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Jewish Quarter in Budapest
Budapest Jewish Quarter
#About the Jewish Quarter that has Become the Center of Nightlife in Budapest

Neither the Holocaust nor the Communist rule succeeded in destroying the Jews from Budapest, certainly not from the Jewish quarter, in the city's seventh district. There are about 25 active synagogues in the city, and in the Jewish quarter itself there are many shops that sell kosher food, with signs in Hebrew that emphasize this in their windows.

On Friday nights, you can still see in the Jewish Quarter in Budapest, those who are wearing Shtreimels, who have finished their prayers in the synagogue. On Saturdays, one can still see children wearing skullcaps and girls in long dresses.

Today the Jewish Quarter belongs to others. Since many young people moved here, mainly due to the low prices of apartments, it is considered a trendy and pleasant entertainment place, attracting a young and high-quality crowd from all over the city.

In 1900, the Jewish population in Budapest numbered 170,000 - a quarter of the city's population. Today, the city has less than half of that population, even though it is the largest Jewish community in Central Europe, the proportion to the city's population is minimal.




A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/clUZCUF9SE8
Dohny utca Synagoga
Dohány Street Synagogue
#About the Big Synagogue of Budapest

Dohány Street Synagogue (Dohány utca Synagoga) was built in 1859. This is without a doubt the most prominent and important place in the Jewish quarter of the city.

The "Tabakgasse Synagogue" as it is sometimes called, is the largest synagogue in Europe. Why "Tabakgasse" you ask? It means tobacco in Hungarian. The three floors of the synagogue can hold up to 3,000 people. It is interesting to note the contrast between the design of the building, which includes Islamic features, and what was introduced into it, which included Christian and church characteristics, such as organ, stage at the front and more.

On top of it being an operating synagogue, the building is also the site for the memorial of the 565,000 Hungarian Jews who were murdered in the Holocaust. During the Nazi occupation of Hungary, the synagogue was included in the Jewish Ghetto, and it became a central location for detaining many Jews.

The building includes also the Jewish Museum of Budapest, and also many Jewish graves of the Jews from the quarter. There is a monument and a plaque for the memory of the Hungarian Jews who were killed during World War I and were murdered during the Holocaust by the Nazis.

The entrance to the synagogue is with a paid ticket, with the funds being used to the upkeep of the building.



#Architecture of the Synagogue Building

The synagogue was designed in the Mori style, Islamic and Northern-African, characterized by arches and decorations that repeat themselves. The style here combines Gothic elements with varied Islamic characteristics.

The architect Ludwig Förster placed at the exterior of the building two towers 43 meters tall. At the head of the towers are domes shaped like onions. In the center of the facade is a window in the shape of a flower and next to it are decorated windows.

The Islamic characteristics are also reflected in the colorful ceramic tile in which the synagogue is expected from the outside and the synagogue floor, where you can see a mosaic with geometric illustrations. Its walls are also decorated with gilt and colorful geometric shapes.

The interior of the synagogue contains, as mentioned, various elements borrowed from Christianity. The most prominent is the organ, which was added to ease the atmosphere in the synagogue and make it happier. This was the practice in the synagogues of the Neolog movement, which grew stronger at that time. Another characteristic of this type is the placement of the synagogue stage at the front rather than the center of the synagogue, as has always been the case. Notice also the two huge and impressive chandeliers hanging from the ceiling.


#History of the Synagogue

The synagogue was built after the Jewish community of the city grew quickly during the 18th century and the 19th century, and reached 30,000 people.

This is how the new synagogue was built during 1854-1859. It was built in the Mori style, the North African style, an exotic decision that was interesting and even trendy at the time. Different from other synagogues, an organ was installed inside, reminded more of a Christian church than a traditional synagogue. The organ has 5,000 pipes, Among others, musicians such as the composer and piano genius Franz Liszt and composer Camille Saint-Saëns.

In 1939 Nazi supporters burned the synagogue, and during the war the remains were used for the Nazi radio station. Throughout the war the synagogue continued to be damaged from allied air raids.

After the war, the building was returned to the ownership of the Jewish community of Budapest, however resources for the reconstruction were limited.

In the 1990's, with the fall of the Communist rule in Hungary, the building was renovated and rebuilt. This is also when the monument for the memorial for the Jewish Holocaust victims was added, including the memorial for the Hungarian Jews and Raoul Wallenberg.



#The Uniqueness of the Big Synagogue of Budapest

Inside the synagogue, you can see many elements borrowed from Christianity. The most prominent of these is the organ, of course, added to a more joyful atmosphere. This was the practice in the synagogues of the Neolog Movement, a movement of Hungarian Jewry that aspired to assimilate and assimilate into the general Hungarian society. Its most prominent characteristics were the introduction of synagogue organs and mixed choirs, boys and girls together.

Other prominent features here are the position of the stage in front of the synagogue rather than its center.

Things that can not be seen during the visit here are as follows:

The language of the prayers, which, as the practice of theologians, is the local language, in this case, Hungarian.

