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London
London
#About the city of London
The capital city London is a mega city - a huge city that is one of the largest in the world. It covers 1,000 square kilometers and has 8.5 million residents.

In London, the best of Western culture was created. Great monarchic figures, from Henry VIII, through Queen Victoria, Elizabeth I and Elizabeth II. From here, warlords and legendary leaders from Wellington to Churchill determined and shaped the world we live in today. The greatest playwright in the history of the world theater, also worked, created, and directed groups of actors in London, William Shakespeare.

Among the somewhat grayish houses of this conservative, traditional city, among its great palaces and gardens, a vibrant young life developed, full of sounds and modern art. This is where the Beatles started the revolution in the world pop. From here Rock 'n Roll regiments were sent from England to invade American soil, where the mini skirt and the bikini swimwear were developed and adopted. Here the punks of the '70's operated, and today some of the most fascinating artists of modern art do their work.

Oh, and London operates the best public television station in the world, BBC, but who wants to watch TV when they are in London?


#Savings
For public transportation - Buy an Oyster Card.
Supermarket - the Asda and Tesco chains are cheap and very available. The first is very economical but not always pampering or luxurious, and the second is a bit more expensive, but still cost effective and offers a large variety of products.
The museums - some of London's best are free and amazing.
Bus - a great way to get to know London.


#Shopping
Two great shopping spots are Oxford Street and the Westfield London - the largest mall in Western Europe, which has the quantity and variety parallel to those of Oxford Street.


#Must See
Want to see the most popular destinations? - Click on the tag "Must see in London".


#With Children
Family Vacation? - Click on the tag "Attractions for children in London".


#Food
Unforgettable meal? - Click on the tag "Must eat in London".


#Tip
In most European countries service fees are already included in the check, so it is customary to give a 2 euro tip, regardless of the price of the check itself.


#UK Country Code
+44


#Electric Outlets
The required type of plug is only Type G.


A taste of the upcoming trip? - Here's a video that will show you the city in all its beauty:
https://youtu.be/X8zLJlU_-60


And one more:
https://youtu.be/-VkL-5CNw9A


Some of the Local street food:

https://youtu.be/yoSbZIe4JnI
Victoria and Albert Museum
Victoria and Albert Museum
#About the Museum

The Victoria and Albert Museum excels in designing items, and here you will find the largest collection in the world of decorative arts. The original purpose of the collection was to inspire creators at the time. Even with its artistic edge, the museum is not intended only for art lovers, but also those interested in anthropology and getting to know a wide variety of cultures.

The museum was established in 1852, and at first was called The South Kensington Museum, for its location in the Kensington neighborhood. At first it was established as a continuation of a large exhibition that took place in London in 1851, at the initiative of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's husband. In 1899 the museum received its owner's name.

The museum building was built in the Edwardian and Victorian style, and this is largely felt by looking at the windows and overhead arches.

In the 145 galleries, each with its own characteristics, you can find over 4 million items displayed. The Middle Ages and Renaissance galleries, the statue, jewelry, fashion, and furniture galleries – all these are just a few of the large amounts of displays here. In the heart of the building you will find a beautiful garden that is pleasant for a walk.

The total area of the building is 45,000 square meters.

Between 10:30 am to 3:30 pm there are free tours around the museum.



#The Museum's Courtyard

In the museum you will find two covered courtyards, called the Molding Garden, where you will find plaster moldings of statues, friezes, and coffins. All these were especially brought over to London, for artists to learn from, and be inspired by. One of the most famous piece of art is there Trajan's Column, whose height is so large it was cut into two.

With the years, many of the original pieces of art were damaged, and so the Victoria and Albert Museum is one of the only places to still see some of the works of art, exactly as they appeared in the 19th century.
Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
#The Palace of the British Monarchy

The royal palace is the most famous palace in London. It is the main residence of Queen Elizabeth II. Buckingham Palace is one of the symbols of the British monarchy, along with Victoria Square, just around the corner.

The palace was originally built in 1703 for the first Duke of Buckingham, John Sheffield. In 1762 it was purchased by King George III, who expanded and enlarged it. In 1826 King George IV hired John Nash to transform the building into a magnificent palace. In 1837 it became the main palace of the British royal family and Queen Victoria moved in.

The eastern front which you must be facing now, was added after the wedding of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert. In 1847 another wing designed by Edward Blur was added to the palace. He created the courtyard with its familiar square shape in the middle of the palace. Once completed, the palace contained 19 guest rooms, 52 royal bedrooms, 188 bedrooms for servants, 92 offices and 78 bathrooms. The exterior wall of the palace underwent further renovation and a monument was built for Queen Victoria in 1912.

Like many UK buildings, Buckingham Palace was also hit during the Blitz during World War II.



#Tourism

Though the palace hosted well-known artists and celebrities (from government officials to famous composers) in its early years, the palace was not open to the general public. This was due to the fire in Windsor Castle in 1992. After the fire the Queen had to pay for its renovation. She agreed to allow visitors to visit the Buckingham Palace for a fee in order to finance the necessary renovations.

Since it opened to the public in 1993, the palace attracts crowds of visitors. Please note that only 18 of the 600 rooms in the palace are open to the public, so you can only imagine the true size of the palace. Only 100 out of a collection of 7,000 oil paintings in the Queen's possession are presented to the public. It is of-course known, that this is only one of the Queen’s residences..

