» «
London
London
#About the city of London
The capital city London is a mega city - a huge city that is one of the largest in the world. It covers 1,000 square kilometers and has 8.5 million residents.

In London, the best of Western culture was created. Great monarchic figures, from Henry VIII, through Queen Victoria, Elizabeth I and Elizabeth II. From here, warlords and legendary leaders from Wellington to Churchill determined and shaped the world we live in today. The greatest playwright in the history of the world theater, also worked, created, and directed groups of actors in London, William Shakespeare.

Among the somewhat grayish houses of this conservative, traditional city, among its great palaces and gardens, a vibrant young life developed, full of sounds and modern art. This is where the Beatles started the revolution in the world pop. From here Rock 'n Roll regiments were sent from England to invade American soil, where the mini skirt and the bikini swimwear were developed and adopted. Here the punks of the '70's operated, and today some of the most fascinating artists of modern art do their work.

Oh, and London operates the best public television station in the world, BBC, but who wants to watch TV when they are in London?


#Savings
For public transportation - Buy an Oyster Card.
Supermarket - the Asda and Tesco chains are cheap and very available. The first is very economical but not always pampering or luxurious, and the second is a bit more expensive, but still cost effective and offers a large variety of products.
The museums - some of London's best are free and amazing.
Bus - a great way to get to know London.


#Shopping
Two great shopping spots are Oxford Street and the Westfield London - the largest mall in Western Europe, which has the quantity and variety parallel to those of Oxford Street.


#Must See
Want to see the most popular destinations? - Click on the tag "Must see in London".


#With Children
Family Vacation? - Click on the tag "Attractions for children in London".


#Food
Unforgettable meal? - Click on the tag "Must eat in London".


#Tip
In most European countries service fees are already included in the check, so it is customary to give a 2 euro tip, regardless of the price of the check itself.


#UK Country Code
+44


#Electric Outlets
The required type of plug is only Type G.


A taste of the upcoming trip? - Here's a video that will show you the city in all its beauty:
https://youtu.be/X8zLJlU_-60


And one more:
https://youtu.be/-VkL-5CNw9A


Some of the Local street food:

https://youtu.be/yoSbZIe4JnI
Richmond Park
Richmond Park
#About the London Area Park

Richmond Park is the largest of London's royal parks. In addition, it gives the other parks a run for their money, mainly because it offers a real sense of nature, feeling more like a field trip than a well-planned park.

The total area of the park is 9.5 square kilometers, and is acknowledged as an official nature reserve. The diverse vegetation includes hundreds of types of trees, flowers, mushrooms and shrubs, and the animals in the park include deer, squirrels, foxes and gazelles. A duel between the red deer over the females is quite a magnificent sight that occurs in the fall. The birds are not to be missed, as they create pleasant sounds adding to the idyllic atmosphere.

The park was originally built for King Charles I, who used it
for hunting sport. In the past, the park was surrounded by a
16-kilometer long wall. Some of its remnants remain to be seen to this day. The British locals engage in various activities inside the park: fishing, playing rugby, boating or pedaling around the park.



#Theater in the Park

The classic historical drama "Anne of the Thousand Days", released in 1969, gives a glimpse into the 16th-century Richmond Park. It is a special film shot at Richmond Park, and it somehow reflects the dramatic history that took place in England.

The film tells the love story between King Henry VIII and his short marriage to Anne Boleyn. Because the film accurately describes the events that took place, it was only natural to film it in Richmond Park. The park was one of the king's favorite hunting spots. He and his wife Anne Boleyn spent their honeymoon not far away, at Hampton Court.

King Henry VIII, who was portrayed in the film by Richard Burton,
was obsessed with a male heir. But his wife, Anne Boleyn, was unable to have a son, so she remained a queen less than three years before being executed, to make way for another woman. Anne Boleyn was played in the film by the actress Genevieve Bujold. The film won four Golden Globes and one Oscar.



#Deer in Richmond Park

The deer played a major role in the history of the park and are an inseparable part of the landscape here.

Their special habitat depends on pastures and the trees in the park.

Their breeding season is during autumn. At this time, the males compete for the females, with the big males roaring, barking and colliding, trying to fight rival males and attract the females. The newly born babies are hidden by the mothers, because they are very vulnerable at this stage of their lives. The mothers will passionately defend their young.