The choir of the mixed synagogue - a choir of men and women together.



#Herzl's Childhood Neighborhood

In fact, you are in the childhood neighborhood of Theodore Herzl, the visionary of the State of Israel, Theodor Herzl, for you. It is here that the future of the Zionist movement and the establishment of the State of Israel grew.

Theodor Herzl was born here in the house next to the synagogue on Dohany Street. The surrounding neighborhood was the area where he grew up, played and studied young Herzl. In this synagogue, imagine Binyamin Ze'ev Herzl, a Torah scholar, at his Bar Mitzvah ceremony in 1873. Incidentally, Herzl mentions the event several times in his book "The Tabakschul Synagogue."

Indeed, the small square in front of the synagogue is now called "Herzl Square."




A Closer Look at the Synagogue with the Sounds of the Organ in the Background:

https://youtu.be/qfUX2QdRwFs
Museum Judenplatz
Museum Judenplatz
#The Museum of Jewish History in the Middle Ages

The Jewish Museum is located in Judenplatz, Jewish Square. The Jewish Square has always been a central place for the Jews of Vienna and today is the symbol that connects the heritage of the Jews of Vienna from the past, to the present and the future.

The Jewish Museum opened in 2000 with the aim of commemorating the Jews of Vienna who perished in the Holocaust and the anti-Semitic events that have been afflicted on the Jews in Vienna since 1938. The museum is built of different layers dealing with the Jewish history of Vienna in the Middle Ages.

In the lower basement, for example, you can see the remains of the ancient medieval synagogue. These are remnants of the synagogue that once stood here, before it was destroyed in the fire of 1421. Alongside them there are exhibits that reflect the way of life, culture and society of the Jews in Vienna. It is important to know that before the Nazi occupation there was a large and influential Jewish community in the city.

To summarize the experience, you can also see here a film about Jewish life in the present period - a fascinating film worth watching.

The museum also has a database of all the Jewish victims who died between 1938 and 1945.

May they rest in peace.



#Tips

Entrance is free for children up to the age of 14.

On Saturdays the museum is closed.
The Shrine of the Book
The Shrine of the Book
#About the Shrine of the Book in the Israel Museum

In the Israel Museum is the Shrine of the Book, built in 1965, and its purpose is to preserve and display the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Qumran Scrolls.

The shrine has a unique design, which over the years has become a symbol of the city.

This is a treasure for the Jewish people. In the shrine are handwritten ancient writings, very rare and special, especially the Dead Sea Scrolls -the most important archeological findings of the 20th century.

The scrolls are extremely delicate, what makes displaying them for a long period of time very problematic. So, each scroll is displayed for a few months, up to six, and then it is replaced by another, and the first scroll is put into storage, to let it 'rest' from its exposure to light.

Near the shrine is a very specific model of Jerusalem from the period of the Second Temple. The model gives a connection between the handwritten scrolls and the history of Israel. There are many treasures here, like the Aleppo Codex, a precise and authoritative manuscript written in Tiberias in the 10th century CE.

Through these texts, these scrolls give us information about the lives of the big Jewish communities of the past who wrote them.


#What are the Dead Sea Scrolls?

The Dead Sea Scrolls, also called the Qumran Scrolls and the Judean Desert Scrolls, seem to be the greatest archeological discovery to be made in Israel.

The first scrolls were discovered inside ceramic vases in a cave near the Qumran ruins, on the northwest cliffs of the Dead Sea, in the Judean Desert. The one who discovered them was Mohammed a-Deeb, a Bedouin shepherd, who was looking for a lost sheep, in 1947, and saw the vase with three scrolls inside. From 1947 up to 1958, hundreds of scrolls were found in other caves in the same area.

These are scrolls that contain texts from Biblical books, or other books that were not included in the Bible called external books. Other scrolls contained identities and letters, mostly written about Papyrus.

Researchers estimate that these scrolls were written between the 3rd century BC and the 1st century, right before the destruction of the Second Temple in the year 70 CE. They are considered the earliest Hebrew texts that have ever been discovered.



#The Structure's Architecture

The original purpose of the structure was to preserve and display the first seven scrolls to have been found in 1947 in the Qumran. It was designed in the 1960's as a building with the feeling of a shrine, and was opened in 1965. It is considered a stepping stone towards modern architecture.

The building's design was made by Jewish-American architects Armand Bartos and Frederick Kiesler. They decided to design the building, with a white dome-like top, a reminder of the vase covers the scrolls were found in. The white color contrasts with the black wall put next to it, what fits with the description about the "sons of light," as these writers saw themselves, against the "sons of darkness," their enemies. The corridor on the way to the entrance reminds a cave, again reminding the location of the scrolls.

The structure is located next to impressive and official places for the State of Israel, like the Knesset, Government buildings, and the National Library, indicating the importance of the scrolls, and the structure that contains them.