It is important to note, that when the royal flag is raised, it is a sign that the queen is in the palace. On the days when the queen is in the palace, it will be closed to visitors, but you can still admire it from the outside.



#Changing of the Guard

Many visitors like to wait for the changing of the guard ceremony at the eastern front of the palace. The guards are soldiers belonging to military units subject to the royal family. They wear traditional military uniforms, which are remarkable and no longer used by the British army. The soldiers begin a half-hour march, accompanied by a military band from St James' Palace to Buckingham Palace. The march is impressive, majestic and elegant. After the new group of guards arrives at the entrance to the palace, the exchange itself takes place, in which they salute each other. At the end of the switch, the new group takes its place at the entrance to the palace and the old group makes their way back to St. James' Palace. If you want to ensure a good spot for observation, you should arrive at least an hour before the ceremony and occupy a place as desired.

#Tips

The changing of the guard is at 11:00 am daily, and 10:00 am on Sundays.
Apsley House
Apsley House
#About the House

In the south-central corner of Hyde Park you will discover the magnificent Apsley House, designed in the 18th century by architect Robert Adam. The house is also called the Wellington Museum.

One of the most famous tenants living in this house was the Duke of Wellington, who lived here between 1817 and 1834. Wellington was a commander in the Battle of Waterloo and defeated Napoleon. He later served as prime minister and his descendants continue to live in the house to this day.

The rooms open to visitors have expensive artwork, sculptures, furniture, silverware, porcelain and personal belongings. In total there are more than 200 works of art from the collection of the Duke.



#On Display at Apsley

The first Duke of Wellington held the finest collection of art and furniture, probably unparalleled. He did not have to pay for it either! After the Duke's victory over Napoleon at Waterloo, thankful nations and private citizens gave him many gifts of thanks, including excellent services and large sums of money.

Here you can also see 200 paintings from the Royal Collection of the Kings of Spain, which Wellington received from Joseph Bonaparte after the Battle of Vittoria in 1813. After King Ferdinand VII was restored to his position as King, he asked Wallington to keep the paintings as a souvenir. The Duke, in his wisdom, agreed. Among these paintings you will also see works by Goya, Velazquez, Caravaggio and Rubens.

A large statue of Napoleon adorns the entrance to Apsley House, displayed like a Greek athlete, sculpted by Antonio Canova. The statue stands at the foot of the large staircase, because it is the only place in the house that is strong enough to hold the weight of the great statue. However, it was still necessary to strengthen the floor to supports its weight. Wellington's sword from Waterloo is displayed in the china room, along with the sword of his great enemy, Napoleon.



#Visiting the House

The house is divided into 3 levels, with an entrance hall, a museum, small and large dining rooms, and a living room on the ground floor. The museum was opened during Wellington’s lifetime and features a magnificent display of fine porcelain, gold and silver objects given to the duke by European leaders after his victory at Waterloo. The dining rooms are preserved exactly as Wellington had planned them. They are designed exactly as he left them for his annual banquet on the anniversary of Waterloo. These dinners connected the soldiers who fought in the battle.

In the basement there is an exhibition of military souvenirs, including the story of Napoleon's death and the medals awarded to Wellington by heads of state as gratitude from across Europe. On the first floor there are several other drawing rooms with selected works of art.

London

Abbey Road
Abbey Road
#The Pedestrian Crossing of Abbey Road

The most famous pedestrian crossing in London and possibly the world, is situated on Abbey Road Street in Britain. One of the most famous photographs in the history of rock and modern culture was taken here. In 1969, when the four musicians recorded their last album, they decided that a photograph would be printed on the cover. Someone suggested posing across the road from the studio. They went out and walked across the pedestrian crossing and called the album named after the street where it was recorded.

Thus the pedestrian crossing opposite Abbey Road became a pilgrimage site for masses of tourists. Just like "Abbey Road Studios", the crossing was also declared a British heritage site over the years. Hundreds of tourists recreate the album cover every day, just like the Beatles. They take their photo on the crossing and recreate that great moment. For a moment, they can feel like Paul, John, George, or Ringo. .

The crossing has been moved a few meters from its original location due to renovations and changes that occurred at the intersection over the years. If you see a difference, you will now understand why.



#Abbey Road Studios

This is the studio where countless albums were recorded which are now a staple in musical history. Aside from The Beatles, the most famous is the "Dark Side of the Moon" by Pink Floyd.

Incidentally, Abbey Road Studios were not always called by this name. Many do not know that the name of the street and the pedestrian crossing opposite the Abbey Road Studios preceded the names of these studios. Only after the success of the album and the transformation of the pedestrian crossing to a sacred site for the fans of the band, the studios were renamed the Abbey Road Studios. Now, both these spots became a "Mecca" of Beatles fans all over the world.

Today, tourists are not allowed to enter and even "peek" into the Abbey Road Studios buildings, and certainly not into the studios themselves.
However, photographs on the front steps is allowed. You can compete with tourists from all over the world, all of whom take a turn to stand on the steps of these studios and take the necessary photo op.



A Closer Look at the Studios:

https://youtu.be/so7Hg6NLkyI
Camden Market
Camden Market
#Camden Market for Tourists

There are quite a few markets in London, and visiting them is a staple in any trip. This is one of the UK's biggest street markets – the fashionable Camden Market. Even if you aren’t looking to spend money, (the prices here are higher), you will still find pleasure in the tour and special atmosphere it offers. The market has over 150,000 visitors every week.