Deer are wild animals, which means that it is important to maintain a distance of at least 50 meters from them and not stand between two, especially during the turbulent autumn season. It is also important to know that you can't touch, feed or photograph the deer from close range.



A Closer Look at the Park:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QaxcdwxcEaI
Leighton House Museum
Leighton House Museum
#About the Museum

On the edge of Holland Park lies the studio of the Victorian master, Lord Leighton. This man lived between 1830-1896 and was the great classic painter of the President of the Royal Academy. His house was built in the 19th century and after the artist's death the house underwent several renovations and expansions.

Among the rooms in the house you will find the studio where he worked and the living room with its special tiles and textures. Rooms in the house are decorated in different styles and you can find private collections of paintings and sketchbooks. Take note of the "Arab Hall" with tiles brought directly from Damascus.

The permanent exhibit in the museum displays pictures and sculptures by Leighton and his contemporaries. However there are also temporary exhibitions of various artists, especially Arab and Muslim.
Design Museum
Design Museum
#About the Design Museum of London, a Museum of Useful Arts

The Design Museum is situated in what was in the 1940's a... banana warehouse. It was later converted into a building and became a museum.

This is one of the most popular museums in London, and for a good reason. It focuses on industrial design, fashion design and architecture.

The building is comprised of 3 floors, each room has a different design concept, including the bathroom. Temporary exhibitions fill the first floor. The second floor is designed as a swimming pool, and on the third floor the permanent exhibitions, which presents the history of design in England, as well as an educational center for design.

Yet along with historical matters, the London Design Museum is known for its openness to innovations in art and design. A large sum of money is given to designers each year as a prize. This award is now considered the most prestigious in the world of design. Renowned designers submit their candidacy every year and regard it as a great honor and proof of their professionalism.

However, at times, the Design Museum often receives press that is unlinked to innovation and creativity, or remotely linked to art. From time to time, the often switch of directors and curators has brought about publicity. Surprisingly, there is a lot of passion and fervor surrounding this event. It lead to many arguments regarding artistic matters, the tension between art and usability and sometimes simply the character of the design museum. Every manager brings his own agenda and the rumpus continues...



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fACJcQulfo8

London

Fulham Palace
Fulham Palace
#About the Palace

Palaces can be found all over London which served local nobles and kings. What you may not know, however, is that not all the palaces in London were for royal families. Some of them were used by the church, which is one of the richest and strongest forces in Europe. Fulham Palace is such a palace. Built in the 11th century, it was one of the official residences of the city's bishop. The bishop was one of the most influential roles in London at that time. In 1975, the building was transferred to the church, which to this day remains its official owner.

Fulham Palace is an impressive, one-thousand-year-old palace. The impressive residents and rich history are well commemorated in the museum opened there. Ancient artifacts and explanations about ancient London can be found throughout the museum. In the palace you will also find an art gallery with works by the best artists in London and Europe.
A canal surrounds the building dating all the way back to the 11th century. You can also pay a visit to the magnificent botanical garden, and the blossoming bishop's park in the heart of the palace.

Entrance to the palace is free of charge.
Highgate Cemetery
Highgate Cemetery
#About the Cemetery

Highgate Cemetery opened in 1839. Over the years it became one of London's most famous burial sites. The grounds are built on the expanse of 150,000 square meters, where well-known personalities from the British capital, as well as ordinary residents of the city are buried. The cemetery was designed by the architect Stephen Geary. It is in this cemetery where revolutionaries like Karl Marx, scientists (like Michael Faraday), creators (like Mary Ann Evans), anarchists and communists, Parliament members, military officers and capitalists finally meet.

The municipality of London faced issues at the beginning of the 19th century. The churches at that time did not meet the burden of the dead and the Parliament legally allowed the establishment of private cemeteries. That was the basis for opening Highgate.

The architect who designed the cemetery was Stephen Geary. Over the years, buildings were built on the grounds, elaborate tombstones were erected, some of them large neo-Gothic style. These reflect the social and political history of Victorian London, London of the 19th century. The cemetery is full of trees, shrubs and flowers, growing almost without human contact. Many animals can be found here - butterflies and birds, hedgehogs, bats and foxes.

