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#About the City the Whole World Looks Up To

Jerusalem is a city of the three religions that believe in one God. In the same city there are mosques, monasteries, temples and synagogues, the ruins of the Jewish temple and many remnants of the history of empires, armies and religions, the kings of Israel and the Bible, through the last path of Jesus Christ until the ascension of the prophet Muhammad.

All believers, members of the monotheistic religions, see Jerusalem as the one place where they must visit and pray at least once in their lives. This is why everyone sees Jerusalem as a symbol of a world city from which Torah will emerge.

The cultural, historical and archeological diversity of Jerusalem is inconceivable. In this city, which was occupied for 3,000 years by kings, conquerors and saints, almost every country or religion in the ancient world, each left its mark on religion, architectural, artistic and even gastronomic. The food in Jerusalem is simply wonderful. There is wonderful food here and a great variety of restaurants.


A tour of the last path of Christ? - Click on the tag "Via Dolorosa".

A tour of the Old City, Click on the tag "Old City of Jerusalem".

#Must See Sights

Want to see the most popular places in town? - Click on the tag "Must see in Jerusalem".

#With Children

A trip for the whole family? - Click on the tag "Attractions for children in Jerusalem".


Unforgettable meal? - Click on the tag "Must eat in Jerusalem".


In restaurants in Israel it is customary to leave at least 10% tip, some up about 15% or more.

#Israel Country Code



Coffee Shops - Coffee shop chain "Cofix" and "Cofiz" offers coffee, pastries, ice creams and food for 5 NIS. Even in the Jewish Quarter you can find them in the Cardo and the Crusader markets.

Public transportation - buy daily or weekly ticket on the light rail in the city.

Discounts in all kinds of places in the city, you can receive a student card and a pensioner card.


The light rail has "weekly" and "daily" tickets in Jerusalem. If you have a RavKav card, don't forget to tap it during every trip!

Students are entitled to discounts ranging from 30% to 50% off the price of tickets in Jerusalem light rail.


In Sacher Park you can have wonderful picnics, as well as grassy areas near the walls of the Old City, and the rose garden opposite the Knesset.


If you're looking to dance, the 17 Haoman club in Jerusalem is recommended.

#Electric Outlets

The possible plugs are Type H and Type C.

Here is Jerusalem:

First Station
First Station
#About Jerusalem's Ottoman Train Station

You are in one of Jerusalem's entertainment centers, the historical train station of the capital. The First Train Station is not a modern station. The station today is a popular going out area in the city, and is located in a modern train station.

The building and space here belong to the First Station of the city. The station, also known as the Khan Station, is in the Bekaa neighborhood in Jerusalem, between Hebron Way and Bethlehem Way.

This train station was built in 1892 as the last stop of the Jerusalem-Jaffa line, the first railroad line in Israel. The Turkish did not often build in Jerusalem, and the station was one of the only public building built in the city during their rule.

Except for the halt of operation during the War of Independence, the station operated almost continuously since the Ottoman rule, at the end of the 19th century, up to 1998. Then the section between Na'an and Jerusalem was close, because of the declining technical conditions. This was also the time when the First Station was closed for use.

#About the Jerusalem-Jaffa Line

Already by the mid-19th century Moshe Montefiore came up with the idea to build a railway in Israel. Montefiore, who wanted to build a modern and industrial country, claimed that one of the main difficulties for this to come true, was the severe shortage for transporting machinery and raw materials to such industries. After a lot of pleading with the Turkish Sultan Al-Hamid II, the Sultan approved the right to build and operated this line only 30 years later. The one who eventually bought this franchise was Joseph Navon, an enthusiastic Jerusalem businessman. Together with his partners, Navon tried gathering investors to build up the tracks. However he failed. The franchise was then sold to a French company, and this company eventually built the Jerusalem-Jaffa line, and built stations all along it.

#The First Station's History

In a festive ceremony, participants on September 26, 1892 greeted the first train to arrive from Jaffa to the Jerusalem station. This train went through the new stations that were built in Lod, Ramle, and others along the way, where water was refilled for the engine. With time, technology improved, and this trip only took 3 hours. This train was destined to become a very important and popular tool in Israel for the Turkish, and later for the British Mandate.

This is how the festive ceremony was opened at the First Station, and the era of trains in Palestine. Except for the participation of the important city members, representatives from the Turkish rule were present, and local Jews and Arabs. Among the crowd was the revivalist of the Hebrew language, Eliezer Ben Yehuda, who gave the machine the word in Hebrew, "Rakevet."

This is how the First Station was born in Jerusalem. At first it included a building with two floors that was build adjacent to another two buildings, each only one floor. There was a mechanism for switching the train's direction, a big shelter, and a water container to fill the locomotives.

The station's architecture was influenced by European elements from the Templars in the 19th century, and the station building is almost exactly the same at the station building in Jaffa. The construction materials used were a little different, in Jerusalem limestone rock was used from the Jerusalem area.