A Closer Look at the Inside of the Shire on the Book:

https://youtu.be/uvZaEJiBcJw



A Closer Look at the Outside of the Shire on the Book:

https://youtu.be/M56ksGV-cs4

Judaism

SS and Gestapo Headquarters
SS and Gestapo Headquarters
#About the Terror Center of the Nazi Gestapo in World War II

The building where you are standing hosted the headquarters for the Gestapo and SS until the end of World War II. Initially, this headquarter connected the Jewish Ghetto with the Polish part of Warsaw. From here the orders were issued and here the Jewish suspects were interrogated.

When the termination of the Jewish people started, what was called the "Final Solution," the Nazis were able to observe high up from their windows, onto Umschlagplatz Square. From there the SS oversaw the loading of thousands of Jews onto train cars and to their deaths, towards Treblinka Death Camp.

At the end of the war, the Nazis destroyed the entire Ghetto and its buildings, besides a few buildings used by the Gestapo. This is how this building was not damaged at all, being the headquarters.

Since the war and until now, the building was used as research labs for the University of Warsaw. At the entrance is a sign in memory of the history of the place.
The Orphanage of Janusz Korczak
The Orphanage of Janusz Korczak
#About the Great Educator's Orphanage

There is not much of the original institution at the orphanage of Janusz Korczak. This is a fairly clear fact, given the tragic history that led to his death in the Holocaust.

Korczak, a Jewish educator, physician and writer, was a famous figure in Europe, with a well-balanced radio program and a well-known children's book author. At the orphanage he founded in Warsaw in 1912, he employed pioneering educational methods and examined and advanced educational ideas.

In the courtyard of the orphanage stands a monument to Korczak. It commemorates his death in the gas chambers, together with his students, but also the educational life of the "old doctor," as they called him in better times.

The orphanage operated here until the establishment of the Jewish Ghetto. With the issuance of the Nazi order, which required all Jews to move into the Jewish Ghetto, the entire orphanage moved to 33 Chlodna Street, where it worked for some time before moving to its last residence on Sliska Street.

From the orphanage in the Ghetto, the children were taken in early August 1942 together with their teachers to the Umschlagplatz. Korczak himself, a famous man of international standing, refused the Nazi proposal to be released from death and went with his students to Treblinka extermination camp. There, they were all murdered in the gas chambers.

In the last place of the orphanage, on Sliska Street, nothing can be seen. In its place, there is today a green park, which was created after the war. In fact, the park was built on the ruins of the building and adjacent buildings, all destroyed when the Nazis liquidated the entire Jewish Ghetto.



#Lines for the Character of Janusz Korczak

The Jewish educator Dr. Janusz Korczak was the director of a Jewish orphanage in Warsaw and an admired educator. Before the war he was a real radio star who hosted a regular program on education and children. The Nazis, who recognized his name, freed him from having to go on the trains to the concentration camp, but Janusz Korczak refused and decided not to leave his students even in their deaths, and he accompanied them in a long convoy to the trains, which led them all to thier deaths.

And not only his courage and love for his students and the children of his orphanage stand in the merit of this great educator. Korczak was one of the first educators in the world to introduce democratic education. His orphanage gave the children a sort of self-administered automaton. The orphanage included a parliament, a legislative committee, a weekly newspaper and even a rabbinic court, headed by child judges, who changed every week. Every Saturday, the children's courts met to discuss complaints that were filed that week against children and adults alike, teachers and other workers. The children had the right to prosecute even Korczak himself, who was very often tried ...

In the orphanages, he led, each child received an older mentor. Thus the young children drew a personal example and constant instruction, while the older ones assumed responsibility and became young and thoughtful teachers. This method is currently implemented in educational institutions throughout the world. Korczak conceived it.



Video Presentation on Janusz Korczak:

https://youtu.be/NX1k_T_jdos
Neus Synagoge Berlin
New Synagogue Berlin
#About the Synagogue that was Restored After it was Burned on Kristallnacht

As early as the 19th century, the New Synagogue (Neus Synagoge Berlin) was one of the brightest buildings in the city. Its large gold dome, 50.2 meters high, one can spot from all over the city. On both sides of the dome, you will see two smaller domes that remind of Muslim mosques. The synagogue was built between 18599 and 1866, and was initially the largest and most beautiful synagogue in Germany.

During Kristallnacht, between November 9th and 10th, 1938, the Nazis tried to set the building on fire. One policemen standing in the neighborhood managed to prevent the fire, claiming that the building was for preservation. However, the fate of the building haunted him. In 1943, the synagogue was destroyed by Allied bombings. Its reconstruction began only a few decades later, in 1988.

Today the synagogue is not active, but you can find the Centrum Judaicum, which is a Jewish Cultural Center. The museum also has a permanent exhibition that presents the life of the Jews in the city, changing exhibitions that teach about Jewish history and contemporary art, as well as a historical archives. In the main hall there are 3,200 seats for worshipers who used to come here in the past.