A hill at the height on 114 meters stands on the compound. Tombs, catacombs, burial estates and passageways were excavated and built into the ground. Of the famous structures on the hill is the Egyptian avenue – a passage inside the hill lined by burial chambers. This is designed in an Egyptian style inspired by the Valley of Kings near Luxor. Another structure is the Lebanon Circle – an avenue dug into the ground around an ancient Lebanese cedar tree with burial chambers in its walls.

Since its establishment, the cemetery has been managed by the London Cemetery Company. However, as the demand for burial declines, it became neglected due to a lack of funding. Since 1981, the cemetery has been managed by the Friends of Highgate Cemetery Trust, which rehabilitates and renovates the area.



#The Dark Side of the Cemetery

Located in northern London, the Highgate Cemetery, founded in 1839, is the final resting place of over 170,000 people, including some well-known figures of our time.

Despite the pastoral green that surround the grounds, many people report graves surrounded by ghosts, supernatural powers, dark sounds and other strange activities that take place while they are in the cemetery.
One famous story is that of the vampire of the cemetery. This vampire is not from children stories but rather a phantom at a height of over two meters. He wears a long black robe and has penetrating red eyes. Legend has it that the vampire has been observed several dozen times in the cemetery since the 1960s.

According to rumors, the vampire was actually a nobleman who lived during the Middle Ages in Romania. His body was transferred to England sometime in the 18th century and he was buried in the grounds of the Highgate Cemetery. It was here that he dwelled for several decades until "resurrected" by a satanic sect that operated throughout the cemetery. Disturbingly, several bodies of foxes and other dead animals were found in the cemetery. Of course this can be dismissed by a notion that it is "nonsense", but the stories also spark fear in people who then go seeking out the vampire wandering among the graves. You can choose which response you prefer…



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CEZJAvNQdM
The Sherlock Holmes Museum
The Sherlock Holmes Museum
#About the Museum

We know the question on your mind: How can an entire museum be dedicated to a fictional character? In London, everything is possible. The Victorian house standing before you is devoted entirely to the legendary Sherlock Holmes detective, from the book written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. One can understand how significant and popular this series of books is to this day.

This is a particularly popular private museum located on Baker Street in London, the street where the detective resides in the stories. Built in 1815, the building served as a hostel before it became a museum. The museum opened to the public in 1990 by the Sherlock Holmes International Association (a non-profit organization). The atmosphere and even the attire of the employees are reminiscent of the Victorian era.

The museum displays a "reconstruction" of Holmes' personal effects and history - a violin, pipes, letters, rooms and wax figures - all according to what is described in the well-known book.
A souvenir shop is located on the ground floor. The living quarters of the fictional detective is on the second floor, where you will also find Dr. Watson's room (this is the back room where you will find medical books and a diary in which he has written notes according to the plot of the book).

In Watson's room there is an actor who plays Dr. Watson, and you can have a short conversation with him if you like. At the front of the house you can enter Mrs. Hudson's room. On the wall of Holmes's room there are shooting holes (shot by Holmes) that strike the initials of Queen Victoria's name. You can sit in the big armchair in front of the fireplace, take a look at Holmes's collection of magnifying glasses and pipes and impressive hat collection. On the third floor you will find a museum with wax dolls of the characters.

One must admit it's pretty nice for a visit in a fictional man's home!



#A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKKkXP0CuI0
Madame Tussauds
Madame Tussauds
# About the Madame's First Wax Museum

Madame Tussauds is now a chain of museums, which span over several cities around the world. Though it is known to children and adults alike, the main and original museum was founded right here in London.

The museum was founded in 1835 by Madame Tussauds herself. Tussauds was a French wax sculptor who emigrated to London. Her talent and knowledge in wax sculpture was inherited from her mother, who was the housekeeper of an artist and sculptor who specialized in wax.

Wax sculptures of historical and famous figures of all kinds can be found around the museum: from famous politicians such as Churchill, Kennedy and even Shimon Peres, through actors and athletes, singers, cultural personalities and other celebrities.

