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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
#About the City the Whole World Looks Up To

Jerusalem is a city of the three religions that believe in one God. In the same city there are mosques, monasteries, temples and synagogues, the ruins of the Jewish temple and many remnants of the history of empires, armies and religions, the kings of Israel and the Bible, through the last path of Jesus Christ until the ascension of the prophet Muhammad.

All believers, members of the monotheistic religions, see Jerusalem as the one place where they must visit and pray at least once in their lives. This is why everyone sees Jerusalem as a symbol of a world city from which Torah will emerge.

The cultural, historical and archeological diversity of Jerusalem is inconceivable. In this city, which was occupied for 3,000 years by kings, conquerors and saints, almost every country or religion in the ancient world, each left its mark on religion, architectural, artistic and even gastronomic. The food in Jerusalem is simply wonderful. There is wonderful food here and a great variety of restaurants.



#Tours

A tour of the last path of Christ? - Click on the tag "Via Dolorosa".

A tour of the Old City, Click on the tag "Old City of Jerusalem".



#Must See Sights

Want to see the most popular places in town? - Click on the tag "Must see in Jerusalem".



#With Children

A trip for the whole family? - Click on the tag "Attractions for children in Jerusalem".



#Food

Unforgettable meal? - Click on the tag "Must eat in Jerusalem".



#Tips

In restaurants in Israel it is customary to leave at least 10% tip, some up about 15% or more.



#Interests

Interested in certain things? - Click on the tag "Interests".




#Israel Country Code

+972



#Saving

Coffee Shops - Coffee shop chain "Cofix" and "Cofiz" offers coffee, pastries, ice creams and food for 5 NIS. Even in the Jewish Quarter you can find them in the Cardo and the Crusader markets.

Public transportation - buy daily or weekly ticket on the light rail in the city.

Discounts in all kinds of places in the city, you can receive a student card and a pensioner card.



#Transportation

The light rail has "weekly" and "daily" tickets in Jerusalem. If you have a RavKav card, don't forget to tap it during every trip!

Students are entitled to discounts ranging from 30% to 50% off the price of tickets in Jerusalem light rail.



#Picnic

In Sacher Park you can have wonderful picnics, as well as grassy areas near the walls of the Old City, and the rose garden opposite the Knesset.



#Entertainment

If you're looking to dance, the 17 Haoman club in Jerusalem is recommended.



#Electric Outlets

The possible plugs are Type H and Type C.



#Here is Jerusalem:

https://youtu.be/Fmzo7LAIxiU
The Simot
The Simot
#About the Best Street and Restaurant for Jerusalem Mixed Grill

Coming to Jerusalem without trying Jerusalem Mixed Grill, is seen by many as a real miss. Around an intersection on Agripas Street, called "The Simot Intersection," are the best Jerusalem mixed grill restaurants.

These are the recommended ones:

Sima - Agripas 82, Jerusalem. Phone number: 02-6233002. The legendary Jerusalem mixed grill spot. Don't be shocked to find a line outside.

Hatzot - Agripas 123, Jerusalem. Different spices and sauces are used here, also delicious. Some say the Jerusalem mixed grill was invented here...

Sami - the former partner of the Sima Restaurant from across the street (this started the nickname of the intersection, the Simot).


A Closer Look at the Hatzon Restaurant:

https://youtu.be/KlnE9PgROXQ
The Knesset
The Knesset
#About Israel's Parliament Building

You are in front of the Knesset building of Israel. The Knesset is the Parliament, and the House of Representatives of the State of Israel. The Knesset is the legislative branch of Israel, because here the elected members of the Knesset legislate the laws of the state, change existing laws and update laws according to the spirit of time and power.

Members of the Knesset enjoy immunity under the Law of the Knesset, the Knesset square and the Knesset security. The immunity is intended to protect the activity of a Member of Knesset from powerful people who might try to control their steps. This stems from the desire to separate the authorities and prevent government involvement in it. The separation of powers, it must be remembered, is one of the most significant democratic principles.


#About the Knesset Building

The Knesset building was supposed to be built in Givat Ram as early as 1949. At that time it was said that it would be built as part of the government compound, but in 1955 it was decided that it would be built next to the government compound and not inside it. This is how the building was built here, in the place where you see it now.

In a competition held for the planning of the complex, the plan was presented by architect Joseph Klarvin. At that time, the state treasury was almost empty and therefore the cost of construction was financed from the 1.25 million euros that Baron James de Rothschild had donated to the State of Israel at the time of his death. A synagogue lamp and the central ceremonies were placed in the doorway of the complex. In the building of the complex are the plenum, the conference rooms, the Chagall lounge for receptions, a library, an archive, offices and an auditorium.

The planning process was extended and included other architects, among the most important in the young State of Israel, among them architects Dov Carmi and his son Ram. Dora Gad designed the interior of the Knesset building.

On October 14, 1958, the cornerstone was laid in the presence of President Yitzhak Ben Zvi. The widow of the donor, Baroness Rothschild, also participated in the moving ceremony.