The Camden Market is actually made up of several separate markets: Camden Lock, Camden Lock Village, Stables Market, Buck Street, Inverness Road Market and Electric Ballroom.

The market is located in Camden Town, on the Regent River Canal. It began operating in 1974. Although it was a temporary market, it was popular and successful even during its earliest days, therefore becoming a permanent market. The opening hours also changed over time: In the past, it only operated over the weekend, but in recent years the shops have been active during the week as well.

The market has a total of over 1,000 shops and stands, where you can find clothing, antiques and furniture. It is a popular center with plenty of restaurants, shops, cafes and pubs. If you are a fan of Gothic fashion and alternative music, you will find clothing, knickknacks and records that cannot be found elsewhere.



#The Stables at Camden Market

A visit to the stables at Camden Market provides a glimpse at the past rural life that took place in the city. The life-sized bronze statues of horses provide the visitor with an experience and illustration of what used to be here in the past, before the space was converted to the market and was nicknamed the "Stables Market."

The market received its name because it is located in a building that once served as the stables of the Midland Railway Company. This section of Camden Market is its largest section, hosting nearly 700 stands and shops. In the stalls that used to house horses, there are stands today with a wide variety of items for sale.

The stables were built in 1854, and many horses hidden in these stables were used to transport goods along the canals. There were vets, carts, saddle shops, and warehouses in this space as well. Although the place looks very modern and trendy today, the stables are still here, due to the horses' statues.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eFx1Z0qe_JE
Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
#About the Abbey

Westminster Abbey and St. Peter's Church, are the place where the kings of England are crowned and married. It is here that many of the old kings, alongside the writers and scientists of England are buried. Founded in 970 CE, the monastery is also a national museum.

In general, the church is an example of medieval architecture. However there are also other styles embodied in it; starting from the Gothic style to the 18th century. There is a large stained glass window at the entrance on which the three fathers and the 14 prophets are commemorated. Also note the "floating arches" in the northern wing of the monastery. They serve as a supporting base that holds the huge structure.

The first time the entire world was exposed to the church was in 1997, at Princess Diana’s funeral ceremony. The church received a lot of attention at the wedding of Prince William and Kate, who became Princess. In 1987, UNESCO declared the monastery and the palace a World Heritage Site.



#The History of the Abbey

One of the most prominent symbols of London is Westminster Abbey with special attention to its unique architecture. Prince Edward was one of the founders of the monastery. The monastery was built in a place where, according to legend, the fishermen who were fishing in the river saw the image of St. Peter. Construction took almost twenty years, between 1045 and 1065. It was eventually completed, only one week before the Prince's death.

A year after the building was completed, William of Normandy invaded Britain and tried to rule the kingdom. After quite a few wars and intrigues, he was crowned king in the monastery and became King William I. Legend has it that he entered the coronation ceremony while riding on a horse and ever since then, all coronation ceremonies occur in the monastery, although the kings do not arrive riding horseback.

The monastery underwent significant renovations over the years, which ended in 1514. It then was established with a Gothic style known to this day.

However celebrations and new beginnings are not the only events that occurred here; there were funerals and burial ceremonies as well. The most famous funeral held here was that of Princess Diana in 1997.

Another attraction in the church worth seeing is the grave of Edward "the Confessor" who founded the church. See also the coronation throne facing his grave, the tomb of Elizabeth I and that of Mary, her half-sister. Note the Chapel of King Henry VII. The chapel dedicated to the Royal Air Force should also not be missed.



#The Abbey for Tourists

The religious services conducted in the abbey are not intended solely for noble or royalty, but also for ordinary people who want to enjoy the beauty of the Church. If you go towards the altar you can search for the space devoted to the scholarly monks, consisting of 8 symmetrical sides. On its walls there are interesting murals.

During the singing of the enchanting choir, you can listen to the amazing acoustics of the place.



#The Da Vinci Code Film

When the famous film "The Da Vinci Code" was produced in Hollywood in 2006, the director sought permission to film the relevant scenes throughout the church, focusing especially on the murals that received much space in the original book and later in the film. The dean of the church refused to cooperate with the filming, because the original book did not follow exact historical facts. The Catholic Church in general criticized the film for its controversial interpretation. Some bishops even recommended boycotting the film and not watching it at all.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qD9Xli8mMN0
The National Gallery
The National Gallery
#About the National Gallery- the Museum for British and European Art

The National Gallery is located in Trafalgar Square and has 2,300 works of art dating between the 13th to 19th centuries. The museum was founded in 1824. Its purpose is to encourage appreciation of the art British citizens and other artists around the world. The building itself is built in the style of a Greek temple and is very special.

The museum's collection began when the British government purchased 36 photos from the banker John Julius. Over the years, the collection grew through additional donations and acquisitions. The collection belongs to the entire British public and therefore the entrance is free, though it is customary to donate an entrance fee in favor of the museum.

The exhibits follow chronological order: the earliest works will be found in the Sainsbury Wing, inaugurated in 1991 with natural lighting and optimal conditions. The later works, from 1500 onwards, will be found in the three wings of the old building.