Madame Tussauds is one of London's primary tourist destinations. Different experiences in the museum range from watching and photographing the various wax dolls, through interactive games, to a tour of the horror cellar where you can see figures of criminals and hangmen, executioners and actors to spice up the experience. Photos of important historical events of the city are on display, a train ride and a section where visitors become famous comic dolls.

Some of the characters in the horror cellar were brought from Paris to England by Madame Tussauds herself in the early 19th century.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IrJLeWh3e8k


The Wallace Collection
The Wallace Collection
#About the Museum

The Wallace Collection is in close proximity to Oxford Street in London. In this art museum you will find the private collections of Sir Richard Wallace, whose first items were collected by Hartford's third and fourth Marquis. The collection was given to the British government by Wallace's widow in 1897 and it was opened to the public in 1900. The museum is located in Manchester Square.

There are 28 rooms in the museum with a warm and intimate environment. China pieces, armor of various kinds and French furniture fill the rooms. Among other things, you will also see oil paintings by Titian, Canaletto, Rembrandt and Gainsborough.

The museum also has a conservation department where you can learn about the traditional production of furniture and armor. The coolest secret for children and young souls is the opportunity to experiment with the fascinating collection of armor of all kinds, spears, swords and other ancient weapons. If you like, you can wear a helmet and armor, snap a photo and feel their heavy weight.



#A Visit to the Museum

Visiting the museum will make you feel as if you are touring an old and nostalgic palace, but luxurious and impressive all the same. A large indoor lawn fills the first floor, used for holding events. In the other rooms you will encounter designs from different historical periods: the Victorian period, the Renaissance period and more. Fascinating items such as war tools, armor and other items are scattered through the rooms. The souvenir shop offers catalogs and copies of exhibits for sale.

Notice the charming work "The Swing," which was painted by the painter Fragonard in 1767.

There is no entrance fee though it is customary to leave a tip in the donation box at the entrance. Fans of art and culture will enjoy a visit in this museum, though it is not well known among tourists.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://youtu.be/LnC3eM59tdg
London Science Museum
#About the London Science Museum

The Science Museum in London presents the world of technology and science in a fascinating and experiential way that is suitable for children and is an important attraction in London. The museum is located in the Museum Quarter. The museum is designed in a youthful, colorful and inviting manner.

When the Museum was first established in 1857, it contained the surplus exhibits left from the Great Exhibition held in London in 1851. Today it houses a collection of 300,000 items, including steam engines, jet engines, DNA models and the “gathering time” gallery, featuring a rich collection of more than 500 timepieces. The museum has interactive exhibits and a 3D cinema, in which documentary films are screened.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mqh7uqpu-sE
Natural History Museum
#About Britain's Natural History Museum

The Museum of Natural History is one of the three museums on London’s Exhibition Road, along with the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. From a distance, the museum appears to be a palace with turrets. Its Victorian building features white decorations of various colors and animal sculptures on the walls. At the entrance to the museum you will be greeted by a skeleton sculpture of a giant dinosaur - the diplodocus.

The museum presents exhibits from life sciences and earth sciences, where the museum holds about 70 million specimens, a small fraction of which are displayed. Botany, insects, dinosaurs, geology and zoology are just some of the topics you will find here. One of the Museum's most fascinating collections is the collection of skeletons of its fossilized dinosaurs, though the museum also contains many other interesting exhibits, such as sensory exploration, animal research, the Earth's ecosystem, and more.

Through experiences and attractions- including games for the visitors- the museum succeeds in making this knowledge clear and accessible to all. The presentation of the exhibits here teaches visitors how to explore and observe them. In order to facilitate the visitors’ experience, the museum is divided into five sections marked by different colors.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98Y0U3HS_tA
The British Library
#About the Library

The National Library of London is one of the world's largest research and study institutions. You will find 150 million items, while approximately 3 million books and other historical items are added every year. The oldest historical item found here is from the 3rd century BC.

The library was established in 1973, but already operated as a library in 1753, even when it was located in the British Museum building. The reason for the expansion was the necessity for a larger and more respectable reading space.

The library has more than 13 million books, 60,000 journals, 9 million articles, 860,000 newspapers, 1.5 million printed music, 57 million patents and trademarks, and 3 million voice recordings. In addition, this huge space hosts large and interesting exhibitions.