Throughout the years, the British added buildings to this area, like the thick concrete layer added to the top of the roof, to protect the public from bombings by Italian planes during the British mandate.

With the closing of the station and its operations at the end of the 20th century, the complex was abandoned until 2013, when the entertainment complex was built up here.

A Closer Look at the First Station Today:

The Knesset
The Knesset
#About Israel's Parliament Building

You are in front of the Knesset building of Israel. The Knesset is the Parliament, and the House of Representatives of the State of Israel. The Knesset is the legislative branch of Israel, because here the elected members of the Knesset legislate the laws of the state, change existing laws and update laws according to the spirit of time and power.

Members of the Knesset enjoy immunity under the Law of the Knesset, the Knesset square and the Knesset security. The immunity is intended to protect the activity of a Member of Knesset from powerful people who might try to control their steps. This stems from the desire to separate the authorities and prevent government involvement in it. The separation of powers, it must be remembered, is one of the most significant democratic principles.

#About the Knesset Building

The Knesset building was supposed to be built in Givat Ram as early as 1949. At that time it was said that it would be built as part of the government compound, but in 1955 it was decided that it would be built next to the government compound and not inside it. This is how the building was built here, in the place where you see it now.

In a competition held for the planning of the complex, the plan was presented by architect Joseph Klarvin. At that time, the state treasury was almost empty and therefore the cost of construction was financed from the 1.25 million euros that Baron James de Rothschild had donated to the State of Israel at the time of his death. A synagogue lamp and the central ceremonies were placed in the doorway of the complex. In the building of the complex are the plenum, the conference rooms, the Chagall lounge for receptions, a library, an archive, offices and an auditorium.

The planning process was extended and included other architects, among the most important in the young State of Israel, among them architects Dov Carmi and his son Ram. Dora Gad designed the interior of the Knesset building.

On October 14, 1958, the cornerstone was laid in the presence of President Yitzhak Ben Zvi. The widow of the donor, Baroness Rothschild, also participated in the moving ceremony.

The building was inaugurated on August 30, 1966, but over the years it turned out that it could not keep pace with the daily needs of the Knesset. Over the years new departments were added to the complex, and other departments expanded. The complex became small and cramped, and in the 1990's even caravans were installed nearby for additional space. At the beginning of the 21st century, construction of new sections of the complex began, a project that ended in 2007. Today's complex reaches a built-up area three times the size of the original one of 1966. During the expansion, the gates of Palombo were relocated until 2007.

A Closer Look at the Knesset in Jerusalem:

The Simot
The Simot
#About the Best Street and Restaurant for Jerusalem Mixed Grill

Coming to Jerusalem without trying Jerusalem Mixed Grill, is seen by many as a real miss. Around an intersection on Agripas Street, called "The Simot Intersection," are the best Jerusalem mixed grill restaurants.

These are the recommended ones:

Sima - Agripas 82, Jerusalem. Phone number: 02-6233002. The legendary Jerusalem mixed grill spot. Don't be shocked to find a line outside.

Hatzot - Agripas 123, Jerusalem. Different spices and sauces are used here, also delicious. Some say the Jerusalem mixed grill was invented here...

Sami - the former partner of the Sima Restaurant from across the street (this started the nickname of the intersection, the Simot).

A Closer Look at the Hatzon Restaurant:



Western Wall Tunnels
Western Wall Tunnels
#About the Tunnels the Show More of the Western Wall

The Western Wall Tunnels were found during archeological digs that were done under the Muslim Quarter. This is a maze of underground spaces that allow visitors to see the entire Western Wall. There are almost half a kilometer of the Western Wall here, under the Creation Rock, which was the basis for the Jewish Temple when it was built.

In the tunnels visitors can see residential areas and public places from centuries ago, including structures from the Second Temple period, Middle Ages, and modern times as well. During a visit here you will discover a water system from the Second Temple period and the Hasmonean period, with a gate and entrance towards the Temple Mount. You can see here the places where people lived their lives. The tunnels start from the Western Wall square, all the way to the other side of the tunnels, inside the Muslim Quarter.

#Finding the Tunnels

The centuries following the destruction of the Temple, the Western Wall became a location for payers for the reunification of Jerusalem. After Jerusalem was breached and overtaken by the Israeli government in 1967, archeologist began digging and cleaning the Western Wall, exposing its entire length.

During these digs, the tunnels slowly became apparent, was with its impressive spaces, a sort of a tunnel into the past, it seemed as though the Hasmoneans were coming back alive. Here the real extent of the massive Western Wall were exposed, the support system built by Herod's men and engineers for the Temple Mount compound. There are areas in the wall where some of the individual rocks at the base are a couple meters long, and its hard to imagine how they were moved around.

Apart from antiquities, the tunnels have visual effects such as models and 3D images of the Temple Mount during the various periods, and animated films that show how such impressive buildings were built during the period of the Temple.


The tunnels can only be viewed with reservations.