The building was inaugurated on August 30, 1966, but over the years it turned out that it could not keep pace with the daily needs of the Knesset. Over the years new departments were added to the complex, and other departments expanded. The complex became small and cramped, and in the 1990's even caravans were installed nearby for additional space. At the beginning of the 21st century, construction of new sections of the complex began, a project that ended in 2007. Today's complex reaches a built-up area three times the size of the original one of 1966. During the expansion, the gates of Palombo were relocated until 2007.



#A Closer Look at the Knesset in Jerusalem:

https://youtu.be/VEmwqszyXa8
Western Wall Tunnels
Western Wall Tunnels
#About the Tunnels the Show More of the Western Wall

The Westeran Wall Tunnels were found during archeological digs that were done under the Muslim Quarter. This is a maze of underground spaces that allow visitors to see the entire Western Wall. There are almost half a kilometer of the Western Wall here, under the Creation Rock, which was the basis for the Jewish Temple when it was built.

In the tunnels visitors can see residential areas and public places from centuries ago, including structures from the Second Temple period, Middle Ages, and modern times as well. During a visit here you will discover a water system from the Second Temple period and the Hasmonean period, with a gate and entrance towards the Temple Mount. You can see here the places where people lived their lives. The tunnels start from the Western Wall square, all the way to the other side of the tunnels, inside the Muslim Quarter.



#Finding the Tunnels

The centuries following the destruction of the Temple, the Western Wall became a location for payers for the reunification of Jerusalem. After Jerusalem was breached and overtaken by the Israeli government in 1967, archeologist began digging and cleaning the Western Wall, exposing its entire length.

During these digs, the tunnels slowly became apparent, was with its impressive spaces, a sort of a tunnel into the past, it seemed as though the Hasmoneans were coming back alive. Here the real extent of the massive Western Wall were exposed, the support system built by Herod's men and engineers for the Temple Mount compound. There are areas in the wall where some of the individual rocks at the base are a couple meters long, and its hard to imagine how they were moved around.

Apart from antiquities, the tunnels have visual effects such as models and 3D images of the Temple Mount during the various periods, and animated films that show how such impressive buildings were built during the period of the Temple.



#Tips

The tunnels can only be viewed with reservations.

Entrance to the tunnels is from the vault connecting the Western Wall square and Al-Wad street in the Muslim Quarter.



#A Closer Look at the Western Wall Tunnels:

https://youtu.be/QapXKzA07rk

Jerusalem

Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
#About the Church Where Jesus was Buried

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the Christian Quarter is a major tourist and religious attraction in the Christian world. Masses of visitors arrive every day.

Christian tradition states that here were the last events of Jesus' life, his crucifixion, his burial, and his resurrection. All of them are described in chapter 19 in the Book of John.

The place was once an open garden outside the city and was called "Golgotha Hill." Golgotha means skull in Aramaic. This is where they executed and buried Jesus. This hill located to the west was outside the wall during Jesus's time. At the end of the Second Temple period, after the crucifixion of Jesus, the Golgotha ​​was also surrounded by the third wall and placed inside the wall itself. The identification of the hill today is uncertain.

When the Roman city of Aelia Capitolina was built in Jerusalem, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, the temple was built over Aphrodite's Temple. In the 4th century CE, the mother of Emperor Constantine identified the cross on which Jesus was crucified and the Romans built the Church of Resurrection here.


#The Last Stops at Via Dolorosa

In the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, the last five stations are located on the Via Dolorosa. Here, according to tradition, the preparations for the execution, the crucifixion of Jesus and his burial were carried out. Here, too, there will be the resurrection of Jesus, according to tradition, three days after his death.

#Station 10 - Removing Jesus' Clothes

Up the stairs at the entrance to the church, where the Franks Chapel is today. This is the "chapel of clothing" that belongs to the Franciscan order and is adjacent to the front of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Here, the Romans stripped Jesus of his clothing and divided them among themselves, as the New Testament says: "After his crucifixion they divided his clothes, and sat there to keep his name" (Matthew 27:27-35). The event connects Jesus and King David, who wrote in the Book of Psalms: "They shall be cast apart for them, and on my garments they will cast down a gourd." The connection of fate between Jesus and David is emphasized in Christianity, For example in the perception of Jesus as "Messiah ben David". "This tradition is also attributed to traditions such as the one that sees the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, the birthplace of David, or at the Last Supper of Jesus, which was held just above David's grave.

#Station 11 - Jesus Nailed to the Cross

In Golgotha, on the second floor of the church, they nailed Jesus to the cross. Pay attention to the mosaic depicting Christ nailed to the Cross, with Mary, his mother, and Mary Magdalene at his feet.

#Station 12 - Jesus Died on the Cross

We are still in Golgotha. There is an icon here that shows Christ crucified and at the foot of the icon there is an altar that the Catholics kiss. Here is the rock on which Jesus was crucified. This is the holiest place for Catholicism.

#Station 13 - Bringing Jesus Down into his Mother's Arms

This station is also in Golgotha. It is quite small and has a statue of Mary and an altar underneath it. The statue in front of you was donated from Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, in the 18th century. Around it many of the pilgrims place offerings.