The library is defined as a deposit library (a library that is legally required to transfer copies of various publications) and, by law, receives a copy of any book published in the UK and even tries to purchase books printed outside the UK.

In the library you will find some particularly exciting works and documents: the Magna Carta, the first copy of Shakespeare, Lewis Carroll's manuscripts (Alice in Wonderland), lyrics of the Beatles written by John Lennon, drawings by Leonardo da Vinci and Codex Sinaiticus (A manuscript from the fourth century).


A Closer Look at the Library:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCDFCOxnbFs
National Army Museum
#About the Museum

The National Army Museum of London manages to encompass the entire history of the military of England, a unique and difficult feat. This museum tells the story of the armies of England throughout history - including the battles against Napoleon, battles during the rule of the Roman Empire on the British Island and both World Wars.

The museum was first established in 1960, in a building that was used as a riding school. In the 1970's it was transferred to a building serving as the Chelsea Hospital. During World War II, the building was severely damaged.

The museum sports a permanent exhibition of soldiers' letters from the battlefield as well as a review of the soldiers' wives stories. The temporary exhibitions display various war tools, spears and swords, ranging all the way to cannons and modern weapons.

At present day the National Army Museum is subsidized by the Department of Defense. At the end of each first week of the month, special events are held at the museum, which includes activities in cooperation with older soldiers after service, activities for children, lectures and various demonstrations.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uqequ3TIlLI
London Canal Museum
#About The Museum

The building of the London Canal Museum where you are now, was once an ice storage facility. It is ancient and has historical significance. In the museum you can learn about the development of the canal network that surrounds London, which served as the main transportation routes in the country.

The first-hand tour of the museum includes a short boat ride that tries to simulate the sailing in the 17th century, while listening to interesting information about the life of the sailors, the horses who were responsible for pulling the boats and the life under the city.

Due to the interesting history of the building as an ice storage facility, you will also find fascinating information on the import of ice from Scandinavia. You will have access to information on the ice block voyage on the giant ships, through the small boats that roamed the alleys of the city directly to the huge ice warehouses.

The canal museum is suitable for the entire family and the children will be engaged by the enriching learning experience.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1KPmkxw_sW8
Charles Dickens Museum
#About the Museum in the Home of the Famous English Writer

Charles Dickens, a writer, a prolific literary historian, a journalist and an English theater actor, lived in this building, where the museum named after him is located today. He had also lived in other apartments throughout the city.

Although he lived in this house for only two years, between 1837 and 1839, Dickens wrote some of his most famous works here, such as "Oliver Twist" and "The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby" - two books that became popular classics dealing with the lives of the commoners.

Some of the rooms in the house are preserved just as they were at the time of Dickens and are an authentic reflection of what the house looked like while he lived there. Articles, letters, furniture and portraits related to the author can be found in other rooms of the house.



#Works by Dickens

Dickens’ Georgian house is located between the streets of London, which were a great source of inspiration for the writer. This house is only one of his houses open today to the general public. During the visit, you can really feel the presence of the British writer.

When Charles Dickens moved here in 1837, he was only 25, not yet a successful writer. Every day, from eight in the morning until the afternoon, he would sit in his room studying and writing. His famous desk can be found in the house. During his three fruitful years here, he managed to write his first novel "The Pickwick Papers" and two other novels; "Oliver Twist" and "The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby." Here he also began to write the novel "The Mystery of Edwin Drood."



#Dickens’ Childhood

The museum manages to convey the story of Charles Dickens the man, almost like the story of Dickens the artist. As a child, Dickens experienced a difficult life. Though in his early years as a child the family lived in a large house with two servants, a comfortable and good life, it soon turned out that the family lived beyond its economic capabilities. His father, who for years served as a clerk in the navy, drowned in debt because of his lavish lifestyle. When the debt that was not returned Dickens’ father was arrested and thrown into the Marshalsea prison in 1824. The prison was a private prison and run for profit gains. This fact apparently ignited in Dickens the passion for social justice.


