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Montmartre
Montmartre
#About the Area

The historic and fascinating area of Montmartre, turned in the 19th century from a small village with vineyards and flour mills, to a great bohemian center of painters and Parisian artists. They lived here a life of creation and debauchery. The artist community in Montmartre grew and includes artists that with the years became famous, including Dali and Picasso. In Montmartre, a movement of artists grew, similar to the revolutionary and post-Impressionist Nabis movement (Les Nabis), alongside young artists like Van Gogh, Matisse, Degas and many others. Artists like Picasso and Modigliani that were then anonymous and poor, lived in the commune in the beginning of the 20th century. They lived in a building called "The Laundromat Boat," a building that has become one of the tourist attractions of the area, and later on one of the most expensive living quarters of Paris. Despite being a very touristy place, you can still find magical areas that will help you understand the crazy past of the place.

At 130 meters above sea level, the Montmartre Hill is the highest in Paris. The definition of the name Montmartre is "Mount of the Martyrs", because of the belief that a number of saints were executed on the hill like St. Denis. During the French revolution they tried to change the hill's name to "Montmart", after the name of Jean-Paul Marat, one the revolutions leaders who was murdered. However, the name didn't catch on and it remains as is.

In 1534, the monastery of the Jesuit Order was established in Montmartre, where monks grew vineyards and made wine. On the slopes of the hill there was a small village with wineries and windmills that supplied the flour to Paris.
The comfortable housing prices, the abundance of wine and the right atmosphere attracted intellectuals, creators and artists. The hill became vibrant with life and became an attractive place with lively nightlife and a place for various kinds of entertainment.

The main square in the area, Place du Tertre, is full of tourists every day and night, you can find dozens of portrait artists, caricaturists, street artists and tourists visiting their booths, restaurants and cafes. At the home of artist Maurice Utrillo you will find the Montmartre Museum, which displays the district's past artists creations.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/EqEwPXywvvg


The Area:

https://youtu.be/_X5QBHueJ7c
Place du Tertre
Place du Tertre
#About the Square

Place du Tertre is a square located in the 18th district of Paris, near the Sacré-Cœur Basilica. At the square you will see many different artists - some painting Parisian landscape, some painting portraits. It is interesting to see each individual artist's style - some more realistic, some abstract, some draw caricatures, some draw simple lines, and others will shock you with their talent.

At the Place du Tertre you will find stalls selling souvenirs, many at a pretty high price. The square is 120 meters about sea leve and is one of the main tourist destinations in Paris.



A Closer Look at the Square:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qdVtNBLcEic
Le Passe Muraille
Le Passe Muraille
#About the Man who Walks Through Walls

"Inside the wall stands a man. All alone he stands here. Does anyone know the man in the wall?" You are standing in front of the man in a wall statue and we will now tell you his story.

It all begins in 1943, Paris of World War II. A short and successful story called "Across the Walls" by Marcel Aymé tells the story of a clerk with no superpower, except for a small detail, he finds that he can pass through walls...

From the moment he discovers this, he begins causing a lot of havoc around town. Policemen run after him, criminals are scared of him, women are very surprised...In short, he becomes a sort of French superhero. However one day, as he swallows a pill against a headache, an unexpected side effect - he gets stuck in the wall!



The Statue of The Man In the Wall by Jean Marais, in Montmartre:

https://youtu.be/oxsVCTd4-9k



Another Look:

https://youtu.be/NIk5vJb0JoE



A Scene from the 1940's movie "La Passe Muraille":

http://youtu.be/Btz5vG74laA
Espace Dal
Dali Paris Museum
#About the Space

The Dali Paris (Espace Dalí) is a museum dedicated entirely to the works of Salvador Dali in Paris. It is located on the Montmartre Hill near the famous Tatra Square. In the space you will find about 300 original works of art by Dali, in his surrealistic style. Here you can see the collection of the 12 tribes of Israel that he painted on the for the 25th anniversary of the State of Israel, other paintings inspired by the books "Alice in Wonderland" and "Don Quixote," the original statue of the famous "Space Elephant" and the illustration of the "Time Snail." In the museum you will even find a small room of surrealist furniture designed by Dali. During your visit to the museum, music will be played in the background and you can give your children an opportunity to get to know Dali's art through the museum's creative art workshops.

For those of you who like Dali's works and surreal art in general - this place is great for you.