Entrance to the tunnels is from the vault connecting the Western Wall square and Al-Wad street in the Muslim Quarter.

A Closer Look at the Western Wall Tunnels:

Hurva Synagogue
Hurva Synagogue
#About the Hurva Synagogue

The Hurva Synagogue in the middle of the Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem, is a synagogue named "Beit Jacob." This synagogue was built in the 18th century. A group of immigrants to Israel built this synagogue, whose leader was Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid. After being built, this group was unable to pay for the place, and the Arabs who lent the money and built the synagogue destroyed the building. Since then it has been referred to as "The ruins of the Ashkenazim."

Since then, the remains stood here for a long time. In the 19th century it was finally rebuilt but an orthodox group from among the students of the Vilna Ga'on, Rabbi Eliahu ben Shlomo Zalman.

When the Jordanian army conquered the Old City in 1948, The Arab League destroyed the synagogue. Actually, the destruction occurred even before, during the fights over the Jewish Quarter, when Jordanian soldiers blew up the synagogue, along with others, and the Arab League destroyed what was left.

Since that time, for many years, the synagogue's ruins remained. After the Six Day War and the conquering of the city by the Israeli Defense Force, the build received the nickname "the ruins," or in Hebrew- Hurva. The remains were untouched until 2010 when it was again rebuilt.

A Closer Look at Dancing at the Hurva Synagogue:

Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
#About the Church Where Jesus was Buried

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the Christian Quarter is a major tourist and religious attraction in the Christian world. Masses of visitors arrive every day.

Christian tradition states that here were the last events of Jesus' life, his crucifixion, his burial, and his resurrection. All of them are described in chapter 19 in the Book of John.

The place was once an open garden outside the city and was called "Golgotha Hill." Golgotha means skull in Aramaic. This is where they executed and buried Jesus. This hill located to the west was outside the wall during Jesus's time. At the end of the Second Temple period, after the crucifixion of Jesus, the Golgotha ​​was also surrounded by the third wall and placed inside the wall itself. The identification of the hill today is uncertain.

When the Roman city of Aelia Capitolina was built in Jerusalem, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, the temple was built over Aphrodite's Temple. In the 4th century CE, the mother of Emperor Constantine identified the cross on which Jesus was crucified and the Romans built the Church of Resurrection here.

#The Last Stops at Via Dolorosa

In the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, the last five stations are located on the Via Dolorosa. Here, according to tradition, the preparations for the execution, the crucifixion of Jesus and his burial were carried out. Here, too, there will be the resurrection of Jesus, according to tradition, three days after his death.

#Station 10 - Removing Jesus' Clothes

Up the stairs at the entrance to the church, where the Franks Chapel is today. This is the "chapel of clothing" that belongs to the Franciscan order and is adjacent to the front of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Here, the Romans stripped Jesus of his clothing and divided them among themselves, as the New Testament says: "After his crucifixion they divided his clothes, and sat there to keep his name" (Matthew 27:27-35). The event connects Jesus and King David, who wrote in the Book of Psalms: "They shall be cast apart for them, and on my garments they will cast down a gourd." The connection of fate between Jesus and David is emphasized in Christianity, For example in the perception of Jesus as "Messiah ben David". "This tradition is also attributed to traditions such as the one that sees the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, the birthplace of David, or at the Last Supper of Jesus, which was held just above David's grave.

#Station 11 - Jesus Nailed to the Cross

In Golgotha, on the second floor of the church, they nailed Jesus to the cross. Pay attention to the mosaic depicting Christ nailed to the Cross, with Mary, his mother, and Mary Magdalene at his feet.

#Station 12 - Jesus Died on the Cross

We are still in Golgotha. There is an icon here that shows Christ crucified and at the foot of the icon there is an altar that the Catholics kiss. Here is the rock on which Jesus was crucified. This is the holiest place for Catholicism.

#Station 13 - Bringing Jesus Down into his Mother's Arms

This station is also in Golgotha. It is quite small and has a statue of Mary and an altar underneath it. The statue in front of you was donated from Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, in the 18th century. Around it many of the pilgrims place offerings.

#Station 14 - The Tomb of Jesus

The last stop on Jesus' journey is his final stop - his grave. Here Jesus is placed in the tomb, in the Rotunda, a cylindrical structure with a dome. Here Jesus was buried in the tradition of Jesus and resurrected after three days. The tomb of Jesus belonged to his disciple, Joseph Haramati. He had donated his family's lot to Jesus, whom he had seen as his master. Incidentally, the Protestants recognize the tomb of Jesus in the Garden of the Holy Sepulchre, located in the north of the Old City.

Here is the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem:


Ceremony in the Church:

Time Elevator
Time Elevator
#About the Jerusalem Attraction, the Time Elevator

The Time Elevator in Jerusalem is a fun attraction, that enables you to go on a simulated journey in a kind of time elevator to the secrets of Jerusalem, the capital of Israel. Using cutting edge technology, the viewers feel as though they are going down to the depths of history and the city, and are becoming part of it.