#Station 14 - The Tomb of Jesus

The last stop on Jesus' journey is his final stop - his grave. Here Jesus is placed in the tomb, in the Rotunda, a cylindrical structure with a dome. Here Jesus was buried in the tradition of Jesus and resurrected after three days. The tomb of Jesus belonged to his disciple, Joseph Haramati. He had donated his family's lot to Jesus, whom he had seen as his master. Incidentally, the Protestants recognize the tomb of Jesus in the Garden of the Holy Sepulchre, located in the north of the Old City.


Here is the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem:

https://youtu.be/TMlipJMyCU4



Ceremony in the Church:

https://youtu.be/J3USR2ridGY
American Colony
American Colony
#The American Colony in Jerusalem

The American Colony the city, is indeed a luxury hotel and restaurant, which hosts diplomats, UN personnel and journalists from all over the world, but in fact it is one of the most spectacular buildings in Jerusalem.

There is a real charming corner, which includes Arab arches, painted ceilings, colorful stone floors and a pleasant European garden. During the Mandate period, Winston Churchill and General Allenby were guests of this hotel. It's easy to understand why. It is also pleasant to just stroll around the hotel corridors.

The cosmopolitan bar here once served as a wine cellar and was converted into a bar, offering a variety of intimate and cozy kiosks. On summer evenings one can go out to the patio, the cozy inner garden, with the old fountain outside.

Outside, the hotel's popular restaurant, Arabesque, also operates. You can eat Middle Eastern gourmet food here like the giant hummus-lamb dish, which is big enough for two, as is the steak made of entrecote chunks. Both cost around $25 per serving.



#Tips

All the waiters here speak English, so no need to break your teeth in broken Hebrew.


#A closer look at the American Colony Hotel:

https://youtu.be/LXejp7HGn7Q


#Another look:

https://youtu.be/RwHv7RJ7Qf4
Chords Bridge
Chords Bridge
#The Suspension Bridge in Jerusalem

The Suspension Bridge, designed by Santiago Calatrava and is located at the entrance to the city. The architect designed the bridge to look like a harp and biblical Shofar, built from 4 different elements. Concrete and steel are used to hold the bridge, and glass and stone are used for paving and covering the walkway.

On this bridge today the light rail passes, and is also used for pedestrians. In recent years this bridge has become to a sort of symbol in the city, which has countless symbols.



#What is the Suspension Bridge?

The Suspension Bridge is a bridge that is suspended by cables. The cables hold up the bridge, and this makes the appearance that this bridge is suspended in midair.

Many suspension bridges have been built around the world in the past decades. The master designer of suspension bridges is Santiago Calatrava. Among other things, Calatrava planned the suspension bridge in Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao. He is considered one of the top bridge designers in the world, and has designed some of the most beautiful bridges in the world.



#A Closer Look at the Suspension Bridge in Jerusalem:

http://youtu.be/-RllE0nkF0E
Gerard Behar Centre
Gerard Behar Centre
#About the Building that Made History

You are near the Gerard Behar Center in Jerusalem. Today the center is a cultural center that serves as a center for independent productions in theater, music and dance for artists and performers in Jerusalem.

The center, once known as the "People's House", touched history when, in the 1960's, it was the site of the famous trial in the history of Israel - the Eichmann Trial.

The capture of the Nazi official, Hitler's deputy and directly responsible for a significant part of the Holocaust, was a formative event, when his trial was an opportunity for the State of Israel to demonstrate proper treatment for Nazi criminals after World War II. It was clear that the trial would intrigue the entire world media and that there would be a lot of media events that would generate national outbursts of national sentiment.

On the question of the location of the trial, even the first Prime Minister Ben-Gurion was personally involved. Since there was no suitable place in Jerusalem for a trial with hundreds of participants and journalists, Ben-Gurion sent his bureau chief, Teddy Kollek, to find a suitable place for the trial in the city. At the top of Bezalel Street stood the empty and unfinished building of the "People's House", a Jerusalem institution that existed since the beginning of the 19th century, but wandered among various sites in the city. In the 1940's, this permanent structure began to be built, but in the 1950's, due to the austerity that prevailed in Israel and the budget deficit, construction was halted. The building has since been empty on its skeleton, a kind of modern ruin.

When Kollek and Ben-Gurion chose this building to hold the trial, contributions were raised by the mayor of Jerusalem at the time, Mordechai Ish-Shalom, and the building was completed in favor of the trial and future uses.

Thus, in 1961 the construction of the "People's House" was completed. Indeed, it served as the venue of one of the most famous sentences in the world, the scene of the trial of the Nazi enemy Eichmann. From here it has become a cultural center and the Jerusalem municipality is full of content of a different kind.

In the 1980's, the building was renovated again by the Jerusalem Foundation. The building was then named after Gerard Becher, the son of the French millionaire who donated the money to renovate the building. The new planner, by the way, was the architect David Reznik, the same architect who in his youth planned the "People's House" and completed its construction in preparation for the famous trial.


First Station
First Station
#About Jerusalem's Ottoman Train Station

You are in one of Jerusalem's entertainment centers, the historical train station of the capital. The First Train Station is not a modern station. The station today is a popular going out area in the city, and is located in a modern train station.