Today you can find some spectacular and exciting works in the gallery halls. Make sure to find the "Portrait of Pope Julius II", Botticelli's "Venus and Mars," "The Madonna of the Carnations," "The Crucifixion" by Raphael, "The Madonna" by Leonardo da Vinci, "Venus in the Bathroom" by Velazquez, and others.



#The National Gallery

Over 2,000 masterpieces are exhibited in the National Gallery, among them Van Gogh's "Sunflower" painting. This is one of the most important galleries in the world, evident by the many pieces by famous artists. The most dated pieces of art in the museum are from 1250 and the newest ones are from the 20th century.

The first collection the British government purchased for 57,000 pounds was a collection of 36 works when the gallery opened in 1824. The collection, which belonged to a banker named John Julius, was the foundation for the impressive collection in the gallery today.

Over the years additional works arrived in the form of donations or acquisitions, which enriched the growing collection. In 1838, the collection was moved to the large and impressive building in Trafalgar Square. The location suited both the upper and lower classes, so it seemed that this area was perfect for the establishment of the gallery.

In 1906 it was acquired by the gallery "the Rokeby Venus" by the National Art Collections Foundation. In 1914, it was damaged as part of Mary Richardson's political protest over the arrest of Emilia Pankhurst as part of the campaign to grant women's rights.



#Architecture of the Gallery

John Nash was the architect who proposed building the designated building for the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square. He purposely wanted to establish it where the royal stables had been. As part of an architecture competition which took place in 1832, Nash offered the plan for the building, but another architect, William Wilkins, won the competition. Initially the building served both the National Gallery and the Royal Academy. Due to budgetary and planning constraints, its original plan was changed. Another reason was the museum's many critics.

It was determined that the space was too small to contain two large institutions in and therefore only the National Gallery remained.
Over the years, and with the expansion of the collection, additional sections of the gallery were built. The most important of all is the Sainsbury Division, which opened in 1991.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jxxHLQzRmM


The British Museum
The British Museum
#About the Historical Museum of England

The British Museum is acknowledged as one of the largest and most famous in the world. Founded in 1753 by a scientist and physicist named Sir Hans Sloan, it is located in the Bloomsbury neighborhood of Camden. The museum was opened to the general public in 1759. Over 6 million items are distributed throughout the museum representing the development of the human race from prehistory to the present, from different cultures.

This large building includes a combination of Grecian style architecture (the entrance plaza) and an indoor courtyard with a glass dome, which is by far the largest in Europe.

More than 5 million visitors arrive each year to the museum. Initially it was designed for a more general display and not primarily antiques. Approximately 40,000 books, texts, stuffed animals, fossils, engravings and antiques were found in the first collection donated to the museum by Sloan. Over the years, the museum served as a showroom, mainly for archeological and cultural exhibits. The museum's exhibits are divided into complexes, each relating to a different continent - from Africa and Asia to South America and Australia.

Entrance to permanent exhibitions in the museum is free. This is because there is an ongoing debate today over the ownership of the items displayed at the museum. Many items date back to the expansion of the British Empire and therefore the Museum's right to hold them was not agreed upon. On there behalf, the British claim that the items will be kept in in good condition and anyone will be allowed to come and enjoy them. In addition, British law does not allow the return of the exhibits. The Egyptian and Greek antiquities collection, for example, is one of the largest in the world. It also contains remains from the Parthenon in Athens. Therefore, some governments, like Greece and Nigeria are still fighting for the right to receive the remains for display in their respective museums.



#The History of the Museum

The purpose of the British Parliament in building the museum in 1753
was very simple: to allow citizens to discover the whole world in one building. This is one of the few buildings in the world that really makes it possible to learn and think about the whole world under one roof!

In 1750, the museum was actually a library of Gentleman's House, where visitors were able to draw, print and read the about the world. At the entrance, a visitor would receive a ticket from the library, that was also an entrance ticket to the museum. This way, a visitor would receive invitations to view the various collections presented at the museum. The idea of showing these collections to the commoners whenever they pleased was truly revolutionary at the time.

The new idea of allowing commoners to enter and behold collections in 1815, after Napoleon’s time, was truly a game-changer. The original building was replaced by the new building you see today. The museum is open to everyone today and all the collections are exhibited there. By the way, children were not allowed to enter the museum at all. This was due to the damage they caused to the stuffed animals when they got excited. The children returned to the museum as soon as the stuffed animals were transferred to the Natural History Museum. Today, by the way, children also visit there and do not inflict any real damage ...

A big change occurred in 1851. That same year, a fine exhibition was presented at the museum, and for the first time, a large number of tourists, lovers of art and culture, arrived. It was a huge success for museum in London, which became particularly popular. To this day there is an unimaginable amount of people in line, waiting to see the items in the museum, which are increasing continually in number.



#A Museum for Visitors

The museum's approach to visitors and tourists has been a special one since the early days of the museum. The founders wanted to allow people access to the objects, to think about them and discuss them, to paint them, to admire them or to swing by them – whatever they chose. The approach is that the collection is a private collection belonging to all citizens who can come and use it as they please and not a royal collection that is only intended for them.

The building you know is well suited to the large number of visitors who come here, but museum directors continue to devise new ways to give visitors better access to the collections available. Therefor the building has indeed undergone all sorts of changes over the years.

