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Charles Dickens Museum
Charles Dickens Museum
#About the Museum in the Home of the Famous English Writer

Charles Dickens, a writer, a prolific literary historian, a journalist and an English theater actor, lived in this building, where the museum named after him is located today. He had also lived in other apartments throughout the city.

Although he lived in this house for only two years, between 1837 and 1839, Dickens wrote some of his most famous works here, such as "Oliver Twist" and "The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby" - two books that became popular classics dealing with the lives of the commoners.

Some of the rooms in the house are preserved just as they were at the time of Dickens and are an authentic reflection of what the house looked like while he lived there. Articles, letters, furniture and portraits related to the author can be found in other rooms of the house.



#Works by Dickens

Dickens’ Georgian house is located between the streets of London, which were a great source of inspiration for the writer. This house is only one of his houses open today to the general public. During the visit, you can really feel the presence of the British writer.

When Charles Dickens moved here in 1837, he was only 25, not yet a successful writer. Every day, from eight in the morning until the afternoon, he would sit in his room studying and writing. His famous desk can be found in the house. During his three fruitful years here, he managed to write his first novel "The Pickwick Papers" and two other novels; "Oliver Twist" and "The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby." Here he also began to write the novel "The Mystery of Edwin Drood."



#Dickens’ Childhood

The museum manages to convey the story of Charles Dickens the man, almost like the story of Dickens the artist. As a child, Dickens experienced a difficult life. Though in his early years as a child the family lived in a large house with two servants, a comfortable and good life, it soon turned out that the family lived beyond its economic capabilities. His father, who for years served as a clerk in the navy, drowned in debt because of his lavish lifestyle. When the debt that was not returned Dickens’ father was arrested and thrown into the Marshalsea prison in 1824. The prison was a private prison and run for profit gains. This fact apparently ignited in Dickens the passion for social justice.


This was the turning point in Dickens' childhood, who at age 12 left his family to work for a living. He worked 10 hours a day in a shoe factory, pasted stickers on jars and did everything he could to make some money. These years are reflected in Dickens' writing: his attitude toward orphans, abandoned children and the poor. Many of Dickens' characters, such as Oliver Twist and David Copperfield, are based on experiences he endured in his childhood. He referred to the long working hours, the harsh labor conditions, the meager wages and the exploitation. Dickens often testified that if he had not become a writer, he would probably have become a criminal.



#About the House

Charles Dickens’ life changed drastically during the years spent in this house. It was here that his two daughters were born to his wife Catherine.

The kitchen and the dining room were the most important to Dickens and his wife. They would host quite a few parties and evenings together, with friends and people of high status. The Dickens were particularly social and they hosted a great deal.

Throughout the house you can see many paintings and pictures on the walls, caricatures and small sculptures.

Catherine's 17-year-old sister, Mary Hogarth lived in one of the rooms. She passed away, and the loss influenced Dickens and his writing substantially in the years to follow.

The main room of the house was the drawing room. People would come here to drink, eat, dance and play. Dickens loved this room dearly. Guests were especially lucky if he’d read what he had written in his study that day out loud. The copies of what he has written and read in this room are now in this museum.

3.1 million euros has been invested in this house to date. Special events are held throughout the year. The museum offers activities that are suitable for children of all ages.

The museum also runs an exciting program for families. The program reads together excerpts from Dickens' works, and there are also entertaining performances, with actors and temporary exhibitions.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYJ9AzZcHew&t=11s
Sir John Soane's Museum
Sir John Soane's Museum
#About The Archeology Museum

At the "Soane" Archeology Museum you will find some of London's most spectacular treasures. This museum displays illustrations and models of buildings designed by the British architect John Soane. Among the exhibits you will find archaeological collections of his. The museum is located in the Holborn neighborhood of central London. Sir John had left the house and all its collections of art to the British nation.

The museum was established while Sir John was still alive. After his passing, the British Parliament enforced a law determining that the house should be preserved exactly as it was in his lifetime. The law is still valid to this day. In the 19th century the museum expanded. Today this area serves as the museum's offices, library and gallery for temporary exhibitions as well.

In this museum you will find approximately 30,000 architectural illustrations and works of art, models and sculptures, paintings
and other works. The sarcophagus of Pharaoh Seti I is kept in the
cellar of the museum. In addition to the collections and artworks, there are also temporary exhibitions on various subjects, including the areas in which Sir John was interested.