In the Time Elevator visitors are accompanied by a Jewish man named Shalem, played by the famous Topol. Descending down the elevator with Topol, to Jerusalem's underground, going to different time periods in the city's history.

During the tours of the different time periods in the city, we meet face to face famous figures from the past, people who have built the city, ruled it, and played important roles in its past. Figures like King Solomon, the prophet Jeremiah, the kings Zedekiah and Herod, and many others who were important, all a part of this 3,000-year-old journey.

This attraction is available in many languages like English, Russian, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, and Mandarin.

Besides the Time Elevator's journey through time, this place also offers different attractions, such as a journey to space, a journey into the human body, and a journey into the wonderful past, present, and future of Jerusalem.

A Closer Look:


An Example of the Movies in the Time Elevator:


Gerard Behar Centre
Gerard Behar Centre
#About the Building that Made History

You are near the Gerard Behar Center in Jerusalem. Today the center is a cultural center that serves as a center for independent productions in theater, music and dance for artists and performers in Jerusalem.

The center, once known as the "People's House", touched history when, in the 1960's, it was the site of the famous trial in the history of Israel - the Eichmann Trial.

The capture of the Nazi official, Hitler's deputy and directly responsible for a significant part of the Holocaust, was a formative event, when his trial was an opportunity for the State of Israel to demonstrate proper treatment for Nazi criminals after World War II. It was clear that the trial would intrigue the entire world media and that there would be a lot of media events that would generate national outbursts of national sentiment.

On the question of the location of the trial, even the first Prime Minister Ben-Gurion was personally involved. Since there was no suitable place in Jerusalem for a trial with hundreds of participants and journalists, Ben-Gurion sent his bureau chief, Teddy Kollek, to find a suitable place for the trial in the city. At the top of Bezalel Street stood the empty and unfinished building of the "People's House", a Jerusalem institution that existed since the beginning of the 19th century, but wandered among various sites in the city. In the 1940's, this permanent structure began to be built, but in the 1950's, due to the austerity that prevailed in Israel and the budget deficit, construction was halted. The building has since been empty on its skeleton, a kind of modern ruin.

When Kollek and Ben-Gurion chose this building to hold the trial, contributions were raised by the mayor of Jerusalem at the time, Mordechai Ish-Shalom, and the building was completed in favor of the trial and future uses.

Thus, in 1961 the construction of the "People's House" was completed. Indeed, it served as the venue of one of the most famous sentences in the world, the scene of the trial of the Nazi enemy Eichmann. From here it has become a cultural center and the Jerusalem municipality is full of content of a different kind.

In the 1980's, the building was renovated again by the Jerusalem Foundation. The building was then named after Gerard Becher, the son of the French millionaire who donated the money to renovate the building. The new planner, by the way, was the architect David Reznik, the same architect who in his youth planned the "People's House" and completed its construction in preparation for the famous trial.
American Colony
#The American Colony in Jerusalem

The American Colony the city, is indeed a luxury hotel and restaurant, which hosts diplomats, UN personnel and journalists from all over the world, but in fact it is one of the most spectacular buildings in Jerusalem.

There is a real charming corner, which includes Arab arches, painted ceilings, colorful stone floors and a pleasant European garden. During the Mandate period, Winston Churchill and General Allenby were guests of this hotel. It's easy to understand why. It is also pleasant to just stroll around the hotel corridors.

The cosmopolitan bar here once served as a wine cellar and was converted into a bar, offering a variety of intimate and cozy kiosks. On summer evenings one can go out to the patio, the cozy inner garden, with the old fountain outside.

Outside, the hotel's popular restaurant, Arabesque, also operates. You can eat Middle Eastern gourmet food here like the giant hummus-lamb dish, which is big enough for two, as is the steak made of entrecote chunks. Both cost around $25 per serving.


All the waiters here speak English, so no need to break your teeth in broken Hebrew.

A Closer Look at the American Colony Hotel:


Another Look:

Chords Bridge
#The Suspension Bridge in Jerusalem

The Suspension Bridge, designed by Santiago Calatrava and is located at the entrance to the city. The architect designed the bridge to look like a harp and biblical Shofar, built from 4 different elements. Concrete and steel are used to hold the bridge, and glass and stone are used for paving and covering the walkway.

On this bridge today the light rail passes, and is also used for pedestrians. In recent years this bridge has become a sort of symbol in the city, which has countless symbols.

#What is the Suspension Bridge?

The Suspension Bridge is a bridge that is suspended by cables. The cables hold up the bridge, and this makes the appearance that this bridge is suspended in midair.

Many suspension bridges have been built around the world in the past decades. The master designer of suspension bridges is Santiago Calatrava. Among other things, Calatrava planned the suspension bridge in Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao. He is considered one of the top bridge designers in the world, and has designed some of the most beautiful bridges in the world.