#Architecture of the Synagogue

In April 1857, an architectural competition was held in the city of Berlin to design the new synagogue. The architect Eduard Knoblauch was in charge of the competition, but since he was not able to choose any of the plans, he designed the building himself. Two years later in 1859, Knoblauch fell ill, and the building continued by Friedrich August Stüller, a friend of Knoblauch. The construction was complete in 1861, but the interior was delayed and concluded only in 1866. The cost of all the construction amounted to about 750,000 thaler.

The design of the synagogue is a tribute to the architecture of the Iberian Peninsula. On the façade of the building you will see colored stones and terra cotta, and the caption: "Open the gates and bring the righteous, the guard of the faithful" (Yeshayahu 26:2) The width of the front is 29 meters and the length of the synagogue is 97 meters. This building is one of the first built in Berlin in the modern era using modern construction methods.



#The Organ Quarrel

The community leaders of Berlin wanted to install an organ in the new synagogue, a musical instrument that was very closely associated with the church. Jewish leaders forbade the introduction of the instrument, for reasons of "following in the laws of the gentiles." In order to try to resolve the dispute, the committee invited the opinion of well-known rabbis in Germany, and here too the opinions were split into two:

The Orthodox Rabbis did not allow any kind of organ use in the synagogue, neither on the Sabbath nor on weekdays.

Reformist Rabbi Abraham Geiger, on the other hand, ridiculed the situation. In 1862 it was determined that playing an organ on the Sabbath by a gentile does not violate or contradict the Halakhah.



#Tips

It has recently been reported that the synagogue is temporarily closed. If you intend to enter it, try and find out if it has reopened first.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/2TxFImu-Id0
Balat Ahrida
Balat Ahrida Synagogue
#About the Oldest Synagogue in Istanbul

The Balat Ahrida Synagogue, located in the Balat district on the Golden Horn, is the oldest synagogue in Istanbul. The neighborhood in which it is built is a relatively poor neighborhood, with quite a few impressive historical buildings. It was originally built by the Jews of the Ottoman city of Arida, in today's Macedonian territory.

This is the synagogue of the Sephardic Jewish community in the city, most of whom emigrated to the city with the expulsion from Spain. Here we can still hear the Ladino language being spoken from Spain.

The synagogue was renovated in 1992 to mark the 500th anniversary of the arrival of the Jews of Spain in the Ottoman Empire, and the fact that it was damaged quite a bit by a fire in the 17th century.

From the outside, on the long wall along the street, it is difficult to discern that this is a Jewish prayer house. Only the doors hint at the Jewish origin. The interior of the synagogue, however, is beautifully restored. Spanish Jewish elements are clearly visible. One of the most impressive and impressive things is his beautiful wooden dome.

Pay attention in the synagogue to the "stage," the place from which the cantor reads. The shape of the stage, which is called a "box," is like the bow of a ship. The resemblance of the prayer stage to the front of an ancient ship that crosses the water comes from the tradition of the Jews of Turkey. In their eyes, it symbolizes and recalls the Ottoman ships that in 1492 collected the expelled Jews from Spain and took them to a new home in Turkey, where they would receive protection for centuries as a religious minority.


#What is the Connection to the False Messiah Shabtai Tzvi?

Historically, the synagogue here is known as the only synagogue in Istanbul where Shabtai Tzvi, the founder of the Jewish Shabtai movement, prayed.

The man, a young and charismatic Jewish man, came from his hometown of Izmir and proclaimed himself the Jewish Messiah. Quite quickly, many believers gathered around him, who were known among the Jews as the "Sabbatean cult." Shabtai Tzvi's name spread rapidly and was followed by many Jews. Throughout the Jewish world and in the corners of the Balkans, Europe, and even India and Yemen, the Jews spoke of the magic of the Jewish Messiah.

Of course, many opposed him and saw him as a false messiah, but no one predicted what would happen in 1666, the year 666 would get the nickname "Satan's Year." Shabtai Tzvi stunned his followers and decided to convert to Islam. What happened behind the scenes was that the Ottomans arrested him and presented him with two alternatives - either converting to Islam or being killed. The Jewish "messiah" chose to convert to Islam and received the name Aziz Muhammad Effendi.

There was tremendous shock in the Jewish world. It was as exciting, no less than the magic that Tzvi had had upon the Jews before. The Messiah converted to Islam!!! No less astonishing the Jews was the fact that many of his followers, the hard core of his movement, chose to follow him, and convert to Islam as well .

Thus Shabtai Zvi was later nicknamed "a false Messiah." Despite the fact that there are scholars who describe his historical role as a great converter who shook Judaism, and after his conversion he never returned to Judaism.

What is interesting is that the converted Jewish Messiah is now also considered a Muslim saint, many of whom go up to his grave and ask for a blessing. After all, he chose Islam. It was not entirely his choice, but he did choose ...


#A Visit:

https://youtu.be/7UX0zttWO4w


Neve alom Sinagogu
Neve Shalom Synagogue
#About the Italian Synagogue in Istanbul

The "Neve Şalom Sinagogu" in Istanbul is the largest and most famous synagogue in the city. Its main hall is the most luxurious and beautiful of the other synagogues in the city.