This was the turning point in Dickens' childhood, who at age 12 left his family to work for a living. He worked 10 hours a day in a shoe factory, pasted stickers on jars and did everything he could to make some money. These years are reflected in Dickens' writing: his attitude toward orphans, abandoned children and the poor. Many of Dickens' characters, such as Oliver Twist and David Copperfield, are based on experiences he endured in his childhood. He referred to the long working hours, the harsh labor conditions, the meager wages and the exploitation. Dickens often testified that if he had not become a writer, he would probably have become a criminal.



#About the House

Charles Dickens’ life changed drastically during the years spent in this house. It was here that his two daughters were born to his wife Catherine.

The kitchen and the dining room were the most important to Dickens and his wife. They would host quite a few parties and evenings together, with friends and people of high status. The Dickens were particularly social and they hosted a great deal.

Throughout the house you can see many paintings and pictures on the walls, caricatures and small sculptures.

Catherine's 17-year-old sister, Mary Hogarth lived in one of the rooms. She passed away, and the loss influenced Dickens and his writing substantially in the years to follow.

The main room of the house was the drawing room. People would come here to drink, eat, dance and play. Dickens loved this room dearly. Guests were especially lucky if he’d read what he had written in his study that day out loud. The copies of what he has written and read in this room are now in this museum.

3.1 million euros has been invested in this house to date. Special events are held throughout the year. The museum offers activities that are suitable for children of all ages.

The museum also runs an exciting program for families. The program reads together excerpts from Dickens' works, and there are also entertaining performances, with actors and temporary exhibitions.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYJ9AzZcHew&t=11s
Sir John Soane's Museum
#About The Archeology Museum

At the "Soane" Archeology Museum you will find some of London's most spectacular treasures. This museum displays illustrations and models of buildings designed by the British architect John Soane. Among the exhibits you will find archaeological collections of his. The museum is located in the Holborn neighborhood of central London. Sir John had left the house and all its collections of art to the British nation.

The museum was established while Sir John was still alive. After his passing, the British Parliament enforced a law determining that the house should be preserved exactly as it was in his lifetime. The law is still valid to this day. In the 19th century the museum expanded. Today this area serves as the museum's offices, library and gallery for temporary exhibitions as well.

In this museum you will find approximately 30,000 architectural illustrations and works of art, models and sculptures, paintings
and other works. The sarcophagus of Pharaoh Seti I is kept in the
cellar of the museum. In addition to the collections and artworks, there are also temporary exhibitions on various subjects, including the areas in which Sir John was interested.

Today the museum also serves as a national center for the study of architecture.



#Architecture and Construction

One of the most prominent features of the rooms in the museum
is the use of illumination. This is an original idea of Soane that he invented while planning the rooms in the Bank of England (the building where the United Kingdom Central Bank is located). Due to the special museum structure, in which the walls of the exhibition rooms are movable, it is possible to view several pictures simultaneously and rotating the display structure easily and efficiently.

The breakfast room, where you will find a concave ceiling with mirrors, was an influential feature on contemporary interior designers at the time. The museum's library is built in the Gothic style.

The house as it is today, lures the visitors into the atmosphere of Sir John Soane.



#Sir John Soane

Architect John Soane was born in 1753 and achieved a respectable career during his lifetime.

Sir John Soane decided to build his house on the north side of Lincoln’s Inn. He bought three houses adjacent to each other and rebuilt them for this purpose. Shortly after his appointment as professor of architecture at the Royal Academy, he purchased the building where the museum is located - house number 13. Originally, the house was supposed to serve him as an office.

His wife passed away in 1815, and he remained alone in the house, continuing to develop his collections and works.

In 1823, when he was 70 years old, he purchased the adjacent building, number 14, and expanded it to the museum grounds, significantly increasing them in size. Sir John Soane passed away in 1837.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3Nn7KuuzRA
Trafalgar Square
#About the Square

London's main square commemorates Britain's victory over France in Trafalgar in 1805. The square is surrounded by interesting roads and buildings; the National Gallery, Canada House, St. Martin's Church and more. In 2003, the northern portion of the road circling the square became a pedestrian crossing.

Nelson Column rises from the center of the square, where the statue of Lord Admiral Horacio Nelson is also raised. Nelson was the commander of the glorious British fleet who won the Battle of Trafalgar. The statue is guarded by four bronze lions. Four large fountains were built there in 1845.