A Closer Look at the Suspension Bridge in Jerusalem:

Montefiore Windmill
#About the Mishkanot's Windmill

Sir Montefiore's Windmill, located in the Mishkenot neighborhood, is one of the symbols of the city of Jerusalem, outside the walls of the Old City.

This mill is an icon, a historic landmark and one of the most prominent buildings in the Jerusalem skyline, especially among those outside the walls of the Old City. Montefiore Windmill is named, as you understand, after the donor who financed its establishment - the British Jewish philanthropist Moses Montefiore. It was built in 1857, about 12 years after the Mishkenot neighborhood was built. The mill was part of a project Montefiore undertook to help the Jewish community in pre-20th century Israel, to provide for its own needs and to gain economic control over its fate.

The Mishkenot windmill is right at the entrance to the old Jerusalem neighborhood. In fact, the mill is the first building built in the city in 1858. Originally it served as a flour mill, but after two decades it stopped grinding and was used for other purposes.

In 1891 the windmill was used as a flour mill. For the grinding of wheat, the Jewish community began using steam-powered windmills. But the abandonment of the mill did not lead to its neglect as a central building in the neighborhood, and it continued to be used for cultural purposes and community service.

In 1948, during the War of Independence, the mill served as a lookout point for Jewish fighters in Jerusalem. The British reaction was harsh, as the windmill was bombarded by the British army, in an attack known as the cynical British "Operation Don Quixote."

In recent years the mill has been restored, and nowadays it is a popular tourist attraction in the city. There is a small museum that tells the story of the life of the mill's initiator, Sir Moses Montefiore. Even a reconstructed model of his chariot, the one from the famous song, is next to it. This is a replica of Montefiore's chariot, since the original chariot, which he used on his travels in the Holy Land, was burned in 1986.

The stone plaza around the mill is an excellent observation point over Ben Hinnom Valley, the place where they used to sacrifice young children. Above it you can see the old city of Jerusalem and of course you can watch the neighborhoods of Mishkenot and Yemin Moshe, nearby.

A Closer Look at the Montefiore Windmill in the Jerusalem Neighborhood of Mishkanot:


The Song about Moses Montefiore:


History of the Windmill (In Hebrew):

Mount of Olives
#About the Olive Mount

The Mount of Olives is a tall hill, the tallest mountain range in East Jerusalem, it separates the Old City and the Judean desert. It begins at the edge of the Armon Hanatziv ridge, to the south and north it ends at Mount Scopus.

The mountain used to be called the "mountain of happiness," and the "Mount of Destruction" - a name derived from the sacrificing ritual that took place nearby.

The importance of this mountain is mainly religious. This place is very important to Christianity, who see the mountain as a place where Jesus was during his last days in Jerusalem, and since the Middle Ages many churches built here have made this place a Christian center, as well as for Islam, who connects the mountain with the Day of Judgment in the End of Days, as mentioned in the Quran.

Judaism's connection to the mountain come from the days of the Temple, as the place of the Sacrificing Red Heifer ceremony, a ceremony to purify a person's impurity from whatever polluted it. Even after the destruction of the Temple and until the early Middle Ages, when the Romans didn't allow Jews to live in Jerusalem. At the same time Jews were not allowed to visit the Olive Mount, expect on Tisha B'Av, they would come here to look onto the Temple Mount and cry over the destruction of the Temple.

There are many churches at the Olive Mount, among them is the Church of Mary Magdalene, Church of All Nations, also called "Get Sh'manime." Nearby is the Church of Our Heavenly Father, the Russian Church of Ascension to Sky, with its tower, as well as the Church of Augusta Victoria.

#About the Jewish Cemetery on the Olive Mount

As a cemetery for more than 3,000 years, the cemetery has been active since the days of the First Temple, it is the oldest Jewish cemetery in the world, many Jews are buried here all throughout history. Some believe that the Jews who are buried here will be the first to be resurrected when the resurrections happens. This is why many want to be buried here, which also made the burial plots here very expensive.

The Jewish Cemetery spreads about the southern part of the hill, and towards Nachal Kidron. The place used to be a burial spot for the Cana'anites, thanks to its distance from the city and softness of the ground.

At the bottom of Mount of Olives, there are remains of Jewish gravestones from the first and second Temple periods. Jewish burials were recorded here from the Middle Ages.

During the Jordanian rule over East Jerusalem, since the War of Independence in 1948 and until Jerusalem's release in 1967, the cemetery was desecrated, and a hotel was even built on top of it.

Here are buried, among the others, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, who asked to be buried here, instead of the area for the nation's leaders on Mount Herzl. Also, Shay Agnon, Rabbi Kook and Eliezer Ben Yehuda are buried here, not far from them, in the Christian section outside the fence, is also buried Oskar Schindler, the German industrialist, documented in the film "Schindler's List" after saving hundreds of Jews during the Holocaust.


Try coming here during the morning hours, during the afternoon the sun can be scorching hot, and makes seeing the view of the Old City and the Temple Mount difficult.