It is a wonderful synagogue, located at the northern end of the Golden Horn in the center of Istanbul, a 2-minute walk from Ortkoy Mosque, on the Bosphorus.

Notice here the arabesque-like decorations on the stained-glass windows of the synagogue's ceiling. They remind decorations undignified Muslim mosques and interesting to be understood in the context of the mutual influences that take place over the years between Judaism with a ban "will not make you a graven image," and Islam, which developed arabesques to beautify their mosques without trying to imitate the god, what the religion considers forbidden.



#History of the Synagogue

This synagogue, once one of Istanbul's most important synagogues, was founded in 1885 by members of the Italian Jewish community of the city. The community, founded in 1862, was then called the foreign community, Cal di los Francos. Until then the community had used synagogues in several other buildings, and here had been the permanent place of prayer.

Until 1922, the Maftirim Choir of Istanbul sang in the synagogue. Here Rabbi Yitzhak Algazi also served as cantor in the 1920's and 1930's. He was considered one of the greatest Turkish cantors of all time.

In the 1930's, the Arab Revolt took place, where the Arabs in Palestine perpetrated riots against the Jews. At that time, rioters destroyed the original synagogue that stood here. A new synagogue, where you are now, was built.

In 1980 the synagogue was renovated, and in 1998 a central heating system was installed. Today there are not many worshipers, but Jews visit the place to get an impression and remember the warm community that lived here in the past.



#A Wedding in the Synagogue:

https://youtu.be/RFfUdnEeits



#A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/us_v9RauJfk
Forward Building
#About the Building

This building, located at the center of Manhattan, was for 62 years the house for the newspaper The Forward. It was designed by architect George Boehm and has 10 floors, its building was complete in 1912. The building was used by the popular Jewish newspaper, until 1974. For many years it stood here, and today the building is residential.

Though the building is not particularly tall (with only 10 floors), it is still very tall for its area. You can see the restored colonnade with a wide entrance arch that is a little reminiscent of the glorious past of this place.

The building's facade used to have plaques with portraits of the Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and August Bebel who were the founders of the German Social Democratic Party, and the heads of the party during the construction of the building.

In 1974 the building was sold, and the newspaper moved to a more modest building in the center of Manhattan.


#About the Newspaper 'The Forward'

The Jewish-American newspaper was first published in 1897, as a daily newspaper, written and edited by 50 Jewish people. In the beginning, the newspaper protected professional unions, and protected socialism and democracy. It supported the American Socialist Party, as part of its radical opinion. In 1912 the newspaper circulation reached 12,000 copies, and in 1915 it reached 200,000.

Until 1917 the newspaper took a hard anti-zionist stance, however after the Balfour Declaration, together with many American organizations, they began letting go a little.

In 1932, the newspaper promoted its readers to vote for Franklin Roosevelt. Even with the increase in readership, in 1962 sales dropped. So the editors decided to change the format of the paper, and make it a weekly publication instead of a daily one. Also, an English publication was added.

In 1990 the editors decided to deal with the news that was occupying the Jewish world in English, and they managed to place the paper as a leader. With that, in 1974 the newspaper left the nostalgic building for a more modest location in the center of Manhattan.
Museum at Eldridge street
#About the Museum that was Dedicated to Jewish Emigrants

The Museum at Eldridge Street is dedicated to the Jewish immigration to the Lower East Side, at the start of the 20th century. It is located in a building from 1887, that was originally a synagogue.

The synagogue, of the oldest in the United States, was established in 1887 in the Lower East End, by Jews from Eastern Europe, who immigrated to the United States. For six years community members from the congregation of the Kahal Adath Jeshurun collected the money to build the synagogue, that was built with 3 wings. After the money needed was collected, they turned to Peter and Francis William Herter, the architects, to design the building in the Mori-style.

The synagogue was a successful Jewish Center, especially between 1900-1940. In those years, the synagogue was used as an absorption center for immigrants who were just arriving in the United States. In addition to religious services, community-oriented events took place here as well, like the collection and donation of money the Jewish State of Israel.

With time, many of the community members left the area, and immigration limits limited the number of immigrants who were arriving in New York. The Great Depression did not help the situation of the Jewish community, and with time the synagogue was closed for lack of resources to take care of it.

In 1986 a non-profit organization was established called "Project Eldridge Street," to return the building to its former educational, cultural, and community activities. The renovation ended on December 2, 2007, at the cost of $20 million. It was open to the wide public under the current museum name. The Jewish community worked hard to get it to its current situation so it can be accepted as a National Historic Monument.

Today, the building has a modest synagogue and a wonderful museum with guided tours and activities for children. You can also look through the museum archive of genealogy, and see if any of your relatives were members of this synagogue.
Bialystoker Synagogue
#The Synagogue that was Once a Refuge for Slaves

The ancient building was built in 1826 and is located on the lower East Side. This neighborhood used to house mostly Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. The majority of the Jewish community abandoned the neighborhood around the 20th century, however, remains of the community remain, among the remains the Bialystoker Synagogue.