Today the museum also serves as a national center for the study of architecture.



#Architecture and Construction

One of the most prominent features of the rooms in the museum
is the use of illumination. This is an original idea of Soane that he invented while planning the rooms in the Bank of England (the building where the United Kingdom Central Bank is located). Due to the special museum structure, in which the walls of the exhibition rooms are movable, it is possible to view several pictures simultaneously and rotating the display structure easily and efficiently.

The breakfast room, where you will find a concave ceiling with mirrors, was an influential feature on contemporary interior designers at the time. The museum's library is built in the Gothic style.

The house as it is today, lures the visitors into the atmosphere of Sir John Soane.



#Sir John Soane

Architect John Soane was born in 1753 and achieved a respectable career during his lifetime.

Sir John Soane decided to build his house on the north side of Lincoln’s Inn. He bought three houses adjacent to each other and rebuilt them for this purpose. Shortly after his appointment as professor of architecture at the Royal Academy, he purchased the building where the museum is located - house number 13. Originally, the house was supposed to serve him as an office.

His wife passed away in 1815, and he remained alone in the house, continuing to develop his collections and works.

In 1823, when he was 70 years old, he purchased the adjacent building, number 14, and expanded it to the museum grounds, significantly increasing them in size. Sir John Soane passed away in 1837.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3Nn7KuuzRA
Horniman Museum and Gardens
Horniman Museum and Gardens
#About the Ethnographic Museum with its Cultural Collection from the Great World

Rich with a diverse collection of art, this museum presents exhibitions from cultures from all over the world. The museum is located in the Forest Hill neighbourhood of South London. The initiative for the museum came from the tea merchant Frederick John Horniman. This man was interested in a proper place to present his collections of musical instruments, ethnographic collections, fossils, plants and animals. The museum was opened to the public in 1901. Presently, more than 350,000 exhibits in various fields are presented at the museum.

Among the buildings is the Center for Understanding the Environment. The museum is run by the UK Department of Culture, Communication and Sport.

Well-tended gardens surround the museum, where visitors may take a stroll around. These extend over 65,000 square meters. In addition, there are walking trails in the gardens, a small zoo, a glasshouse that is a historic building for preservation and an orchestra building.
Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
#About the War Museum in London

A charming 19th-century building is nestled at the heart of the garden. It once served as a hospital, and is now a museum founded in memory of British soldiers killed in the First World War. The museum's main building with a dome and a huge column lobby was built in 1846 by Sydney Smirke. The museum was founded in 1917 and until 1936 was adjacent to the Crystal Palace. With the outbreak of the fire, the museum moved to Lambeth, an area in southern London.

The museum pays respect to soldiers in the British army and tries to convey this feeling to viewers. The museum will expose visitors to wars from both the front and the rear of battle. These include tanks, artillery, planes, espionage equipment, and more. The museum also features a "surrender letter" of German forces in Europe. In addition, you will find approximately 10,000 works related to war, paintings and sculptures. Information on the lives of the residents of the home front during the fighting is also on display. One of the chilling permanent exhibits you will see in the museum deals with the Holocaust.

In the museum you will also find the war rooms of Churchill, Her Majesty’s warship Belfast, and Her Majesty's Air Force Museum. There is also a café and a tea room.


A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9G5q1vompI

London in Winter

London Canal Museum
London Canal Museum
#About The Museum

The building of the London Canal Museum where you are now, was once an ice storage facility. It is ancient and has historical significance. In the museum you can learn about the development of the canal network that surrounds London, which served as the main transportation routes in the country.

The first-hand tour of the museum includes a short boat ride that tries to simulate the sailing in the 17th century, while listening to interesting information about the life of the sailors, the horses who were responsible for pulling the boats and the life under the city.

Due to the interesting history of the building as an ice storage facility, you will also find fascinating information on the import of ice from Scandinavia. You will have access to information on the ice block voyage on the giant ships, through the small boats that roamed the alleys of the city directly to the huge ice warehouses.

The canal museum is suitable for the entire family and the children will be engaged by the enriching learning experience.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1KPmkxw_sW8
London Transport Museum
London Transport Museum
#About the Museum

The museum, dedicated entirely to the development of transportation in London, joins the list of museums associated with the history of the city. It is located in Covent Garden, and it is especially appealing to children. The fascinating tour includes a simulation ride on an old bus, a visit to an old train, attractions and games. The little ones will find a unique opportunity to drive a bus ...