The building and space here belong to the First Station of the city. The station, also known as the Khan Station, is in the Bekaa neighborhood in Jerusalem, between Hebron Way and Bethlehem Way.

This train station was built in 1892 as the last stop of the Jerusalem-Jaffa line, the first railroad line in Israel. The Turkish did not often build in Jerusalem, and the station was one of the only public building built in the city during their rule.

Except for the halt of operation during the War of Independence, the station operated almost continuously since the Ottoman rule, at the end of the 19th century, up to 1998. Then the section between Na'an and Jerusalem was close, because of the declining technical conditions. This was also the time when the First Station was closed for use.



#About the Jerusalem-Jaffa Line

Already by the mid-19th century Moshe Montefiore came up with the idea to build a railway in Israel. Montefiore, who wanted to build a modern and industrial country, claimed that one of the main difficulties for this to come true, was the severe shortage for transporting machinery and raw materials to such industries. After a lot of pleading with the Turkish Sultan Al-Hamid II, the Sultan approved the right to build and operated this line only 30 years later. The one who eventually bought this franchise was Joseph Navon, an enthusiastic Jerusalem businessman. Together with his partners, Navon tried gathering investors to build up the tracks. However he failed. The franchise was then sold to a French company, and this company eventually built the Jerusalem-Jaffa line, and built stations all along it.



#The First Station's History

In a festive ceremony, participants on September 26, 1892 greeted the first train to arrive from Jaffa to the Jerusalem station. This train went through the new stations that were built in Lod, Ramle, and others along the way, where water was refilled for the engine. With time, technology improved, and this trip only took 3 hours. This train was destined to become a very important and popular tool in Israel for the Turkish, and later for the British Mandate.

This is how the festive ceremony was opened at the First Station, and the era of trains in Palestine. Except for the participation of the important city members, representatives from the Turksh rule were present, and local Jews and Arabs. Among the crowd was the revivalist of the Hebrew language, Eliezer Ben Yehuda, who gave the machine the word in Hebrew, "Rakevet."

This is how the First Station was born in Jerusalem. At first it included a building with two floors that was build adjacent to another two buildings, each only one floor. There was a mechanism for switching the train's direction, a big shelter, and a water container to fill the locomotives.

The station's architecture was influenced by European elements from the Templars in the 19th century, and the station building is almost exactly the same at the station building in Jaffa. The construction materials used were a little different, in Jerusalem limestone rock was used from the Jerusalem area.

Throughout the years, the British added buildings to this area, like the thick concrete layer added to the top of the roof, to protect the public from bombings by Italian planes during the Brtitish mandate.

With the closing of the station and its operations at the end of the 20th century, the complex was abandonded until 2013, when the entertainment complex was built up here.



#A Closer Look at the First Station Today:

https://youtu.be/cgy9_L51Iuk
Hurva Synagogue
#About the Hurva Synagogue

The Hurva Synagogue in the middle of the Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem, is a sysnagogue named "Beit Jacob." This synagogue was built in the 18th century. A group of immigrants to Israel built this synagogue, whose leader was Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid. After being built, this group was unable to pay for the place, and the Arabs who lent the money and built the synagogue destroyed the building. Since then it has been referred to as "The ruins of the Ashkenazim."

Since then, the remains stood here for a long time. In the 19th century it was finaly rebuilt but an orthodox group from among the students of the Vilna Ga'on, Rabbi Eliahu ben Shlomo Zalman.

When the Jordanian army conquered the Old City in 1948, The Arab League destroyed the synagogue. Actually, the destruction occurred even before, during the fights over the Jewish Quarter, when Jordanian soldiers blew up the synagogue, along with others, and the Arab League destroyed what was left.

Since that time, for many years, the synagogue's ruins remained. After the Six Day War and the conquering of the city by the Israeli Defense Force, the build received the nickname "the ruins," or in Hebrew- Hurva. The remains were untouched until 2010 when it was again rebuilt.



#A Closer Look at Dancing at the Hurva Synagogue:

https://youtu.be/QFKniDxXgn8
Time Elevator
#About the Jerusalem Attraction, the Time Elevator

The Time Elevator in Jerusalem is a fun attraction, that enables you to go on a simulated journey in a kind of time elevator to the secrets of Jerusalem, the capital of Israel. Using cutting edge technology, the viewers feel as though they are going down to the depths of history and the city, and are becoming part of it.

In the Time Elevator visitors are accompanied by a Jewish man named Shalem, played by the famous Topol. Descending down the elevator with Topol, to Jerusalem's underground, going to different time periods in the city's history.

During the tours of the different time periods in the city, we meet face to face famous figures from the past, people who have built the city, ruled it, and played important roles in its past. Figures like the King Solomon, the prophet Jeremiah, the kings Zedekiah and Herod, and many others who were important, all a part of this 3,000 year old journey.

This attraction is available in many languages like English, Russian, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Chinese, and Mandarin.

Besides the Time Elevator's journey through time, this place also offers different attractions, such as a journey to space, a journey into the human body, and a journey into the wonderful past, present, and future of Jerusalem.