Pay attention - there is no public transportation on the top of the hill

A Closer Look at Mount Olives:

Temple Mount
#About the Temple Mount

Many of us have heard about the Temple Mount from newspapers and such, as a popular place all over the world, and nonstop tension between Jews and Muslims and between Israel and Palestine.

First of all, the Temple Mount is not a large place, about 140,000 square meters, it is a holy place for Islam and Judaism. Muslims believe that from here Muhammad ascended to the sky, and here the resurrection of the dead will happen on judgment day. Jews remember the Temple, which was built here and was destroyed twice.

On the Temple Mount, among others, the Al-Aqsa Mosque and built and the impressive Dome of the Rock, a luxury Islamic architecture.

The Temple Mount is located on the South-Eastern side of the Old City of Jerusalem. Today the area is mainly flattened, and is almost perfectly rectangular. It is a real mountain, where the peak reaches 743 meters above sea level. It was originally built during Herod's Rule, but was retained by Muslims, who conquered the city and turned it into a mosque. The wall on the western side is the "Western Wall" - The holiest place for Jews, the last remains of the Temple.

Either way, Jews are not allowed to pray on the Temple Mount, and are only allowed to visit. Only Muslims are permitted to pray here.

A View from Above:

Western Wall
#About the Holiest Place for the Jewish People

You are facing the holiest place for the Jewish people. This is the Western Wall of the Second Jewish Temple. Known as the "Kotel" in Hebrew, this is the only surviving remnant, after the destruction of the Roman Revolt by Titus, the commander of the Roman Legions, in the year 70 CE.

For hundreds of years, after the destruction of the Temple, the Western Wall was not a prayer place for Jews living in the country. It was only in the 16th century, when the government began prohibiting Jews from ascending to the Temple Mount, that the Western Wall became a place of Jewish prayer and a symbol of yearning for the Temple. At the foot of the Western Wall there was a narrow alleyway where the Jews prayed as close as possible to the site of the Temple.

After the establishment of the State of Israel, when Jerusalem was divided (1948-1967), the Kingdom of Jordan ruled the Western Wall and prohibited Jewish access to the Wall. Many Jews used to go to Mount Zion and pray on King David's tomb, watching from the top of the building toward the Temple Mount and hoping for a day when they could go back and pray at the Western Wall.

At the end of the Six Day War, the worshipers streamed en masse to the Jewish Quarter and the Western Wall. Then houses of the Mughrabi neighborhood, which were adjacent to the Western Wall, were demolished and the large prayer plaza adjacent to the Western Wall was built.

#The Wall's Structure

The Kotel is one of four huge retaining walls built during the first century BCE, in the renovation of Herod's Second Temple. The builders then created Mount Moriah, a huge square with the Temple in its center. The length of the Western Wall was half a kilometer and about 30 meters high. It was built on the bedrock of Jerusalem, with the space between the walls and the mountain filled to create a huge, paved plaza, with an area of ​​144,000 square meters, an area similar to that of 12 soccer fields.

The wall was built of hewn stones, huge in size, each weighing between 2 and 5 tons. Each of the stones of the Western Wall is carved in the manner typical of the construction of Herod's reign, with its slightly protruding stone center, as opposed to the carved stone frame, smoother and more submerged.

If you stand near the wall and look up, you will see that each layer of stones is retreated in about three centimeters, compared to the layer below. This is a construction technique whose function is to provide stability and strength to the ancient structure, since the construction of the massive structures and retaining walls at the time did not yet use concrete.

Today the Western Wall is used for religious services and gatherings, and many come to celebrate the Bar Mitzvah ceremony, completion of a military tracks, and other celebrations.

#How Did the Western Wall Remain Intact, and Was Not Destroyed?

For many years, the belief among the Jews was that the Western Wall of the Temple had never been destroyed. Already in the first few centuries after the destruction, the generations were amazed at how the fate of the Western Wall improved and it survived, unlike the other three walls.

The religious answer was that it was the wall closest to the resting place of the Divine Presence. The Ark of the Covenant in the First Temple near the Western Wall. This was the case in the First Temple. But in the Second Temple the Ark of the Covenant was no longer in the Temple, so what saved the Wall from destruction?

The claim of the believers is that even if the Holy Ark has disappeared, the Divine Presence never moved from the Western Wall of the Temple and therefore it continued to preserved from destruction.

But there is another story, a Jewish legend, which explains the preservation of the Western Wall from destruction. According to the story, Titus, the commander of the Roman Legion who conquered Jerusalem, ordered four of the senior commanders under him to destroy the Jewish Temple. Each of them was ordered to demolish one of the walls of the Temple. The one who was left to destroy the Western Wall tried to carry out the order, but failed. When Titus asked him why he had not completed his ordered, the frightened commander replied that if he had destroyed the last remaining wall, future generations could not see how impressive the Temple was, before it was destroyed by Titus. Titus, pleased with the flattering answer, left the wall standing.

By the way, we know today that the Western Wall was much taller in height. Over the generations, the wall was almost completely destroyed and what remains of it is the Western Wall of today.