The museum was opened to the public as early as 1980, but during this period it presented only exhibits relating to London's public transport. Its original name was "Transport Museum London". When the museum management was replaced in the year 2000, the exhibits were expanded to include all modes of transport in London. Today you can see ancient and modern exhibits, all standing next to each other: old buses and trains besides new motorcycles. General information is also available on London's modern transport.

The museum also includes military vehicles. In the range of topic surveyed in the museum, the future means of transport is pondered on as well as examining the influence of transportation on the design of other cities in the world. As part of the changes that have taken place in the museum over the years, additional sections have been added, such as a lecture hall. Most of the items in the museum are not displayed because of their size and are held at another branch of the museum located in the town of Acton, London.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXfZGKXD_pY
The National Gallery
The National Gallery
#About the National Gallery- the Museum for British and European Art

The National Gallery is located in Trafalgar Square and has 2,300 works of art dating between the 13th to 19th centuries. The museum was founded in 1824. Its purpose is to encourage appreciation of the art British citizens and other artists around the world. The building itself is built in the style of a Greek temple and is very special.

The museum's collection began when the British government purchased 36 photos from the banker John Julius. Over the years, the collection grew through additional donations and acquisitions. The collection belongs to the entire British public and therefore the entrance is free, though it is customary to donate an entrance fee in favor of the museum.

The exhibits follow chronological order: the earliest works will be found in the Sainsbury Wing, inaugurated in 1991 with natural lighting and optimal conditions. The later works, from 1500 onwards, will be found in the three wings of the old building.

Today you can find some spectacular and exciting works in the gallery halls. Make sure to find the "Portrait of Pope Julius II", Botticelli's "Venus and Mars," "The Madonna of the Carnations," "The Crucifixion" by Raphael, "The Madonna" by Leonardo da Vinci, "Venus in the Bathroom" by Velazquez, and others.



#The National Gallery

Over 2,000 masterpieces are exhibited in the National Gallery, among them Van Gogh's "Sunflower" painting. This is one of the most important galleries in the world, evident by the many pieces by famous artists. The most dated pieces of art in the museum are from 1250 and the newest ones are from the 20th century.

The first collection the British government purchased for 57,000 pounds was a collection of 36 works when the gallery opened in 1824. The collection, which belonged to a banker named John Julius, was the foundation for the impressive collection in the gallery today.

Over the years additional works arrived in the form of donations or acquisitions, which enriched the growing collection. In 1838, the collection was moved to the large and impressive building in Trafalgar Square. The location suited both the upper and lower classes, so it seemed that this area was perfect for the establishment of the gallery.

In 1906 it was acquired by the gallery "the Rokeby Venus" by the National Art Collections Foundation. In 1914, it was damaged as part of Mary Richardson's political protest over the arrest of Emilia Pankhurst as part of the campaign to grant women's rights.



#Architecture of the Gallery

John Nash was the architect who proposed building the designated building for the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square. He purposely wanted to establish it where the royal stables had been. As part of an architecture competition which took place in 1832, Nash offered the plan for the building, but another architect, William Wilkins, won the competition. Initially the building served both the National Gallery and the Royal Academy. Due to budgetary and planning constraints, its original plan was changed. Another reason was the museum's many critics.

It was determined that the space was too small to contain two large institutions in and therefore only the National Gallery remained.
Over the years, and with the expansion of the collection, additional sections of the gallery were built. The most important of all is the Sainsbury Division, which opened in 1991.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jxxHLQzRmM
National Portrait Gallery
National Portrait Gallery
#About the Portrait Gallery

The gallery displays portraits of important figures in British history. The gallery was established in 1856 and in its early years presented mainly kings, statesmen and generals. However in time, temporary exhibitions were opened offering a variety of color and other interesting figures. Amongst the portraits: William Shakespeare, Paul McCartney, Princess Diana, Charles Darwin, King Edward VI and many others.

Though the gallery is surrounded by equally significant museums (the National Gallery and the Tate Modern), is considered one of London's most important art museums. The locals arrive mainly for nighttime showings on Thursdays and Fridays.

The gallery moved to this very place in 1896. In the following years, two more wings were developed. The gallery houses over 11,000 paintings, 220,000 photographs, sculptures and various multimedia exhibits. Though the building was destroyed during World War II as a result of a German attack, it was restored relatively quickly.