Three sculptures can be found in the square: King George IV,
Henry Havelock and Sir Charles James Napier.

Originally, the fourth sculpture was meant to be a statue of King William IV. However, due to budget problems preventing the completion of the statue, it was never made. Today, the podium is used to show specially commissioned temporary artworks. A chief activity among the visitors is feeding the pigeons in the square. Due to damage inflicted on the sculptures, efforts to prevent feeding the pigeons have been in play since 2003.

The city of Oslo sends a Christmas Tree to the city of London every year since 1947. The tree is then placed at the center of the square during the holidays. This is a token of Norway’s gratitude to Britain for its help during World War II.


#The History of the Square

The square was once part of the royal stables and the lodging of the Whitehall Palace grooms.

In 1820, architect John Nash was hired to plan the square and turn it into a public area. His work was completed by architect Sir Charles in 1845.

The square was named in 1830, for the naval battle in which British naval forces defeated the forces of France and Spain near Cape Trafalgar. The battle thwarted Napoleon's plan to invade Britain and hence its great importance in the history of the kingdom.

One of the leaders in the battle and its victory was Admiral Horatio Nelson, who was killed in these efforts. A Nelson Column was placed in the center of the square in his memory. The height of the column is more than 50 meters tall, atop which a granite statue at an altitude of another 5 meters is erected. In 1867 bronze lions guarding the pillar were added.


#The Trafalgar Battle

The Battle of Trafalgar was a famous naval battle that occurred
on October 2, 1805. It was a battle in which the British Royal Navy,
commanded by Admiral Horacio fought against the French and Spanish navies commanded by Admiral Pierre Villeneuve. It was one of the most famous battles in history.

The battle took place during the reign of French general Napoleon, upon his decision to conquer Britain. By order of Napoleon, the French had assembled a fleet of flat invasion ships and planned to transport the French army to the British island. Nelson and his fleet pursued them through the Channel and along the Atlantic coast. Near Cape Trafalgar in Spain, not far from Gibraltar, Nelson's forces seized and defeated the French fleet.

France suffered a great defeat in Trafalgar and its fleet was
almost completely destroyed by Nelson. In so doing, the English admiral belittled the great victories of the French general Napoleon and shattered his glory. Furthermore, when Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the Spanish and French naval forces of Napoleon Bonaparte, he ensured British rule for more than 100 years. In the attempt to prevent the invasion, Nelson confirmed Britain’s naval supremacy established during the eighteenth century.

Yet the victorious battle led by Admiral Nelson was also his last. He was killed shortly after signaling the famous message to the Navy under his command: " England expects that every man will do his duty." He struggled to fight for his life for several hours. When the victory of Britain was evident, he took his last breath.

Historically, the results of the battle ensured the naval superiority of England for many years. Nelson, after a series of spectacular victories in large naval battles, became an English hero. The square in London was christened Trafalgar Square to commemorate the victory.

The battle is named after Cape Trafalgar, a cape located northwest of Gibraltar in southwest Spain, where the battle took place.



A Closer Look at the Square:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Do7NiINE9hI


London Transport Museum
#About the Museum

The museum, dedicated entirely to the development of transportation in London, joins the list of museums associated with the history of the city. It is located in Covent Garden, and it is especially appealing to children. The fascinating tour includes a simulation ride on an old bus, a visit to an old train, attractions and games. The little ones will find a unique opportunity to drive a bus ...

The museum was opened to the public as early as 1980, but during this period it presented only exhibits relating to London's public transport. Its original name was "Transport Museum London". When the museum management was replaced in the year 2000, the exhibits were expanded to include all modes of transport in London. Today you can see ancient and modern exhibits, all standing next to each other: old buses and trains besides new motorcycles. General information is also available on London's modern transport.

The museum also includes military vehicles. In the range of topic surveyed in the museum, the future means of transport is pondered on as well as examining the influence of transportation on the design of other cities in the world. As part of the changes that have taken place in the museum over the years, additional sections have been added, such as a lecture hall. Most of the items in the museum are not displayed because of their size and are held at another branch of the museum located in the town of Acton, London.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXfZGKXD_pY
Covent Garden
#About Covent Garden

Covent Garden was the first shopping and entertainment square built in London, and one of the most charming places in town.