Originally the building of the synagogue was used as a Methodist church, and it was a hiding location for slaves who fled from the South. If you look closely, in the deck you will see the door and ladder towards the attic, where the slaves hid during the Civil War.

The building became a synagogue in 1905 when the Jewish community from Bialystoker brought over a two-story Holy Ark, made of wood and covered in gold. On the ceiling here you will see drawings of the zodiac paintings according to the Jewish calendar. To the prayer house arrive about 500 people on a weekly basis.
Katz's Deli
#About the Most Famous Jewish Deli in the World.

Katz's Deli has become an establishment, serving food here since the 19th century, a Jewish style deli from Eastern Europe. Katz's Delicatessen is especially known for its pastrami, considered the best in the city.

The pastrami sandwich from Katz's is not cheap, but when you take a bite between the two pieces of bread, filled to the brink with pastrami and mustard, you will understand everything.

Apparently, the pastrami has brought this Deli to the big screen again and again. The most famous among them is "When Harry Met Sally," with the famous scene where Meg Ryan fakes an orgasm in front of Billy Crystal. So when Estelle Reiner asked "I'll have what she's having," she means the sandwich the two were holding.

Enjoy!
Szenes Hanna Park
#About the Park in Memory of the Brave Paratrooper and Poet

Szenes Hanna Park is located in a junction of streets Jósika and Rózsa, was dedicated especially to Hanna Szenes. She was a Jewish fighter against the Nazis during World War II. Szenes made Aliyah to Israel in 1939 and was one of the young people that built the kibbutz Shedot Yam.

Beyond being a poet with a lot of talent, Hanna Szenes was part of a paratrooper unit who volunteered to serve in the British army during World War II. In the frame of her actions as a combat soldier against the Nazis, she jumped along with her unit over occupied Hungary. However, during the line of duty she was caught by the Hungarians who surrounded her to the Nazis. She was tortured and executed, at only 23 years old.

After her death, among Szenes's things were found the songs she wrote in secret. Some have gained a lot of popularity like Ashrei Hagafrur, A Walk to Caesarea with the famous lyrics - "My God, my God,
may it never end."

The park won't tell you about this history, which is why you have us!

May her memory be blessed!
Hungarian Jewish Museum and Archives
#About the Jewish Museum of Budapest

The Hungarian Jewish Museum and Archives (Magyar Zsidó Múzeum) was built in 1930 in the childhood home of Benjamin Ze'ev Herzl, in the neighborhood of the Big Synagogue in Budapest. The museum presents the story of the Jewish community in the city, a community that was destroyed and almost completely erased in the Holocaust.

The museum, the second largest Jewish museum in Europe, includes many display items from the daily lives of the Hungarian Jews, and in Budapest in general. It exhibits very well the wealthy community that lived here for hundreds of years.

In the museum there are 4 wings. Each focuses on a different aspect of the daily lives of the Jews in the community. The themes are; daily Jewish lives, Jewish holidays, the Hungarian Jew's Holocaust and Judaica items used for the Sabbath. The Judaica items on display were collected from all around the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Like in the next-door synagogue, the Jewish Museum also took on itself the job of preserving and commemorating. It includes a dark memorial room with many photos from World War II, like the Hungarian Jewish community experienced it. There is a column that tells the tale and commemorates the poet Hannah Szenes. In the courtyard of the building is an impressive monument for the Jews of Budapest, to the diplomat and Righteous Among Nations Raoul Wallenberg, and others who helped the Hungarian Jews hide from the Nazis.



#History of the Museum

The museum, built in 1930 in the childhood house of Theodore Herzl, and filled an important and brave job in the years when antisemitism in Hungary grew, and prevented Jewish artists from showcasing their work. This is when the museum stood strong, who back then did not even have to do with art. The museum began displaying exhibits by Jewish artists, whose religion prevented them from displayed in other museums or galleries in Budapest.

In the tough years of the war, the national museum employees helped hide displays from the Jewish Museum in the basement of the National Museum. This is how items were saved from the tough bombings of the allied air raids and from the hands of the Nazis themselves.
Judenplatz
#About the Jewish Square in Vienna

You are located in the Jewish Square (Judenplatz). Back in the Middle Ages this square was a central place for the Jews of Vienna. Between the 13th and 15th centuries this was the heart of the Jewish ghetto. Its importance in the past, by the way, is also the reason why today it is a symbol of Jewish heritage, and will remain so for the future. It contains important milestones in the history of the Jews of Vienna: a synagogue, the Jewish Museum and the Holocaust Memorial.

The official synagogue of the Jewish community in Vienna is magnificent and impressive. Lectures and discussions on culture and Judaism are held in the synagogue. It was opened in 1826 on a side street and was unnoticeable. The reason was that Emperor Joseph II prohibited the construction of non-Catholic houses of worship in central places. This, incidentally, was the reason why the synagogue survived the Kristallnacht of 1938. It was simply far from the center of the riots.