#About Salvador Dali

Salvador Dali was a surreal Spanish-Catalan painter, one of the most important of the 20th century. He liked to combine images of bizarre dreams full of imagination, influenced by the great renaissance artists and by the teachings of Sigmund Freud. His works influenced 20th and 21st century art in all areas: painting, sculpture, music, photography and cinema.

The painter Dali was born on May 11, 1904 in Spain. He acquired his first art education at an urban school of painting, and by 1917 his family had organized his first charcoal exhibition. In 1922 he moved to Madrid, where he studied at the Art Academy and began to develop a status of an eccentric, with long hair, sidelocks, a coat, stockings and old fashioned knee length trousers. He quickly added the famous mustache, which added to his overall appearance a unique character and style.

Dalí was expelled from the Academy shortly before the final exams in 1926. The reason - he decided that no one in the faculty had the means to test his skills. That same year he also made his first visit to Paris, where he met Picasso, from which he would be inspired and influenced by many of his works in the years to come.

In 1929 he met his future wife, Gala. He even began to get involved in the film industry when he collaborated with the Spanish director Luis Buñuel. He married Gala five years later and following the outbreak of World War II in Europe, they moved to the US. The young couple lived in the United States for eight years.

In 1942 Dali published his amusing autobiography "The Secret Life of Salvador Dali." He spent the rest of his life in Catalonia, his hometown, but after his wife Gala died in 1982, the painter seemed to have lost his taste for life and found himself at the center of strange cases that resembled suicide attempts. A group of friends, supporters, and artists who loved him made sure he could spend his last years calmly. He died of heart failure in 1989.



#About Surrealism

The meaning of Surrealism in art is "above reality." It is a branch in which art combines irrationality and surprise. Surrealist works combine illogical dream pictures with surprising similarities. It was Andre Breton who founded the movement and adopted the word "surrealism,"which was already born in 1917 by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire.

Instead of looking outward to the world outside the artist's window, surrealism seeks to change the direction of observation and to look inside, into human thought, and into the human psyche, to use dreams, imaginations, and subconscious as the source of artistic inspiration.

The movement was born in response to the global shock that followed the World War I. This great war gave birth to a terrible sense of failure, of the logic and order that was usual until then. That is why the surrealists came and tried to produce a new branch of art, one that acts without logic, reason and order, but with randomness, creativity and correction to the mental and human problems. Clearly, surrealism was influenced by Sigmund Freud's ideas about the subconscious.

The most prominent surrealists were artists such as Salvador Dali, Rene Magritte, Juan Miro and Max Ernst.



A Closer Look (in 360) at the Dali Space:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5B7llRjnGc8

Montmartre

Le Mur des Je T'aime
Wall of Love
#About the Wall

Do you want to take a picture in a special place? The Wall of Love (Le Mur des Je T'aime) in Montmartre is the ideal place for perfect romance.

Frederic Baron, who initiated this magnificent wall project, approached different people around the world and asked them to write "I love you" in their own language. Rumor has it that the idea came to the mind of this romantic entrepreneur when he wanted to describe his love for his wife. He originally planned a trip around the world for the project, however, it did not happen and after 8 years he ended up asking every person he encountered to scribble phrases of love in their language. He filled three large notebooks with the love phrases in different languages and then turned to the artist Claire Quito, who wrote the sentences 1,000 times in 300 different languages on dark blue tiles.

In 2000 the place became a place for couples of lovers. It is certainly an entertaining, romantic and inspiring place.



A Closer Look at the Wall:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxyEjUbwC5s
Sacre-Coeur Basilica
Sacred Heart Basilica
#About the Sacre Coeur - The Basilica of the Sacred Heart

Ever since the Romans days, Montmartre, which is now a lively entertainment area, is associated with worship. The Gallic Druids saw it as a sacred site and the Romans built there temples dedicated to Mars and Mercury. In the 19th century, during the difficult war between France and Prussia, when Paris was in one of the lowest moments in its history, when the siege and hunger were unbearable, two of the city's residents vowed that if Paris were saved from the German blockade, they would set up a church on the top of the holy hill - dedicated to the holy heart of Jesus. This is also the reason the basilica is called the "national vow."

The construction of the Church in question, Sacred Heart Basilica (Sacre-Coeur Basilica) was the responsibility of Paul Abadi, who won the competition for its construction. The church was built in direct partnership with the government of the Third Republic and was funded by France as part of a national fund. The construction was completed at the beginning of the twentieth century, but because of World War I it was not officially inaugurated until 1919.