#A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/jp7ivAXuw58



#An Example of the Movies in the Time Elevator:

https://youtu.be/2FaWyI5XAwM
Montefiore Windmill
#About the Mishkanot's Windmill

Sir Montefiore's Windmill, located in the Mishkenot neighborhood, is one of the symbols of the city of Jerusalem, outside the walls of the Old City.

This mill is an icon, a historic landmark and one of the most prominent buildings in the Jerusalem skyline, especially among those outside the walls of the Old City. Montefiore Windmill is named, as you understand, after the donor who financed its establishment - the British Jewish philanthropist Moses Montefiore. It was built in 1857, about 12 years after the Mishkenot neighborhood was built. The mill was part of a project Montefiore undertook to help the Jewish community in pre-20th century Israel, to provide for its own needs and to gain economic control over its fate.

The Mishkenot windmill is right at the entrance to the old Jerusalem neighborhood. In fact, the mill is the first building built in the city in 1858. Originally it served as a flour mill, but after two decades it stopped grinding and was used for other purposes.

In 1891 the windmill was used as a flour mill. For the grinding of wheat, the Jewish community began using steam-powered windmills. But the abandonment of the mill did not lead to its neglect as a central building in the neighborhood, and it continued to be used for cultural purposes and community service.

In 1948, during the War of Independence, the mill served as a lookout point for Jewish fighters in Jerusalem. The British reaction was harsh, as the windmill was bombarded by the British army, in an attack known as the cynical British "Operation Don Quixote."

In recent years the mill has been restored, and nowadays it is a popular tourist attraction in the city. There is a small museum that tells the story of the life of the mill's initiator, Sir Moses Montefiore. Even a reconstructed model of his chariot, the one from the famous song, is next to it. This is a replica of Montefiore's chariot, since the original chariot, which he used on his travels in the Holy Land, was burned in 1986.

The stone plaza around the mill is an excellent observation point over Ben Hinnom Valley, the place where they used to sacrifice young children. Above it you can see the old city of Jerusalem and of course you can watch the neighborhoods of Mishkenot and Yemin Moshe, nearby.




A Closer Look at the Montefiore Windmill in the Jerusalem Neighborhood of Mishkanot:

https://youtu.be/tyavJPJU-hc



The Song about Moses Montefiore:

https://youtu.be/ZYTHfU1CG6I



History of the Windmill (In Hebrew):

https://youtu.be/943yPsfyRWI
Abu Shukri
#The Excellent Hummus in the Christian Quarter

Abu Shukri is located here, on the Hagai Street 63, across the Via Dolorosa It doesn't boasts such titles as "the original," but about prestige and quality. It just offers the best hummus, lemon flavored and generous, and as is common in Jerusalem, with lots of tahini.

The hummus is served with onion and tomato slices, some pickled vegetables, and a few hot falafel balls. There is also great hummus seeds, hummus full, masabacha, and even meat dishes like chicken skewers and more. But the hummus definitely wins here.

In the right season, you will also find fresh pomegranate juice at Abu Shukri.

Hagai Street 63, Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem. 02-6271538.



#Opening Hours:

Sunday-Friday - 7:00 am to 5:30 pm.

Saturday - 7:00 am to 7:30 pm.
3. First fall of Jesus
#3. Jesus Falls for the First Time

On the third stop along the Via Dolorosa, is where according to belief, Jesus fell for the first time. According to tradition Jesus fell here, for the heavy weight he was carrying on his back, forced by the Romans to carry a cross.

The descriptions of all his falls on his last journey are not mentioned in the New Testament. This is a later tradition that started developing around the 13th century.

On this station there is a small chapel to commemorate this event. Inside you can see a painting of Jesus kneeling under the cross, around him angels are mourning his fate.

The Church belongs to the Armenians, and for many years was maintained by Polish Catholics. The Polish management over the chapel was a on a lease for almost 2,000 years. The connection between Poland and this station was in 1947, when Polish soldiers, living then in the country, donated a few statues to the chapel.

During the Ottoman Empire this chapel became a Muslim wash house.

This station is located right near the Austrian Hospice, at the junction of the Hagai and Via Dolorosa streets, there is also an underground passageway from the chapel to the fourth station where Mary will meet Jesus on his final journey.



A Closer Look at the Third Station on the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem:

https://youtu.be/UvsDF_ZaCUI
Matam al Sultan
#The Best Hummus in the Old City

Matam al Sultan el Baghdadi, or "Abu Hassan," is one of the Old City's secrets. This is a small restaurant located on Bab Huta Street, 21, walking distance from the Lion Gate, hummus here is hand grounded, like in the old days, with a pestle and mortar.

Abu Ali, the man who owns the place, knows no other way to make hummus, and this type of hummus is referred to as "Asli Hummus," the real hummus. If you are all full from the hummus, try ordering a salad - the vegetables are cut thinly, and topped with some heavenly tahini, and those who would like meat can have the wonderful kebabs.

The name el Baghdadi comes from Abu Hassan's ancestors, who came to Israel from Iraq 200 years ago.