A Closer Look at the Western Wall in Jerusalem:

Lions' Gate
#About the Gate Where it All Began

You are standing at the Lions' Gate, the Eastern gate of the Old City, located across from Olive Mount. The walkway from the gate leads to the Via Dolorosa, and the last station in the Crusade of Jesus.

The gate was built in the 16th century, was part of the Old City walls by the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman.

Not only for its location on the Via Dolorosa, but also during the Six Day War in 1967 this gate was of great importance. Through this gate paratrooper units came on their way to the Temple Mount and liberated the Old City and the Western Wall. With this, 19 years of Jordanian rule ended, and Jewish life in the city returned to flourish.

The Lions' Gate was named because of the lion figures engraved in the stones of this gate. In fact, these are the Bardalas, the symbol of the Mameluke king of Baybars, who ruled Jerusalem in the 13th century. Only by mistake are they considered lions.

#Lions' Gate's Architecture

In the past, the Lions Gate was a Tafnit Gate, like the Jaffa and Zion Gate. A tafnit gates's goal is to delay invasions of forces into the city. But unlike the other gates, the Lions' Gate has changed over the years and has been turned into a straight gate, which can also be used to bring vehicles into the Old City.

On either side of the Lions' Gate there are reliefs of lions. Actually these are not really lions, but we'll get back to that. Legend has it that these bullets were placed in the gate after Sultan Süleyman dreamed of a dream and in his dream two lions were about to devour him, as punishment for not protecting the holy city of Jerusalem. The Sultan interpreted the dream as a sign from heaven and ordered that Jerusalem be surrounded by a wall.

And we will return now to the lions, which are similar to the Bardalas. Some scholars believe that these reliefs were brought here from a more ancient structure, built by the Mamluk ruler of Baybars, who was known as the Bardalas.

If you look over the lions or the bardalas, you will see other decorations. There are flowers here and small arches. They all stand between the slits. See above the inscription commemorating the construction of the city wall by the Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent.

Pay attention to the small balcony at the top of the gate. This balcony is called "Machecollum," from which you could look at the line of the wall and in the event of an attack, pour boiling oil on invading soldiers or just uninvited guests.

A Closer Look at the Lions' Gate:

The Crusader Market
#About the Crusader Market

The Crusader Market, located under the Western Wall Yeshiva, is the remains of the market that existed here, that the Crusaders built over remains of the Byzantine Cardo that went through here. Later the vaults you see above became the cellars of buildings built above the remains of the Crusader market. Only in 1967, after the Six-Day War and the renovation of the Jewish Quarter in the Old City, was the ancient Crusader Market restored and became an active place.

The delicacies sold here during the Crusader period are now sold elsewhere. The only small part of the market remaining today are the small shops that sell ice cream and drinks to thirsty and hot tourists, making their way to the Western Wall.

Zion Gate
#About the Gate

Zion Gate, one of Jerusalem's gates, has many names, like "David's Gate," "The Jew's Gate," or the "Jewish Quarter Gate," it is the main entrance into the Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem.

The gate was the location of several fights during the War of Independence. If you look around the gate on its external side, you can see the stones of the wall punctuated by bullet holes and mortar shells, which hit the gate during that time. The Palmach fighters even tried to blow it up at one point in order to make it to the Old City, but this attempt failed.

Like the well-known Jaffa Gate, Zion Gate is also a Tafnit Gate, meaning entrance into the gate is only at a 90-degree angle. These types of gates were built to make it harder for enemies attacks to come straight into the city. The idea behind these gates is that anyone coming through has to make a turn while entering the city, slowing down any enemy attack exposing them to the city's protectors.

The name, Zion Gate, comes from the name Mount Zion, which is where the gate leads. This gate already existed on Crusader maps back in the 12th century, only named "Mount Zion Gate." In the British Museum there's a map from the 13th century, only named "Porta Syon."

A Closer Look at the Gate:

Tour the Jerusalem Jewish Quarter
#Touring the Jewish Quarter of the Capital of Israel

The tour begins at the Zion Gate and goes along the most prominent spots in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem.

Shall we begin?

Are you at the Zion Gate? Click on the tag "Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem Walking Tour" and begin your tour.
#About the Central and Ancient Street in Jerusalem

There are not many streets in the world that you can see different time periods, such as at the Cardo in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem. On this ancient street, we will start moving towards the Roman period, continuing to the Byzantine period. Remains of the Crusader and Ottoman periods are seen - the periods when it was buried underground and we see its awakening to life in the modern Israeli era.

In general, "Cardo," which in Latin means "heart," means the center. The Cardo Street in the Roman cities is the heart of the city - the same street where most of the city's commerce and traffic take place. The model of such a street among the Romans was permanent and they used to replicate it in many cities and military camps. It can be found mainly in the Roman cities of the Middle East, North Africa, Syria and Jordan. In Israel, too, it is located in the remains of the cities of Caesarea and Antipatris, Tel Afek, near Rosh Ha'ayin.