The visitors, then, do not come to the museum only to view the items of any given collection. They especially enjoy having lunch on the broad steps. In recent years, museum directors have been thinking about how to rethink the museum building in order to continue to achieve its original goal.



#About the Historical Museum of England

The British Museum underwent several architectural changes over the years. Its core, the oldest part, to date, was designed by the architect Sir Robert Smirke in 1823.

The large, modern courtyard, named after Queen Elizabeth II, was designed by Foster & Co. Architects. The courtyard was first opened to the public in 2000 and is the largest indoor courtyard in Europe. The magnificent ceiling of this courtyard is made up of no less than 3,000 transparent panels that form the harmonious and wondrous shape of the building. The waves, incidentally, are not symmetrical and the size of the panels is uneven. Also note the amount of light in the indoor yard - it is not as bright as the natural light outside – there is special material wrapping the panels, allowing only part of the light to sift through which created a special atmosphere and lighting inside.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygkWTK8nbmo
Lyceum Theatre
#About the Museum

Lyceum Theater is located in Westminster City, the second historic center of London, on Wellington Street. This is a central axis in the development of modern London and includes a lengthy, rich history of buildings and sites that are familiar to this day.

The theater itself was built in 1765 and has 2,100 seats. In the past, the building was used for various needs such as circuses, operas and even exhibitions. It was here that Madame Tussauds held the first exhibition, making it a popular museum in the British capital.
After a fire that caused damage to the building, it was rebuilt and reopened in 1834. During this period there were plays that were adapted according to the novels of playwrights such as Charles Dickens and Shakespeare. In subsequent years, various melodramas were played at the theater. In 1951, the theater was converted into a hall where famous bands appeared.

The theater has been hosting the musical "Lion King" based on the well-known Walt Disney film since 1999. The play is quite an experience - both visually and in musically. The music is the original soundtrack of the film by Tim Reiss and Elton John. Add to this the magnificent setting, the costumes, the makeup and the effects, and you will understand that it is a breathtaking and a once-in-a-lifetime experience. It is no wonder that this play has been running for many years and is very popular among tourists.
Tate Modern
#About the Museum of Modern Art of Britain

The Tate Modern is a Museum of Modern Art, and a section inside the Tate Gallery. Is one of the most prestigious and valued museums in the world and has made the entire South Bank region a particularly trendy area.

The museum is located inside the Bankside Power Station, built in 1963-1947 by architect Giles Gilbert Scott. It was only after the station was shut down in 1981 that the building was redesigned and turned into a museum by the architects Herzog and De Meuron. The appreciation of the architecture is an integral part of the museum's visit. The museum opened in 2000. Among the exhibits you can find works by Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and Andy Warhol.

On the first floor you will pass through the impressive Turbine Hall. On the second floor is a café surrounded by transparent windows through which you can take in the beautiful view of the Thames. Though we are accustomed to museums displaying their exhibits by historical periods, in this museum you can walk around on the third, fourth and fifth floors, which are arranged according to themes. On the third floor you will find mostly abstract art and expressionism, while the fifth floor features conceptual and minimalist works of art.



#Turbine Hall

On the first floor you will find a large hall called the "Turbine Hall", since it used to be the turbine of the power plant. Due to the height of the hall (5 stories) and its wide area (3,400 square meters), very large pieces can be displayed in the hall.

Turbine Hall is the nexus of visitors, a place to rest and the heart of the entire structure. It is in this point that the traffic to and from the museum leaves and enters. It certainly provides a special experience.

Due to its enormous size (it makes up almost half of the entire building), the space allows for a display of large and impressive works. Up to 2012, “The Unilever Series” was exhibited in the hall, which were exposed in 2000. Note the spider at the entrance to the museum and the silver slides you can take to the lower floor.



#Tate Modern for Tourists

The Tate Modern, located at the end of the Millennium Bridge, brings 5 ​​million visitors a year and is one of the most successful museums in the world. When the Queen of England first opened the gallery in 2000, no one imagined it would be such a spectacular success. The museum succeeded in increasing the prestige of the entire region and even led to a significant increase in property prices.

Items from 1900 until today are exhibited in the museum, and the entrance to the permanent exhibitions is free. If you decide to add a view to the temporary exhibitions there is a special fee for entry. A tour of the entire museum takes over an hour and a half to two hours for the average tourist, but art lovers can find themselves drifting here for a whole day. The museum tries to encourage the arrival of children and therefore offers various activities and guided tours (free) on a daily basis.

Tourists arrive by public transport and not in a private vehicle, because the entire area is jammed and parking is free. Young people enjoy a nighttime visit to the museum (it is open until 22:00). It is highly recommended to combine the museum visit with the interesting sites nearby - the Globe of Shakespeare, the London Bridge and the Borough food Market.



#The Basement Floor

One of the museum's most interesting spots is the basement, which is a nostalgic remnant of the original power station. On this floor you can see the three huge gas tanks made of concrete.

The reason why archeology was expressed in the structure lies, of course, in the selection of the architects Herzog and De-Meuron, who discovered and exposed interesting underground spaces during their excavation. The architects used what they found inside the tanks: the sloping concrete columns and concrete openings that emphasized the special nature of the containers themselves. These spaces were the first to be designed specifically for the stronghold itself.

From the basement level you can ascend to the ground floor by a spiral staircase.



