decided to establish a large new city- Rome. However, these two brothers could not settle on who would rule- and asked for a sign from the gods.

Remus, who saw six vultures, was pitted against Romulus who saw twelve vultures. One claimed that because his vision had come first, he was to rule. The other said that his vision, showing 12 vultures, is greater and therefore he is meant to dominate. The final outcome was determined when Remus was assassinated by his brother Romulus, who went on to become the new city's ruler, in the new city of Rome.

This tragic story was treated as a taboo of sorts- no Roman ruler made it part of Rome’s territory due to the curse. In the years between 640-616 BCE it became part of the city, in order to strengthen its defenses. During the 5th century BC, Rome was already spread beyond the Aventine Hill, towards the Field of Mars.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sz2ebwRJ6c0


Roman Forum
#The Roman Forum

This place is the heart of an amazing archaeological site - the Roman Forum (Foro Romano). The Forum is a central public area in Roman cities, designed in the shape of a square, or several connected squares. Almost every Roman city was built with its own forum, but the meaning of the "big forum" refers to this very place.

During the Roman Empire, the Forum was a central area in which most of the city's life took place. This was the center of the political, economic, social and religious life in the empire. There was a crowded market square with courts, temples, gates and pillars of victory, the House of Representatives, and more.

Many public issues on the Roman agenda were dealt with here. Victory parades marched through this square, eulogies and speeches by leaders and clerics, other social and political events that took place here.

The Forum is located between Capitoline Hill, the seat of the Roman emperors and nobility, and Palatino Hill, the home of the wealthy and Roman rulers.



#The History of the Forum

Dating back to the Stone Age, the Roman Forum, nourished by the waters of the Tiber, was inhabited by human beings. This was despite the fact that it was outside the parameters of the inhabited areas.

During the Iron Age, when man's technological ability to produce iron tools was made, there were cemeteries of the local inhabitants where the city now stands.

During the Roman Empire, when the area was drained of swamps and contamination was cleared, the area became the center of the city's commerce and creative minds. The city was open to people from all over the empire.

However just like a tide rises, so does it fall; With the establishment of the religious and governmental center in the Palatine Center, the status of this Forum began to decline. The need for temples, the strengthening of Christianity and a general abandonment of the Roman lifestyle led to severe neglect of this physical place. The area and the buildings collapsed and were covered the sand, left to the decay over time. During this time the Forum had an unflattering name: "The Field of Meat" – due to animal carcasses disposed of there.

Excavations and reconstructions began in the 19th century, whose outcomes you see today. The most significant momentum took place during the reign of fascist dictator Mussolini in the 20th century.



#Interesting Sites in the Area

There are some interesting sites scattered throughout the Forum that are not to be missed:

All the buildings that were found throughout the Forum were a symbol of the victory of the Roman Empire from the various battles: they praised the conquering ruler and the fighters who won the battle and were meant to serve as a token of gratitude to the gods, who helped and supported the empire during times of war.

The selection of ancient buildings here includes:

Arch of Titus - erected after the death of Emperor Titus to mark the victory of the Romans over the Jews and the downfall of Jerusalem.

The home of Emperor Augustus - the residence of the emperor, whose restoration and reconstruction lasted no less than 40 years.

Temple of Julius Caesar

Curia (the restored Senate House)

Vesta Temple and the Vicariate

The Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius

Septimus Severus' Bow

Tro Jan's Market

The Colosseum



#Tips

If you arrive at the Roman Forum in the after 6:00 pm, there will be far fewer tourists in the area.
Turtle Fountain
#About the Turtle Fountain

Rome is full of various fountains. In almost every square you reach, you will find another impressive fountain. The fact that they were designed and built by the greatest architects and sculptors, turns wandering in Rome into an adventure.

The Turtle Fountain (Fontana Delle Tartarughe) in Little Mattei Square, a square built by the wealthy Mattei family, is located in the Jewish ghetto of Rome. In contrast to the statues which characterize Rome, which are often made of marble, this one is made of high-quality bronze.

Its construction was completed in 1588. Originally, the statue depicted four young men leaning on dolphins at the bottom of the fountain and sending their hands up to support other dolphins above.

Some 70 years after the completion of the construction of the fountain, the upper dolphins were replaced by small tortoises made by the sculptor and architect Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. This remains the statue to this day, so the name of the fountain is Turtle Fountain.
Fiumi Fountain
#The Four River Fountain

The Fountain of Four Rivers, Fiumi Fountain (Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi), located at the center of Rome, was designed by one of the most important Baroque sculptors - Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. This fountain was built as part of the design of the square where it is placed - Piazza Navona.

The fountain is made of unprocessed stone and incorporates several materials: marble, stone and water. In the center of the fountain stands a powerful obelisk, symbolizing the church's victory over paganism The fountain's pool has spectacular dolphin statues.

The four largest rivers in the world - the Nile (in Africa), the Danube (in Europe), the Ganges (in Asia) and Rio de la Plata (America) are part of the design of the fountain. Each of the gods in the fountain is shaped in an authentic style of the inhabitants from its continent. They sit on a rock from which one of the rivers flows. Each river represents a continent which the pope wishes to rule.

The message of the fountain of the four rivers is clear - Rome is the source from which all the rivers flow.
Venice Square
#The Square Where Mussolini Made his Speeches

Venice Square (Piazza Venezia) is located at the foot of Capitoline Hill, near the Roman Forum. To this day, it is considered the main square of modern Rome.

Once, the "Field of Mars," was located here. This was the place for military training of the Roman army. The palace was built in the 15th century and was the first great Renaissance building of Rome.

During the reign of Mussolini, who lived in the palace of Venice, it served as a meeting place, a place for gathering the people and giving passionate speeches. The speeches delivered by dictator Mussolini in the square were then transmitted all over Italy by radio and loud speakers in other squares. This was also a departure point for parades such as the Blackshirts, the military wing of the Fascist Party.

The office used by Mussolini is closed to tourists today, except for occasional tours. Its name originated from the palace beside it - Venice Palace.

Although the square is located at the center of major transportation routes, private transportation is limited and there are no traffic lights. That's why during the rush hours, you can see a policeman on a stand at the center of the square, directing the traffic just like the road. His movements are theatrical but amusing, making order in the midst of the commotion. You are invited to photograph it.

Today there is also the Palazzo Venezia, a museum in the square with medieval works of art.
Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano
Via Veneto
Villa Ada Park
Villa Glori
Villa Doria Pamphili


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

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אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
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