#How to Get Here?

To get here, walk through the Flower Gate, keep walking past "Uncle Mustache's Falafel," well-known for the speciality shaped falafel. A little after this restaurant turn left and walk down the street, through Antoina Street. On your right you will see Qadasia School, keep walking south, and a little way before the Lion Gate you will see the hummus place on your left, the "Abu Hassan" el-Sultan restaurant.



#Tips

If you are coming as a group, you should reserve ahead of time: 02-6276812.

Opening hours: 8 am - 5 pm.

Address: Bab Huta, 21, Jerusalem.




#A Closer Look at Abu Hassan of Matam al Sultan making his Asli Hummus:

https://youtu.be/rarDhdUgcZM
8. Jesus Meets the Women of Jerusalem
#8. The Eighth Station Where Jesus Talks to the Women of Jerusalem

On the Hanka Street is the eighth station, which is a little out of the way from the Via Dolorosa. This station is called, "Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem." Here it is written on a stone wall on which a cross is seen on the Crucifixion Hill (IC XC NIKA).

And so Jesus met the women of the city of Jerusalem. These were simple and poor women. The women are sad and mourning him, but Jesus predicts bad things were to come to the city, "Do not cry to me, cry for yourselves and your children."

From the New Testament:

"A large number of people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. Jesus turned and said to them, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me; weep for yourselves and for your children. For the time will come when you will say, ‘Blessed are the childless women, the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed!’ Then “‘they will say to the mountains, “Fall on us!” and to the hills, “Cover us!”’[a] For if people do these things when the tree is green, what will happen when it is dry?”"

The place of the station was officially decided on in the 19th century, in the area of the Greek Orthodox Charalambos, a monastery dedicated to the memory a Greek martyr from the 3rd century, and is located on the Hanka Street. Most of the time, this monastery is closed to the public, and pilgrims pray here, next to a stone that was put into the monastery's wall.

Since the Charalambos monastery closes off the way towards the Golgotha Hill, pilgrims must retrace their steps and walk around the church on their way back to the Via Dolorosa.



A Closer Look at the Eigth Station of the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem:

https://youtu.be/oxUfzuqM7qY
Tower of David
#About the Citadel

The Tower of David is a medieval fortress near the Jaffa Gate, the historic entrance gate to the Old City. Remains of impressive fortifications from the Second Temple period, dating to the Byzantine period, the Middle Ages and the Ottoman period, were exposed in the fortress.

The most familiar part of the fortress is the one located in its southern part and protruding far away. This is the turret of the mosque from the Ottoman period, which is known as the Tower of David. Despite the name of the fortress named after it, the Tower of David is only a nickname. There is no historical connection between King David and the fortress. Although it has defended the city for thousands of years, King David was only many generations later.

Either way, it is a fascinating archeological site rich in archeological remains. These remains attest to the past full of vicissitudes of the Old City, and can be seen as representative of the history of the city of Jerusalem, its different periods.

By the way, from the citadel towers you can see a magnificent Jerusalem landscape. There is a 360-degree view here, eastward to the Old City of Jerusalem and to the new city in the west.



#Why is the Name a Citadel So Confusing?

If the name of the citadel reflects a connection that does not really exist to King David, then where did the name "Tower of David" come from? - the source of the name is apparently an incorrect Christian interpretation of the writings of Josephus, and perhaps also the Muslim name of the fortress "Marhab Nabi Daoud" - both tied "David" to the fortress, which created confusion or perhaps even a kind of marketing branding ancient place. In any case, during the 19th century, visitors from Western countries attributed the wrong name on the turret of the Turkish mosque.

So much so that this name "caught on" until it seems that many members of the Jewish community are sure that this fortress was built by King David and imagine that here, right here, near the elevator, he once stood waiting for her to come ...



#History of the Citadel of the Tower of David

The fortress was first built during King Herod's reign. Three guard towers were built there. Today, only one of them survived, probably the one now known as the 'Fasael Tower' - the largest of the three.

This fort was the last point the Romans faced during the Great Revolt. After the destruction, the Romans set up their legion camp on the ruins of Herod's towers. In the archaeological excavations there were tiles and bricks with imprints of the Roman legion.

The Arabs in turn turned the place into a large fortress and created an inner courtyard. Jerusalem was then ruled by the Crusaders, who added large halls around the fortress for the use of their garrison.

Days passed and the Ayyubids and the Mamluks came, thickening the walls of the fortress and surrounding it with tall towers. The Turks, who came after them, turned the fortress into a military camp and placed cannons inside. In the 17th century they added to it the minaret of the mosque, the "Tower of David" we know today. If you look around the fortress, you will see the "moat", the deep trench that the Ottoman Turks added to protect it from attack.

Part of the moat, incidentally, was filled with earth in 1898. This was done on the side of the Jaffa gate, in order to create a convenient passage for the carriage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, who came to visit Jerusalem. To this end, a small section of the wall of the moat was also removed.