Tate Modern
Tate Modern
#About the Museum of Modern Art of Britain

The Tate Modern is a Museum of Modern Art, and a section inside the Tate Gallery. Is one of the most prestigious and valued museums in the world and has made the entire South Bank region a particularly trendy area.

The museum is located inside the Bankside Power Station, built in 1947-1963 by architect Giles Gilbert Scott. It was only after the station was shut down in 1981 that the building was redesigned and turned into a museum by the architects Herzog and De Meuron. The appreciation of architecture is an integral part of the museum's visit. The museum opened in 2000. Among the exhibits, you can find works by Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali and Andy Warhol.

On the first floor, you will pass through the impressive Turbine Hall. On the second floor is a café surrounded by transparent windows through which you can take in the beautiful view of the Thames. Though we are accustomed to museums displaying their exhibits by historical periods, in this museum you can walk around on the third, fourth and fifth floors, which are arranged according to themes. On the third floor, you will find mostly abstract art and expressionism, while the fifth floor features conceptual and minimalist works of art.



#Turbine Hall

On the first floor, you will find a large hall called the "Turbine Hall" since it used to be the turbine of the power plant. Due to the height of the hall (5 stories) and its wide area (3,400 square meters), very large pieces can be displayed in the hall.

Turbine Hall is the nexus of visitors, a place to rest and the heart of the entire structure. It is in this point that the traffic to and from the museum leaves and enters. It certainly provides a special experience.

Due to its enormous size (it makes up almost half of the entire building), the space allows for a display of large and impressive works. Up to 2012, “The Unilever Series” was exhibited in the hall, which was exposed in 2000. Note the spider at the entrance to the museum and the silver slides you can take to the lower floor.



#Tate Modern for Tourists

The Tate Modern, located at the end of the Millennium Bridge, brings 5 million visitors a year and is one of the most successful museums in the world. When the Queen of England first opened the gallery in 2000, no one imagined it would be such a spectacular success. The museum succeeded in increasing the prestige of the entire region and even led to a significant increase in property prices.

Items from 1900 until today are exhibited in the museum, and the entrance to the permanent exhibitions is free. If you decide to add a view to the temporary exhibitions there is a special fee for entry. A tour of the entire museum takes over an hour and a half to two hours for the average tourist, but art lovers can find themselves drifting here for a whole day. The museum tries to encourage the arrival of children and therefore offers various activities and guided tours (free) on a daily basis.

Tourists arrive by public transport and not in a private vehicle, because the entire area is jammed and parking is free. Young people enjoy a nighttime visit to the museum (it is open until 22:00). It is highly recommended to combine the museum visit with the interesting sites nearby - the Globe of Shakespeare, the London Bridge and the Borough food Market.



#The Basement Floor

One of the museum's most interesting spots is the basement, which is a nostalgic remnant of the original power station. On this floor you can see the three huge gas tanks made of concrete.

The reason why archeology was expressed in the structure lies, of course, in the selection of the architects Herzog and de Meuron, who discovered and exposed interesting underground spaces during their excavation. The architects used what they found inside the tanks: the sloping concrete columns and concrete openings that emphasized the special nature of the containers themselves. These spaces were the first to be designed specifically for the stronghold itself.

From the basement level you can ascend to the ground floor by a spiral staircase.



#The Museum's New Wing

The Swiss architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron accepted the project of expanding the museum. The new wing was built as the Switch House. The purpose of the nickname was to illustrate the difference from the existing structure of the power station, called the Boiler House.

According to the plan, the new wing was supposed to be inaugurated in 2012, but the design plans encountered quite a few objections, causing the architects to adjust their plans. In addition, those years suffered from an economic crisis, which did not help promote the project, only delaying it.

The new wing consists of 10 floors, but there were several challenges and limitations that eventually led to the pyramid shape that characterizes the new wing of the building. The factors taken into account were the angles of the streets that enclosed the building, the height restrictions imposed on it to avoid harming the sunlight of nearby buildings, an attempt not to damage the view of central London, and especially not harm the view of the dome of St. Paul's Cathedral.