#The Museum's New Wing

The Swiss architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron accepted the project of expanding the museum. The new wing was built as the Switch House. The purpose of the nickname was to illustrate the difference from the existing structure of the power station, called the Boiler House.

According to the plan, the new wing was supposed to be inaugurated in 2012, but the design plans encountered quite a few objections, causing the architects to adjust their plans. In addition, those years suffered from an economic crisis, which did not help promote the project, only delaying it.

The new wing consists of 10 floors, but there were several challenges and limitations that eventually led to the pyramid shape that characterizes the new wing of the building. The factors taken into account were the angles of the streets that enclosed the building, the height restrictions imposed on it to avoid harming the sunlight of nearby buildings, an attempt not to damage the view of central London, and especially not harm the view of the dome of St Paul's Cathedral.

The wing is built by concrete from the factory, but was assembled here, at the construction site. The architect, Jill Gilbert Scott, planned the taut front on the concrete. The idea was to create a kind of detachment between the entrance and the concrete structure itself - and therefore the architects omitted the bricks from the front, so that light and refreshing air would enter the building. The missing bricks create the illusion of lace and add value to the wide surfaces within the structure. The architects say they wanted to provide a different perspective on the art within the museum. This was also the reason they chose traditional construction material, yet looked for a different way to use it.



#The Tale of a Treasure
The curator's role in the museum is to produce events that cause diverse audiences to come and view the collection at the Tate Modern Museum. The truth is, this museum is so special that it does not concern only art lovers. Even people who do not dabble in this field frequent the museum. You know, painting is just a color on canvas. It is simple and not at all complex - pigments mixed with oil. When the artist's hands touch the color, it becomes a kind of inexplicable magic for something that manages to express human emotion to another person.

On the tour of the Tate Modern Gallery, one can notice that the simplicity of the building and the spaces allows these works of art to receive the respect they deserve. The cause for his is the architecture in the entrance which draws attention, while the interior is relatively clean and does not attract much attention.



#The Roof of the Museum

One of the most beautiful and spectacular parts of the museum's new wing is its rooftop. Go up to the roof and for a glimpse of a stunning 360-degree panoramic view across central London. The urban landscape is full of tall towers and cranes.

Have you seen the movie “Rear Window”? The museum's roof will provide you with a particularly intriguing experience. Pay attention to the Neo Bankside luxury tower, designed by Richard Rogers and located next to the museum. The proximity to the residential tower and the great visibility on the exposed side of the tower provide a direct glimpse into the apartments of the tenants, some of which are so expensive that they cost 20 million euros.

So even though not all visitors might admit it, the thrilling spying on the luxurious apartments across the street turned into a the talk of the day on the roof of the museum. Dozens of visitors gather every day on the roof, point to the various apartments, wait to see the tenants and identify luxury pieces of furniture. It is very possible that this is one of the most interesting and popular objects in the museum, which sometimes surpasses the art inside the museum.



#Architecture

The arrangement of floors in the museum building presents a clear purpose: efficiency in the use of space rather than spaces that provide an experience for visitors. The impressive front of the building is almost never reflected inside. This is an original decision that does not characterize the usual museum architecture. It represents a statement about the gallery and the art presented in it.

The spaces are almost overcrowded, especially as the floors are higher.
In order to understand the difference, let us mention the original wing of the museum (the Turbine Hall), where the high industrial spaces provided added value in the form of a relationship between the size of the Turbine Hall and the exhibition spaces that are hidden and exposed in turn.

This, by the way, is not accidental, of course. In 2000, Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron undertook the expansion of the museum. The Swiss architects were responsible for planning the gallery and were entrusted with the project. They emphasized that the direction of the art world is very influenced by the urban environment. This was the reason they made the "brave" decision to establish the new wing within an office tower. If you walk around the gallery, you will notice the difference between the original wing and the new and corporate wing.
Palace of Westminster
#About the House of Parliament

One of the most famous symbols in London is the Palace of Westminster, commonly known as the House of Parliament. It consists of two houses: the House of Lords and the House of Representatives, also called the "house of commons". These bodies deal with legislation and have authority in the United Kingdom.

The Gothic-style palace is located on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster.

The Parliament House was built in the 19th century and includes the famous clock structure, the Big Ben. The House of Parliament has a distinguished history and represents values ​​are a cornerstone of British leadership - political honor. In its early days, the palace served as the residence of the king's legislative advisers. The changes made over the years were caused by unification and disconnection of the countries which make up the United Kingdom: Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

The palace is one of the largest buildings in the world. It features about 1,200 rooms and more than 3 kilometers of corridors. Although it has an especially ancient wing from the 11th century, most of the present building was built in the second half of the 19th century. This was after a great fire destroyed the palace in 1834.

On days when the parliament is active, visitors can even go inside and watch the discussions.



#Prohibition of Death in Parliament

It’s interesting to learn about some strange laws upheld in different countries. In London, we have come across one of the strangest ones yet; it is prohibited to die in Parliament. It may sound funny, but it is not a joke and the law actually exists. The law prohibits dying in any royal palace in Britain, claiming that anyone who dies in it will technically have to receive a state funeral, even if they are not part of the royal family. If you had any such plans, sorry to put a damper on them…



#About the Gunpowder Plot

The Gunpowder Plot was an attempt to assassinate King James I and all his men. It was a conspiracy in 1605, in which a group of Catholic extremists attempted to murder King James I of England, his family, and the proletarian nobility by blowing up the British Parliament building in Westminster Abbey.
The gunpowder plot was a scheme led by Catholics in England. They hoped to seize the monarchy in the kingdom and return it to Catholicism, so that England would return to the control of the Pope. The plot was foiled after a Catholic MP received a warning from one of the conspirators not to attend the opening ceremony of the parliament. He preferred to report it and searched the entire parliament building.