It was the British, who during the British Mandate period turned the fort into a museum. In the 1920's they allowed exhibitions of young Israeli art to be exhibited here. The tradition of those "Tower of David" exhibitions continues today, and in the State of Israel, the small museum has become a real museum, transforming the citadel into a cultural and tourist center.



#The Tower of David Museum of the History of Jerusalem

In the Tower of David is the Museum of the History of Jerusalem. This museum is considered one of the leading historical museums in the world. It presents in Hebrew, Arabic and English the story of the city of Jerusalem, its importance to the three great religions and prominent events in its history, from the beginning of the second millennium BCE to the present era and its transformation into the capital of the State of Israel.

The museum presents the story of the city in modern and sophisticated ways and with digital and interactive means that enrich the experience and enable visitors to learn about Jerusalem in unusual ways. All this is done through computers and screens, as well as games and apps developed for all ages, including children.

A night show in the citadel tells the story of Jerusalem, through a nightly spectacle, a stunning video display, breathtaking animation, effective sounds and narration, all enveloping the viewer in a multi-sensory experience. All these bring together visitors with the ancient cultures, religions, rulers and myths that are projected on the walls and archeological remains themselves. The Night Spectacular of the Tower of David is a real attraction for children.

In addition to the walking paths built between the archaeological finds in the courtyard of the citadel, you can go up and walk on the walls of the fortress, on the promenade that offers a spectacular view of both the Old and New City.



#A Closer Look is the Exhibition at the Tower of David:

https://youtu.be/ayt62M0XbtU



#A Closer Look at the Tower of David from Above:

https://youtu.be/WCh6zM5Bs2k


Uncle Mustache
#The Best Hummus in the Old City

At Uncle Mustache's Falafel, you can find the falafel and hummus artist Abu Shnab, nicknamed "Uncle Mustache."

They have excellent hummus and Kuba here, but most of the people who come here and stand in line, are waiting for the falafel, saying it's the best falafel in the Old City. It is not simply the taste, but the shape. Hamsa's falafel have special shapes (Uncle Mustache's grandson who shapes the falafel).

Uncle Mustache has a big beard and he was very generous and kind, this is how many American tourists remember him from the 1970's. Many of these Americans return to this spot, and discover that barely anything has changed here.



#Tips

Opening hours: 8 am - 7 pm.

Address: Flower Gate Street, 3.



#A Closer View at Uncle Mustache's Falafel:

https://youtu.be/jEe53B7KMs0
6. Veronica Christi
#6. Veronica Wipes Jesus' Face

The sixth station is a stone pillar that says in Latin: "Station No. 6 - The righteous Veronica wiped the sweat from the face of Jesus." Tradition sees the house opposite the stone pillar with the inscription, Veronica's house.

Here, in the Via Dolorosa, Veronica, according to belief, helped wipe Jesus' face and revealed the portrait of Jesus in her handkerchief.

Veronica was, according to legend, one of the few righteous who helped Jesus in the journey of agony. She handed him a white handkerchief to wipe the blood from his face. When the handkerchief came back to her, she realized that the portrait of his face had been imprinted on it.

This station, which is not mentioned in the New Testament, is located on Via Dolorosa. And is now in the possession of the Melkite, the Greek Catholic Christians. They purchased the place in 1883, after centuries of Christianity not present at this sixth station. It was they who fixed the column with the inscription.



#Why did Veronica Help Jesus?

Christian tradition knows that Veronica suffered for 12 years from blood that burst from her body for no reason. At the time, when she touched the hem of Jesus' clothes, she was healed. During the Crucifixion, she had come to accompany him on his last journey and wanted to ease him. So she took his face and saw the miracle of the portrait of Jesus drowned in her handkerchief. Thus the handkerchief became a holy object that could heal the sick and save others.

Christian tradition knows how to tell about the most famous patient who was treated with the help of the handkerchief. It is said that when Tiberius, the Roman emperor in the days of Jesus, heard the story, he summoned Veronica to Rome to see the wonderful handkerchief. After the Emperor himself was cured of a serious illness, when he looked or touched it, the holy handkerchief was given to him by Veronica. According to tradition, it is preserved to this day in the Vatican and is held in St. Peter's Church in Rome.



Here is the Sixth Stop of Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem:

https://youtu.be/xEW2OgMu_JY
Western Wall
#About the Holiest Place for the Jewish People

You are facing the holiest place for the Jewish people. This is the Western Wall of the Second Jewish Temple. Known as the "Kotel" in Hebrew, this is the only surviving remnant, after the destruction of the Roman Revolt by Titus, the commander of the Roman Legions, in the year 70 CE.

For hundreds of years, after the destruction of the Temple, the Western Wall was not a prayer place for Jews living in the country. It was only in the 16th century, when the government began prohibiting Jews from ascending to the Temple Mount, that the Western Wall became a place of Jewish prayer and a symbol of yearning for the Temple. At the foot of the Western Wall there was a narrow alleyway where the Jews prayed as close as possible to the site of the Temple.

After the establishment of the State of Israel, when Jerusalem was divided (1948-1967), the Kingdom of Jordan ruled the Western Wall and prohibited Jewish access to the Wall. Many Jews used to go to Mount Zion and pray on King David's tomb, watching from the top of the building toward the Temple Mount and hoping for a day when they could go back and pray at the Western Wall.