The wing was built by concrete from the factory, but was assembled here, at the construction site. The architect, Giles Gilbert Scott, planned the taut front on the concrete. The idea was to create a kind of detachment between the entrance and the concrete structure itself - and therefore the architects omitted the bricks from the front, so that light and refreshing air would enter the building. The missing bricks create the illusion of lace and add value to the wide surfaces within the structure. The architects say they wanted to provide a different perspective on the art within the museum. This was also the reason they chose traditional construction materials, yet looked for a different way to use them.



#The Tale of a Treasure

The curator's role in the museum is to produce events that cause diverse audiences to come and view the collection at the Tate Modern Museum. The truth is, this museum is so special that it does not concern only art lovers. Even people who do not dabble in this field frequent the museum. You know, painting is just a color on canvas. It is simple and not at all complex - pigments mixed with oil. When the artist's hands touch the color, it becomes a kind of inexplicable magic for something that manages to express human emotion to another person.

On the tour of the Tate Modern Gallery, one can notice that the simplicity of the building and the spaces allows these works of art to receive the respect they deserve. The cause for his is the architecture in the entrance which draws attention, while the interior is relatively clean and does not attract much attention.



#The Roof of the Museum

One of the most beautiful and spectacular parts of the museum's new wing is its rooftop. Go up to the roof and for a glimpse of a stunning 360-degree panoramic view across central London. The urban landscape is full of tall towers and cranes.

Have you seen the movie “Rear Window”? The museum's roof will provide you with a particularly intriguing experience. Pay attention to the new Bankside luxury tower, designed by Richard Rogers and located next to the museum. The proximity to the residential tower and the great visibility on the exposed side of the tower provide a direct glimpse into the apartments of the tenants, some of which are so expensive that they cost 20 million euros.

So even though not all visitors might admit it, the thrilling spying on the luxurious apartments across the street turned into a the talk of the day on the roof of the museum. Dozens of visitors gather every day on the roof, point to the various apartments, wait to see the tenants and identify luxury pieces of furniture. It is very possible that this is one of the most interesting and popular objects in the museum, which sometimes surpasses the art inside the museum.



#Architecture

The arrangement of floors in the museum building presents a clear purpose: efficiency in the use of space rather than spaces that provide an experience for visitors. The impressive front of the building is almost never reflected inside. This is an original decision that does not characterize the usual museum architecture. It represents a statement about the gallery and the art presented in it.

The spaces are almost overcrowded, especially as the floors are higher.
In order to understand the difference, let us mention the original wing of the museum (the Turbine Hall), where the high industrial spaces provided added value in the form of a relationship between the size of the Turbine Hall and the exhibition spaces that are hidden and exposed in turn.

This, by the way, is not accidental, of course. In 2000, Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron undertook the expansion of the museum. The Swiss architects were responsible for planning the gallery and were entrusted with the project. They emphasized that the direction of the art world is very influenced by the urban environment. This was the reason they made the "brave" decision to establish the new wing within an office tower. If you walk around the gallery, you will notice the difference between the original wing and the new and corporate wing.
Imperial War Museums-Churchill War Rooms
#About the Museum

If you are a World War II enthusiast, this museum comprised of war rooms is for you.

In the war rooms, which are located in the basement of the British Ministry of Finance, you will be exposed to the conduct of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, his cabinet and the military and intelligence chiefs during World War II. The rooms were preserved as they were in the 1940's and includes maps and charts.

The 21 rooms were opened to the public in 1984, including living rooms, and also rooms used for military functions: a war room, a map room and a hospital. The map room remained as neat as it had been on the last day of the war. Churchill managed the Battle of the English against the Nazi army, until the fortress was bombed and closed.

In 2003 the museum was expanded and additional rooms were opened to the public. In 2005, another section of the museum was opened, presenting Churchill's work with original documents and photographs. The Churchill Museum also offers a modern twist on the subject: digital presentations, films, archive materials and personal belongings.

Along with the entrance fee, you will receive a voice guide that will allow you to catch a glimpse at the amazing historical events that took place here.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XpgYfMcCn4
The Cartoon Museum
#About the London Museum for Comic Art

This interesting comic museum has over 1,500 drawings, 3,000 books and 1,200 visual images from a 300-year period spanning the British heritage of humorous paintings.