A guy named Guy Fawkes was caught in the search holding a lamp and a watch. In the basement of the parliament there were also 36 barrels of gunpowder. After research and modern experiments, it was discovered that had the barrels exploded, the king and everyone else in the building would have died immediately. Guy Fawkes betrayed the rest of the conspirators after severe torture. After a show trial all the conspirators were executed in a particularly cruel manner, treated as traitors of the worst kind.

The plot may have failed, but it was the anonymous Guy Fawkes who left a real mark in English history. As a general term for man, the word "guy" in English comes from his name. England also has a day called “Guy Fawkes Day” on November 5th, when bonfires are held with fireworks, it is a kind of celebration of the failure of the plot throughout the commonwealth: from England to Australia.

Today, masks of the "Anonymous" group – a group of permanent conspirators that are currently working against many regimes - were also designed according to Guy Fawkes' face.

The night of the thwarted conspiracy is mentioned in a ceremonial practice held in English Parliament before every opening ceremony of the Parliament. In this occasion, the members of the Parliament Guard search all the rooms in the building for bombs.
Emirates Stadium
#About the Stadium

During the 1990s, Arsenal, the famous football team, was looking for a bigger stadium than the one it used to train in, with only about 38,000 seats. After thinking about where to go, because the Highbury stadium they used at the time could not be expanded, they chose the industrial site Ashburton Grove, which is about 500 meters from their previous stadium.

The stadium, located in North London, is used by Arsenal FC and opened in July 2006. You can see the 60,000 seats, arranged in three floors of seats under one roof. The upper and lower floors are "regular seats" and the middle floor is considered "special seats". The tickets sold to the seats behind the goalpost are, of course, the most expensive. It is evident by the sheer number of seats that this is the second largest stadium in the Premier League.

Even for a construction as large as this, the price to build it was still pretty steep. Due to budgetary problems Arsenal faced, the construction work was suspended in the middle until they managed to borrow 260 million pounds from various banks. The total cost of building the stadium is about 390 million pounds.

Take a tour of the stadium complex, where you can also see the team's dressing rooms, the players' tunnel, the VIP cells and the Arsenal Museum.

Many of the walls of the Emirates Stadium, including its exterior walls, sport photographs and information about the team and its heroes, as well as statues of star athletes.
Crystal Palace
#The Crystal Palace Before the Fire

The palace was first built in Hyde Park in 1851. Originally, it was a huge exhibition hall, in honor of the first international exhibition for industrial products, which was held in London. The main objective of the exhibition was combining industry and art. The palace, reminiscent of a small glasshouse, was designed by Joseph Paxton, who was an architect and gardener, with expertise in designing deprived greenhouses. It was made of cast iron and glass, steel and wood – materials that were considered the best of Victorian technology. At the time, however, the palace was not treated favorably by the architects, and it received nicknames such as "glass monster" or "glass soap bubble".

The building was within the speedy time record of 9 months. It was designed in such a way that it could be dismantled and reassembled when needed. The palace symbolized the change in the Western world and the development of the industrial age. In this palace, for the first time, one of the most familiar patents was exposed: the toilet with the dishwasher.

The "Crystal Palace" owes its name to a satirical magazine "Punch." At the conclusion of the world-wide exhibition, the palace was dismantled and rebuilt in a suburb in the southeast of the city. With the burning of the palace in 1936, Churchill noted that "this is the end of an era."
Fulham Palace
#About the Palace

Palaces can be found all over London which served local nobles and kings. What you may not know, however, is that not all the palaces in London were for royal families. Some of them were used by the church, which is one of the richest and strongest forces in Europe. Fulham Palace is such a palace. Built in the 11th century, it was one of the official residences of the city's bishop. The bishop was one of the most influential roles in London at that time. In 1975, the building was transferred to the church, which to this day remains its official owner.

Fulham Palace is an impressive, one-thousand-year-old palace. The impressive residents and rich history are well commemorated in the museum opened there. Ancient artifacts and explanations about ancient London can be found throughout the museum. In the palace you will also find an art gallery with works by the best artists in London and Europe.
A canal surrounds the building dating all the way back to the 11th century. You can also pay a visit to the magnificent botanical garden, and the blossoming bishop's park in the heart of the palace.

Entrance to the palace is free of charge.
Benjamin Franklin House
#About the House

Benjamin Franklin spent 16 years in this house. He was a scientist and inventor, a diplomat and philosopher, and one of the fathers of the American nation.

You will be able to better understand his activities, in the museum dedicated to the fields of history and science. The building was built in 1730 and Franklin lived here between the years 1757-1775.