At the Jewish Museum, which opened in 2011, you can discover and learn how the Jews lived in Austria over the years, to see various collections of ancient sacred instruments, to learn about the interesting Jewish characters of that period and to get a glimpse of modern Judaism as well.

In the museum you will also find archeological findings from the Great Synagogue of the Middle Ages, which was burned in 1421. During the excavations for the building of the monument, remains of the synagogue that was burned in 1421 were discovered. These findings have provided rare testimony to the lives of the Jews in the Middle Ages.
In the museum you can also see historical sacred artifacts, 3D exhibits of the life of the ancient Jewish community and more. Each floor of the museum will present to you a different layer of different periods in the Jewish history of Vienna.

The memorial was erected here in memory of the 65,000 Jews of Vienna who were murdered in the Holocaust. The monument was built in 2001 and is in the shape of a white cube, with shelves filled with books. The shelves are a symbol of the spirituality of the Jewish people, with the book. Beside the monument is a caption in memory of Austrian Holocaust victims. The building was designed by the British artist Rachel Weiterid.

In the center of the square, by the way, you can also see the sculpture "Nathan the Wise," a statue of the German playwright Ephraim Lessing. Lessing called his play "Nathan the Wise" for tolerance towards the Jews. The original statue was destroyed by the Nazis and was redesigned in 1982.




While it's Raining:

https://youtu.be/UPyC18pteSM
Jewish Museum Vienna
#About the Museum of Modern Jewish History

In contrast to the Jewish Museum (Judisches Museum Wien) located in the Judenplatz, which focuses on Jewish life in medieval Vienna, the Jewish Museum in Dorotheergasse focuses on the Jews of Vienna at a later stage. It also includes contemporary Viennese Jewry and deals with the Jewish community’s great contribution to the economy and cultural life in today's Vienna.

One of the museum's main principles is a combination of ancient and traditional with the new and modern. You can see here a combination of social and global issues, between contemporary art and traditional Jewish art.

Since 2013, the museum has been exhibiting a permanent exhibition about the Jewish community, its recovery from World War II, and its transformation into a small and significant community in Vienna, which developed not only from the original Jews here but also from immigrants from Eastern Europe over the years.

In the exhibition you can see objects from Jewish daily life, Jewish art, documents and articles on the development of the Jewish community. In addition, artworks from various synagogues in Vienna and Austria are also exhibited here. With innovative software you can see a virtual reconstruction of the synagogues that stood in Vienna until 1938. Through the workshops and interactive tours you can learn about the Jewish community in Vienna from various aspects.


Jewish Cemetery
#About Vienna’s Ancient Jewish Cemetery

The four Jewish cemeteries of Vienna tell the historical story of the Jews in the city, a history that combines the decrees, murders and expulsion of Jewish residents.

The Jewish Cemetery (Alten Jüdischen Friedhof) is only one of them. In this cemetery are buried prominent figures in the history of the Jews of Vienna, among them the famous Jewish conductor and composer Gustav Mahler, members of the Viennese branch of the Rothschild family and the Jewish playwright Arthur Schnitzler.

If you look carefully at the place, you will see that most of the tombs are not properly maintained and are worn out. The vegetation takes over, parts of the graves tend to fall and in general - the place seems relatively neglected. However, it is still fascinating because of the history it holds.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/HmPvyK78mMI
Sigmund Freud Museum
#About the Home of the Psychology Giant

At 19 Berg Street, in the fifth apartment in the ninth district of Vienna, stands the house where the theory that changed everything that was known about the human psyche was developed. This is his apartment, or so-called "Sigmund Freud House."

In this house Freud lived with his wife and six children for 47 years between 1891 and 1938, until he had to flee to London to escape Nazi persecution in 1939.

The idea for the house and its development was overseen by Freud’s daughter Anna, in 1971. The house is full of fascinating items from his life - the restored study and waiting room, restored with original furniture, pictures, souvenirs and items from Freud's collection of antiquities and documents. You will also be able to watch it in rare 1930’s films that tells the story of the fascinating family.

The site is now a pilgrimage site for psychoanalytic researchers and for those interested in psychology who come here for a visit and for research and study purposes. There are over 80,000 visitors every year. You will find here a permanent collection and temporary exhibitions, as well as a library considered the greatest in Europe, in the field of psychoanalysis.

One of the interesting exhibitions opened here was an exhibition devoted specifically to the other tenants in the mythological house. The exhibition called "The Disappeared Neighbors of Freud" recreates the lives and fate of the tenants during and after World War II. It is possible to learn from the personal stories of the neighbors about the rise and fall of the Jews of Vienna and Austria.



#How did Freud Advance the Human Psyche? (Courtsey Eureka Encyclopedia)

The important Jewish physician and psychologist Sigmund Freud was a neurologist and researcher in the field of psychology. He lived in Vienna, right next to Benjamin Ze'ev Herzl.