On the first floor, children will be interested mainly in the characters of comics and animation. However, you can also find exhibits that appeal to adults, such as scandalous comic drawings depicting the exploits of Tony Blair and George Bush. Among the works in the museum's collection you will find some of the most famous cartoons. There are also three-dimensional works in the museum on loan.
St. Paul's Cathedral
#About the Cathedral

St. Paul's Cathedral sits atop the hill of Ludgate in the center of the city of London. It is the seat of the Bishop of London. Prince Charles and Princess Diana were married here, and Queen Elizabeth celebrated her 80th birthday.

The cathedral was built in the late Renaissance and Baroque style. If the combination of styles sounds strange to you, know that in quite a few churches built by Christopher Wren this style appears, and is now called "Wrenaissance." It was in this cathedral that revolutionary architectural elements such as the Dome of the Cathedral – inspired by St. Peter's Basilica in Rome – were built.

The Cathedral’s height is 108 meters. Two rows of Corinthian columns adorn the main entrance.

259 steps from the ground floor you will find the "whisper gallery," which got its name because of the echo created when people talk at one end and can be heard at the other. 119 steps above it is the "Stone Gallery," and yet another 152 steps lead to the top "Golden Gallery." The dome has a small window through which one can look down and see interior of the cathedral from a height of 85 meters.

The church organ installed here is the third largest in the UK and has 7,189 tubes.

The cellar of the church has various treasures: the tomb of architect Christopher Wren, the grave of Admiral Horatio Nelson who was the fallen conductor of the Battle of Trafalgar, and several memorial plaques including numerous ones in the memory of soldiers killed during the British Mandate in Palestine.



A Closer Look at the Cathedral:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7hJzhVRjv48
Tower of London
#About the Tower

The Tower of London is a majestic castle, located on the north bank of the Thames in central London. It was established in 1066 as part of the conquest of England by the Normans. The fortress is a complex of several buildings surrounded by two ring-shaped defensive walls.

The innermost ward contains the White Tower and is the earliest phase of the castle, and gave the castle its name “Tower of London". It was built by William the Conqueror around 1078. Inside the tower you will find St. John's Chapel, a collection of weapons and medieval armor, and a reminder of a terrorist attack that took place here in 1974. At the entrance of the citadel courtyard you can see the "Bloody Tower”, where it is presumed that King Edward V and his brother Duke of York were murdered.

Next to the "Bloody Tower" is the Wakefield Tower where the crown jewels were kept. In the Jewel House building you will find the Crown Jewels exhibition and on the ground floor you will see the Armor garments, noble and gallantry symbols, jewelry and crowns.

In the Middle Ages the Tower of London served as a prison. In this prison those opposed to the crown were arrested and beheaded. Over time, the Tower of London gained a reputation for the torture and death that took place within its walls. Seven people were executed at the Tower, and for 400 years there were more than 100 executions. Among the prisoners was Queen Elizabeth I, who managed to escape the execution.

The tower served as the residence of the British monarchs. The truth is that the control of the fortress in that era was critical for anyone who had aspirations of ruling the country. However, it was much more than a house, for it had many uses-starting from a gun warehouse, a treasure house, a zoo, through the residence of the Royal Coin, a public documents office and the home of the crown jewels of the United Kingdom.

Today, the Tower of London is a popular tourist attraction. It is crowded by visitors who come to watch the towers, the guards with the red uniforms and the crowns.

Every evening at 9:00 pm, you can watch the "ceremony of the keys," performed by the guards. During the ceremony the gates of the fortress are locked. This ceremony has been done for 700 years!



#Terror in the Tower

There are some chilling stories to tell about the Tower of London. The truth is, however, that it is not surprising considering what went on inside these walls. For hundreds of years, torture, murders, executions, suicides, and mourning have taken place here. To this day, it seems like a soft sobbing resonates throughout this vast structure, probably to remind us that the past is still a part of our present.

Ghost stories are an inseparable part of life for anyone who grew up in England. 40% of the city's inhabitants believe in ghosts and one in seven people can swear they saw one. Historically, the Tower London is one of the most prominent places for such stories.

For the record, 2,900 prisoners were held here over the years serving as a prison. These people were from all ranks and social classes. If you look in the direction of the White Tower where the torture chamber was built, know that quite a few people have died there in agony. The guards of the fortress, who used to patrol around, once testified to shouts being heard piercing the from the door of the White Tower. They assumed it was Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII. Queen Anne Boleyn’s fate was sealed when she was executed on the grounds of adultery and treason against the king.