At the end of the Six Day War, the worshipers streamed en masse to the Jewish Quarter and the Western Wall. Then houses of the Mughrabi neighborhood, which were adjacent to the Western Wall, were demolished and the large prayer plaza adjacent to the Western Wall was built.



#The Wall's Structure

The Kotel is one of four huge retaining walls built during the first century BCE, in the renovation of Herod's Second Temple. The builders then created Mount Moriah, a huge square with the Temple in its center. The length of the Western Wall was half a kilometer and about 30 meters high. It was built on the bedrock of Jerusalem, with the space between the walls and the mountain filled to create a huge, paved plaza, with an area of ​​144,000 square meters, an area similar to that of 12 soccer fields.

The wall was built of hewn stones, huge in size, each weighing between 2 and 5 tons. Each of the stones of the Western Wall is carved in the manner typical of the construction of Herod's reign, with its slightly protruding stone center, as opposed to the carved stone frame, smoother and more submerged.

If you stand near the wall and look up, you will see that each layer of stones is retreated in about three centimeters, compared to the layer below. This is a construction technique whose function is to provide stability and strength to the ancient structure, since the construction of the massive structures and retaining walls at the time did not yet use concrete.

Today the Western Wall is used for religious services and gatherings, and many come to celebrate the Bar Mitzvah ceremony, completion of a military tracks, and other celebrations.



#How Did the Western Wall Remain Intact, and Was Not Destroyed?

For many years, the belief among the Jews was that the Western Wall of the Temple had never been destroyed. Already in the first few centuries after the destruction, the generations were amazed at how the fate of the Western Wall improved and it survived, unlike the other three walls.

The religious answer was that it was the wall closest to the resting place of the Divine Presence. The Ark of the Covenant in the First Temple near the Western Wall. This was the case in the First Temple. But in the Second Temple the Ark of the Covenant was no longer in the Temple, so what saved the Wall from destruction?

The claim of the believers is that even if the Holy Ark has disappeared, the Divine Presence never moved from the Western Wall of the Temple and therefore it continued to preserved from destruction.

But there is another story, a Jewish legend, which explains the preservation of the Western Wall from destruction. According to the story, Titus, the commander of the Roman Legion who conquered Jerusalem, ordered four of the senior commanders under him to destroy the Jewish Temple. Each of them was ordered to demolish one of the walls of the Temple. The one who was left to destroy the Western Wall tried to carry out the order, but failed. When Titus asked him why he had not completed his ordered, the frightened commander replied that if he had destroyed the last remaining wall, future generations could not see how impressive the Temple was, before it was destroyed by Titus. Titus, pleased with the flattering answer, left the wall standing.

By the way, we know today that the Western Wall was much taller in height. Over the generations, the wall was almost completely destroyed and what remains of it is the Western Wall of today.



#A Closer Look at the Western Wall in Jerusalem:
https://youtu.be/G23xViUtrNQ?t=15s
Zedekiah's Cave
#About Zedekiah's Cave


Zedekiah's Cave is the largest cave in Israel and one of the most interesting places in Jerusalem. In the past it was identified as a cave through which Zedekiah, the last of the kings of Judah in the First Temple period, fled from the Chaldeans.

This was in the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem, when Zedekiah, king of Judah, fled to Jericho. Today we know that the gate between the walls, from which Zedekiah fled, is located in the south of the city, but the name "Zedekiah's Cave" stuck to the cave. The water spills that appear at the end of the cave are still referred to as Zedekiah's tears.

There is also a Muslim tradition linking the cave to the place where Korach and his congregation were swallowed up in the ground, as punishment for Korach's attempt to rebel against Moses.



#How did They discover Zedekiah's Cave?

The truly amazing story is how Zedekiah's cave was discovered by a dog. The story begins with the owner of that dog, an American doctor and missionary named Doctor James Berkeley. Berkeley was involved in the 19th century in the study of the Bible in Jerusalem. After him is named the "Berkeley Gate," which is a gate to the Temple Mount, from the Second Temple period. Berkeley discovered this gate at the southern end of what is now the Women's Section at the Western Wall.

But let's go back to our story. In 1854, Dr. Berkeley and his son took their dog for a walk. At one point the dog disappeared and all attempts to find him failed. When the father and son had given up on finding the dog, they suddenly discovered a deep hole. From there they heard the bark of a dog. After the two managed to rescue the poor dog from the depths of the earth, they returned to their homes. But that evening Dr. Berkeley decided to return to the mysterious pit and brought some of his aides. He went down into the depths of the hole and discovered a huge cave in front of him. It was an amazing cave the size and beauty of which Berkeley had studied all night.

This is how the Zedekiah Cave, the largest cave in Jerusalem and in Israel, was discovered. It is considered one of the most spectacular sites in the city and is open to the general public.



#Tour Zedekiah's Cave:

https://youtu.be/Nh4MZwapLQE
2. Church of the Condemnation
Mahane Yehuda Market
1. Pretorium
Via Dolorosa
Cardo