The Cardo in the Jewish Quarter is a wide, stone-paved street that was discovered here in the 1970's. It was excavated and then restored to an active trading street today, with shops and services, allowing to experience a little of the past in today's modern age.

The total width of the cardo is 22.5 meters and only part of it is exposed. At its center, there is a passage, some of which has an open top, and 12.5 meters wide. On both sides of the cardo there is a row of shops and above it a tiled roof, supported by a row of stone pillars 5 meters high. The roof protects the street from rain and sun. Incidentally, except for one column, all the exposed pillars were broken. Only one column was discovered intact, beneath the foundations of the Tzemach Tzedek Synagogue at the southern end of the Cardo.

The cardo is one of the rare cases in which it has revived around 2,700 years later, and turned it into an active trading environment. This did not happen in other places in Jerusalem, where such initiatives were refuted by archaeologists who said, and generally rightly, that everyday life should not be allowed to destroy ancient, historical and scientific heritage. Here, in the Cardo of the Jewish Quarter, they were able to connect contemporary and ancient history and turn them into one.

#About the Architects Who Told the Archaeologists Where to Dig

This wonderful story is told in architectural schools all over the world and it deals with the ancient street discovered by modern architects diligent and talented, the power of study and originality of thought.

The Cardo was not normally excavated by determined archaeologists. In fact, it is an archaeological discovery that was born in the minds of three young architects who won a bid for the restoration of the Jewish Quarter, in order to restore life to it, after it became a poor slum during the Jordanian rule.

The young architects examined the map of Madaba, an ancient map discovered on the floor of a church in Jordan, in which Jerusalem appeared in some detail. They saw that the cardo appeared on the map, the main colonnade of the Old City. They pointed to a certain place and claimed that the cardo was hiding below. A senior archaeologist, with whom they consulted, laughed. However, he agreed to dig and examine the place where they claimed to be hiding the route of the ancient street. Quickly he encountered a hard layer and then again and again, in many places. There's a floor there, the experts determined. As you already understand, there was a street there. But is it the Cardo?

The excavation began with the aim of discovering the neat foundations of the columns, exposing the drainage channel into which the rainwater flowed from the roofs of the street houses, and from there exposing the ancient street itself. It turned out that the architects were right all along. Archaeologists have also agreed that this is indeed the famous cardo.

In the next stage the builders began to renew the old cardo and integrate it into a modern commercial street. From a pile of workshops and neglected houses, next to ruins of the War of Independence, they created a reconstructed commercial street, on the lower floors of which were shops and residential units on the upper floors, which were built above them.

Today, the Cardo is one of the most famous reconstructions in the world, a street that combines old, new, antique with renovated and modern shopping in a complex that has the scent of antiquity.

#What is a Map of Madaba?

The map of Madaba is a mosaic map made around the 6th or 7th century and is located in a church in Medina, Jordan. The map depicts the Land of Israel and its surroundings, with special emphasis on religious sites. The famous section on the map is the section describing Jerusalem.

The map of Madaba is an example of an ancient map that is not intended for navigation in the field. This is because it was not drawn according to a geographical scale, but according to the religious-spiritual importance of the places that appear in it (more important places are highlighted and large on the map). This is also why it was found in an ancient Christian prayer place, St. George's Church. In addition, the map is the earliest historical evidence for the construction of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem.

A Closer Look at the Cardo in Jerusalem:

1. Pretorium
#1. The Starting Point of the Via Dolorosa

It may be difficult to believe, but the starting point of Via Dolorosa, Jesus' Via Dolorosa, is the al-Umayriyah boys school. Here, according to Christian tradition, Jesus was judged.

In the 16th century, it was decided that here was the Pretorium, the place of the trial of Christ in Antonia. Jesus was accused of conspiring against the kingdom, and here the Roman procurator Pontius Pilate judged him.

The al-Umayriya school for Arab children located on the southern side of the street is housed in a Mamluk madrasa, a 14th-century Muslim seminary. In the courtyard of the school you can still see part of the pavement of Via Dolorosa, which survived from the Crusader period.

Incidentally, the original steps which according to Christian tradition, Jesus ascended to the Pretorium, were sanctified and called "Scala Santa," in English "Holy Step." They are not seen here, since they were uprooted in the 4th century and transferred to Rome, at the request of Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine. To this day, they are preserved in the Church of Scala Santa, built in their honor in Rome.

This was described as the trial of Jesus in the New Testament:
"Now Jesus stood before the governor, and he questioned him, “Are you the king of the Jews?” Jesus said, “You say so.” And when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he made no answer. Then Pilate said to him, “Do you not hear how many things they are testifying against you?” He did not answer him one word, so that the governor was greatly amazed."

A Closer Look at the Station of the Praetorium of Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem:

Matam al Sultan
Tour the Via Dolorosa
Abu Shukri
2. Church of the Condemnation
The Armenian Quarter

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

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אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

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