While living here, Franklin made efforts to settle peace between Britain and the United States and therefore the house served as an embassy of the young nation. He was engaged in investigating the electrical phenomena as well. In fact, it was Franklin who discovered that lightning was actually electrical energy. Among his most important inventions was Franklin stove, an electric stove and, of course, a lightning rod, a simple device that stands on the roof of the house and protects it from lightning.
Today the house serves as a dynamic museum, and there are historical performances that combine games and audiovisual effects. On Mondays there are tours with an emphasis on architecture.
Horniman Museum and Gardens
#About the Ethnographic Museum with its Cultural Collection from the Great World

Rich with diverse collection of art, this museum presents exhibitions of cultures from all over the world. The museum is located in the Forest Hill neighborhood of South London. The initiative for the museum came from the tea merchant Frederick John Horniman. This man was interested in a proper place to present his collections of musical instruments, ethnographic collections, fossils, plants and animals. The museum was opened to the public in 1901. Presently, more than 350,000 exhibits in various fields are presented at the museum.

Among the buildings is the Center for Understanding the Environment. The museum is run by the UK Department of Culture, Communication and Sport.

Well-tended gardens surround the museum, where visitors may take a stroll around. These extend over 65,000 square meters. In addition, there are walking trails in the gardens, a small zoo, a glasshouse that is a historic building for preservation and an orchestra building.


Chindit Memorial
#About the Memorial

The British military and the countries which aided Britain in World Wars are commemorated in the park on the banks of the Thames. The memorial also commemorates Orde Wingate, who was an officer in the British army and specialized in small guerrilla warfare. Wingate, known in Israel as a "comrade," became a "zealous Zionist" during his service in the State of Israel.

Wingate is known to have founded the "Night Squads," composed of people from the Jewish community and members of the Haganah. They prevented attacks on the Yishuv and thwarted them. During World War II Wingate served in Africa and Asia and was killed in a plane crash in India. Various places in the Land of Israel are named after Wingate, the most famous of which is the Wingate Institute.
Royal Academy of Arts
#About the Academy

This important British Art Institution is located in Piccadilly Circus in London.

Surprisingly, the academy was founded out of conflict. There were two leading architects, Sir William Chambers and James Payne, who argued over the leadership of the Artists' Association. Payne won and became the leader of the association and Chambers, who tried to retaliate, created a new artistic institution - the Royal Academy, which was inaugurated and opened to the public in 1769.

The academy is not funded by government funds and therefore its main sources of income is from hosting art exhibitions which are open to the public. The exhibitions are very high quality. In the permanent summer exhibition over 1,000 works are offered for sale, sometimes even by anonymous artists. The academy also has a school for art studies, painting, sculpture and prints. Only select students are accepted to the school and the curriculum is in the form of personal tutoring.

Interestingly, the number of Academy members is limited to 80 and they can only be active artists in a number of selected areas: painting, printing, sculpture and architecture. The new members are selected by the existing members. People who are not artists can be part of the academy as "friends of the Academy”. This title is bestowed after a donation to the institution, a contribution that is an important source of income for the academy.
Emirates Air Line
#About the Air Line

The cable car passing over the Thames was inaugurated just before the opening of the Olympics in 2012. It was built by private funding from the Emirates airline, though the main initiative came from the London
municipality. City officials tried to kill two birds with one stone: the first problem was providing proper transportation and adding a tourist attraction that would intrigue tourists. The mile-long cable car connects Northern Greenwich with the Royal Docks on the north bank.

The company invested $56 million in the construction of the cable car as part of a 10-year sponsorship agreement.

The cable car has 34 carriages, reaching a height of 90 meters. The bird’s eye view from the cable car is a special experience. The trip in any direction lasts for about 10 minutes. If you catch a sunny day, you can enjoy spectacular views and also take the opportunity to visit Greenwich. However one cannot see the entire city from this point, rather the general area.

Each car can carry ten passengers, however there is generally not a long line. It is entirely possible to catch a car all to yourself. If the weather is stormy (strong winds, lightning storms, etc.), the cable car will be closed for periods of time.



A Closer Look at the Air Line:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TKqj8xPxanU
Whitechapel Gallery
#Jack the Ripper's Neighborhood Gallery

The oldest gallery in the Whitechapel neighborhood is in the Art Nouveau building, featuring a variety of temporary exhibitions - both veteran artists and young artists only starting out.

The gallery was designed by Charles Townsend Harrison and opened in 1901 with the aid of public funding. Aside from art and exhibitions, fundraisers, master classes and poetry readings are held here. The exhibitions and events here are of particular interest to the local community.

There is also a café with a pleasant and relaxed atmosphere.



#About the Neighborhood

The gallery is named after the neighborhood where it is located, Whitechapel. The neighborhood is crowded, filled with diverse ethnic groups. There are many residents of Bengal (50% of the population), Irish and Jews. These tenants live in poverty and difficult conditions. One of the familiar stories in this neighborhood is attributed to the years 1888-1891. It is the series of murders committed by Jack the Ripper, a serial killer who was never caught.

Young artists were drawn to the industrial park zone, mainly because they found large spaces to rent at low prices. The artists converted the space to galleries where they exhibited their works.



#An Interesting Story

In 1938, Pablo Picasso's "Guernica" was shown here as part of an exhibition organized by Roland Penrose in protest against the Spanish Civil War. Surprisingly, there was no entrance fee at the door. Instead, visitors were required to hand over boots with some wear left in them, which were sent as a contribution to the regiments of the Republican Army.



A Closer Look at the Gallery:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74PlOMneXWA
The Shard
Golden Hind
Monument to the Great Fire of London
Shakespeare's Globe
Big Ben