The doctor reached the conclusion that some of his patients who complaint of physical pain stemmed from mental difficulties they were experiencing, but were not aware of, he began to investigate the issue. From here he reached psychology and excelled at it. Incidentally, he thought that at the basis of human behavior was sexual desire.

Freud was one of the most important thinkers in the field of personality theory, and one of the most prominent and influential scientists in the twentieth century. He is the father of psychoanalysis, which deals with the overall personality structure, its development, its defects and its healing methods. The impact of his research and his theory of the 20th century is enormous. It covers many areas, from art, marketing, public relations, political propaganda and statesmanship to the treatment of PTSD, social relations, the media, and even the selfie culture and the extreme individualism of the individual in the 21st century.

Freud has researched the unconscious and the dreams, as symbols associated with the dreamer's life. He defined himself as a "conqueror of the soul" and in his conception of his research and his role in science, he saw himself as a hero who revealed the secrets of the soul.

When Freud analyzed consciousness, he argued that there are three areas of consciousness in our psyche:
1. The unconscious - perceives the greatest part of the soul.
2. The subconscious - where information is stored.
3. The consciousness - Everything we are aware of at a given moment. This is the smallest part of the soul.

Freud also studied religion and the soul, the humor, the psychology of the masses and the impulses and human sexuality. He developed the idea that Nietzsche had left behind, that the brain was the pilot directing the human heart.

During his life, Freud developed a new treatment method in which the patient converses with the therapist during regular sessions. The therapist helps him to rethink himself, thinking that helps him solve the mental and physical difficulties he suffers from. Today, this method of treatment, and of course the method of psychoanalysis, which means examining the patient's psyche, is seen as the basis of modern psychology.

Freud was not always right, but his influence is enormous and his contribution to the world of psychology and the modern world is incomprehensible in terms of a single person, who is not a dictator or Albert Einstein...



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUzqbRI5WSM
Stadttempel
#About the Only Synagogue That Was Saved from the Nazis

The Stadttempel, the Great Synagogue of Vienna, is the lucky one out of Vienna's synagogues. This is the only one out of the 74 synagogues and Jewish buildings in the city that were not destroyed on Kristallnacht.

Its nickname is the Kristallnacht, the night of the violent pogrom by Nazi rioters against the Jews. The crystal image came from the many pieces of glass scattered everywhere, as a result of the shattered glass of Jewish houses and businesses.

There were two main reasons why this synagogue survived the difficult night. One is its proximity to the offices of the Jewish community and the German apprehension about its important archive, which included inscriptions and necessary information for their diabolical needs, about the Jews of the city of Vienna.

The second reason was the Germans' fear that the fire would damage the houses nearby. The reason is that the structure of the synagogue was part of a dense row of residential buildings.

Although not severely damaged, the Jewish community renovated the synagogue after the war and added to it glory and splendor.



#Architecture of the Building

Despite being a synagogue for Jews, the architect of the synagogue was not Jewish himself. It therefore has quite a few Christian characteristics. At that time, during the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph II, laws were passed that stated that religious buildings would not receive a prominent and conspicuous façade. This is why the synagogue, which is more beautiful on the inside, looks outwardly like a regular dwelling and manages to hide all its architectural beauty inside the building.

The synagogue has 4 floors and is topped by a dome. Just like all the other synagogues, here too there is a clear separation between men and women - the men sit on the lower floor and the women rise to the balconies of the first and second floors.
Nożyk Synagogue
#About the Synagogue that was not Destroyed Because it was Used as Stables for the Nazis

Until World War II, Nożyk Synagogue was among the five large synagogues in Warsaw.

It is the single only synagogue to survive the Holocaust and is active until today. The synagogue has actually been active since its establishment in 1902, and managed to survive the Holocaust.

The synagogue was established in 1902, by a couple with no children, Zelman and Rebecca Nozyk. The well-off couple, a textile merchant and his wife, asked only one request - that whenever the Mourner's Kadish was prayed, their names will be mentioned. Up to this day, the request is etched in stone next to the Holy Ark.

With the Nazi occupation, the Jewish community was still allowed to pray here, but in 1941 the Nazis took over and used the spaces as horse stables and a food warehouse. It survived the war up to May 6, 1943, when the Germans bombed the synagogue with a ceremonial final blow to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

By 1948 the place was once again a synagogue. In the 1980's there was a Jewish awakening in Poland, and the synagogue was restored, with the encouragement of the Polish government, with Jewish funds. It was rebuilt in 1983, and since then it has served as the central synagogue in Warsaw.

In the Nożyk Synagogue is the original Torah scroll that used to be in the Great Synagogue of Warsaw, which operated before the war on Tlomackia Street. Apart from a place of prayer, the synagogue became the main meeting point of the Warsaw Jewish community and a place of major cultural events, such as concerts, exhibitions and public discussions.


A Closer Look at the Synagogue:

https://youtu.be/QJlxGKIMUEw
A Section of the Ghetto Wall
Chlodna Street
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews
Miła 18
Monument to the Ghetto Heroes


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.