Covent Garden is one of the most recognized and popular areas in London. One of the most prominent features of the area is the theater and street performances which take place. Despite the modern shops and cafes that are located in every corner, there is still a clear sense of what London was like 100 or 150 years ago. Street shows and rose sellers were popular then as well. It is no coincidence that the best and most successful street performances in the city are concentrated here. The actors in the compound undergo auditions and only the best are accepted.

After seeing the colorful street performances of the complex, you can look at the square of the seven dials (the whole area is called "the seven dials" - not only the square itself, but also the seven streets emerging from it). In the past, this area was very poor and in fact was one of the inferior areas of London riddled with crime. At that time, seven families could live in one building without electricity or running water. Today there are prestigious boutiques, excellent coffee shops and restaurants. However at that time, these stores sold second-hand items in completely worn condition.

Also, note the Royal Opera House located in the area. Next to it you will see four red telephone booths and a gorgeous dancer statue - a perfect picture for your next Instagram!



#History

In 1728, John Rich, an actor and theater director, commissioned The Beggar's' Opera. The Opera had three acts, and is the only example of this specific genre- a satirical ballad opera.
This genre has remained popular to this day. New lyrics were fitted to popular ballad tunes, known arias of the time, church hymns and folk songs.

The success of the project provided the capital sum enabling the establishment of the first Royal Theater which opened on December 7, 1732. During its first 100 years, the theater was used mainly for plays. Covent Garden, along with the Drury Lane Theater, were the only theaters to own exclusive rights to a drama show in London.

Handel’s operas were the first serious musical creations played at Covent Garden. From 1735 to 1759, these works maintained opera seasons regularly. Handel’s organ was bequeathed to John Rich, the same actor and theater director mentioned earlier. The organ was then placed in a prominent spot on the stage at Covent Garden. However, as a result of a fire in 1808, the organ was destroyed among many other valuable items in the theater.



A Closer Look at Covent Garden:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Is1-okwCOKg&t=63s
Imperial War Museum
#About the War Museum in London

A charming 19th-century building is nestled at the heart of the garden. It once served as a hospital, and is now a museum founded in memory of British soldiers killed in the First World War. The museum's main building with a dome and a huge column lobby was built in 1846 by Sydney Smirke. The museum was founded in 1917 and until 1936 was adjacent to the Crystal Palace. With the outbreak of the fire, the museum moved to Lambeth, an area in southern London.

The museum pays respect to soldiers in the British army and tries to convey this feeling to viewers. The museum will expose visitors to wars from both the front and the rear of battle. These include tanks, artillery, planes, espionage equipment, and more. The museum also features a "surrender letter" of German forces in Europe. In addition, you will find approximately 10,000 works related to war, paintings and sculptures. Information on the lives of the residents of the home front during the fighting is also on display. One of the chilling permanent exhibits you will see in the museum deals with the Holocaust.

In the museum you will also find the war rooms of Churchill, Her Majesty’s warship Belfast, and Her Majesty's Air Force Museum. There is also a café and a tea room.


A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9G5q1vompI
Shakespeare's Globe
#Shakespeare's Theatre

The Globe Theater was built at the end of the 16th century for the William Shakespeare Theater Company. In 1613, the theater went up in flames, after a cannonball was shot as a part of the play "Henry VIII." A fire ignited the straw roof. A year later the theater was rebuilt and again opened, this time with a tiled roof. Under the influence of the Puritans (a movement that fought Catholic influences on the Church of England) the theater was closed in 1642 and destroyed. Only in 1989 were its foundations discovered, under another building.

In 1997, the Globe Theater was reconstructed 200 meters from where the original theater once stood. The original plans of the ancient Globe were used for its construction. Today it is one of the most sought-after sites to watch Shakespeare's plays in London. Similarly to the Elizabeth Globe Theater, the open roof of the new theater is also made of straw, but it is safer, and cannons are no longer fired at the theater.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ym4GSscO9w0
Tate Modern
Shoreditch
HMS Belfast
Whitechapel Gallery
National Maritime Museum


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.