A Closer Look at the Tower:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QfhbVmU4A-o
The British Museum
#About the Historical Museum of England

The British Museum is acknowledged as one of the largest and most famous in the world. Founded in 1753 by a scientist and physicist named Sir Hans Sloan, it is located in the Bloomsbury neighborhood of Camden. The museum was opened to the general public in 1759. Over 6 million items are distributed throughout the museum representing the development of the human race from prehistory to the present, from different cultures.

This large building includes a combination of Grecian style architecture (the entrance plaza) and an indoor courtyard with a glass dome, which is by far the largest in Europe.

More than 5 million visitors arrive each year to the museum. Initially it was designed for a more general display and not primarily antiques. Approximately 40,000 books, texts, stuffed animals, fossils, engravings and antiques were found in the first collection donated to the museum by Sloan. Over the years, the museum served as a showroom, mainly for archeological and cultural exhibits. The museum's exhibits are divided into complexes, each relating to a different continent - from Africa and Asia to South America and Australia.

Entrance to permanent exhibitions in the museum is free. This is because there is an ongoing debate today over the ownership of the items displayed at the museum. Many items date back to the expansion of the British Empire and therefore the Museum's right to hold them was not agreed upon. On there behalf, the British claim that the items will be kept in in good condition and anyone will be allowed to come and enjoy them. In addition, British law does not allow the return of the exhibits. The Egyptian and Greek antiquities collection, for example, is one of the largest in the world. It also contains remains from the Parthenon in Athens. Therefore, some governments, like Greece and Nigeria are still fighting for the right to receive the remains for display in their respective museums.



#The History of the Museum

The purpose of the British Parliament in building the museum in 1753
was very simple: to allow citizens to discover the whole world in one building. This is one of the few buildings in the world that really makes it possible to learn and think about the whole world under one roof!

In 1750, the museum was actually a library of Gentleman's House, where visitors were able to draw, print and read the about the world. At the entrance, a visitor would receive a ticket from the library, that was also an entrance ticket to the museum. This way, a visitor would receive invitations to view the various collections presented at the museum. The idea of showing these collections to the commoners whenever they pleased was truly revolutionary at the time.

The new idea of allowing commoners to enter and behold collections in 1815, after Napoleon’s time, was truly a game-changer. The original building was replaced by the new building you see today. The museum is open to everyone today and all the collections are exhibited there. By the way, children were not allowed to enter the museum at all. This was due to the damage they caused to the stuffed animals when they got excited. The children returned to the museum as soon as the stuffed animals were transferred to the Natural History Museum. Today, by the way, children also visit there and do not inflict any real damage ...

A big change occurred in 1851. That same year, a fine exhibition was presented at the museum, and for the first time, a large number of tourists, lovers of art and culture, arrived. It was a huge success for museum in London, which became particularly popular. To this day there is an unimaginable amount of people in line, waiting to see the items in the museum, which are increasing continually in number.



#A Museum for Visitors

The museum's approach to visitors and tourists has been a special one since the early days of the museum. The founders wanted to allow people access to the objects, to think about them and discuss them, to paint them, to admire them or to swing by them – whatever they chose. The approach is that the collection is a private collection belonging to all citizens who can come and use it as they please and not a royal collection that is only intended for them.

The building you know is well suited to the large number of visitors who come here, but museum directors continue to devise new ways to give visitors better access to the collections available. Therefor the building has indeed undergone all sorts of changes over the years.

The visitors, then, do not come to the museum only to view the items of any given collection. They especially enjoy having lunch on the broad steps. In recent years, museum directors have been thinking about how to rethink the museum building in order to continue to achieve its original goal.



#About the Historical Museum of England

The British Museum underwent several architectural changes over the years. Its core, the oldest part, to date, was designed by the architect Sir Robert Smirke in 1823.

The large, modern courtyard, named after Queen Elizabeth II, was designed by Foster & Co. Architects. The courtyard was first opened to the public in 2000 and is the largest indoor courtyard in Europe. The magnificent ceiling of this courtyard is made up of no less than 3,000 transparent panels that form the harmonious and wondrous shape of the building. The waves, incidentally, are not symmetrical and the size of the panels is uneven. Also note the amount of light in the indoor yard - it is not as bright as the natural light outside – there is special material wrapping the panels, allowing only part of the light to sift through which created a special atmosphere and lighting inside.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygkWTK8nbmo


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

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אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
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