The church's impressive dome is the second highest point in Paris. To get to its famous balcony you must climb many stairs or ride a cable car. But despite the effort, the climb is worth it.



#The Architecture of the Sacre-Coeur

The Sacre-Coeur Basilica, which is large and impressive, is seen by many as a huge wedding cake. It was built in a Byzantine-Romanesque style. The basilica was constructed from travertine, which contains a material that ensures that the structure will remain white, will not be affected by the weather and will be noticeable from many points in the city. The basilica has 4 domes, the main one being 80 meters high. It includes a large number of windows that bring lots of natural light into entirety of the church.

The main hall is 100 meters long and 50 meters wide.

The entrance of the basilica is especially impressive. Above the main entrance there are two guards, two horsemen, who are religious and national symbols of France - Joan of Arc and Louis Lepre.

Inside the church, in the choir area, is a huge mosaic describing Jesus and the Sacred Heart. On his left side stand Michael and the Virgin from Orleans and on the right, King Louis the 16th and his family. The interior of the basilica is built in the shape of a Greek cross and is decorated with amazing mosaics, which are located on the roof of the apse, the semicircular niche on the eastern wall of the classical basilicas. The largest mosaic in France is located there, covering 475 square meters.

Other unique points in the church include France's largest bell and one of the largest in the world (18.5 tons). The bell is located in the square tower. The church also has a very impressive organ, which sounds great.


#Detective Mission

Try to find the decorated mosaic of the Star of David in the basilica.


#Religion and Tourism in the Basilica

The basilica was built in 1870, after the hard war between the French and the Prussians. After France's defeat in the war, the political upheavals from within and from the outside drove the nation into a terrible depression. Groups of Catholic believers fed up with the atheist spirit of France set themselves the goal of building a spectacular church on Montmartre Hill, which would be a symbol of renewed hope and repentance.

Despite the declaration of construction as a "public benefit" taking place in 1873, the construction itself only began three years later, and out of the 78 plans submitted to the committee, the one chosen belonged to architect Paul Abadi. The construction wasn't fast enough, was filled with problems and difficulties that caused the whole project to be delayed.

In 1919 the church was opened to the faithful, that saw it as a place of religious and patriotic identification as one.

The church is a focal point for many tourist to this day, especially in the spring and summer months. These tourists sit on the wide stairs leading to the church and use them to view the magnificent view of Paris, that opens in front of them from the hilltops.



#Joan of Arc

At the entrance of the basilica stands a statue of Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc), the French general who was executed when she was only 19 years old. Joan of Arc was the one who led the resistance for the liberation of France from the English occupation during the Hundred Years War, in the 15th century. In a heroic struggle she led the French army to war against mighty England.

The devout Catholic girl was hearing voices in her head since her childhood. In order to convince her that she, a villager, has been chosen by God to lead France, she came for a meeting with King Charles, went straight to his room, and in a series of quick tests proved her supernormal abilities and "her connection with God." King Charles gave her the army and in a series of brilliant battles, dressed in male clothing, she broke the blockade on the city of Orleans and brought about the surrender of the English. She conquered the city Reims and formally crowned Charles as the rightful king of France, also under the law.

The young maiden proved to be a brilliant general when she realized that the English were always victorious because of the great battles they fought. Therefore, she replaced the French army's poor war tactics with superior guerilla warfare tactics and repeatedly defeated the British with her soldiers. However, after being injured 3 times, she was captured and sent to the English. After a long trial conducted by the church she was declared guilty of witchcraft, of connections with Satan, and of other offenses.

Joan of Arc was sentenced to death by fire. Legend has it that an English soldier who was present at the execution cried in horror, "Oh the holiness we burned!"

In 1456, a couple years after the execution, a retrial was made for Joan of Arc. The verdict of the trial was a total acquittal and "Miss Orleans" became an official national heroin of France. In 1920, the Catholic Church also declared her as a saint and finally recognized the greatness of the young girl.



#About the Basilica

The Sacred Heart Basilica was built at the end of the 19th century in an attempt to atone for the sins of France, which led, according to popular belief, to the defeat of the French against the Prussians in 1871.

Because of the style of the basilica, a combination of Neo-Romanesque influences with neo-Byzantine elements, not many Parisians will say that the structure is refined and beautiful in their eyes. However, over the years the basilica became a wanted and popular sight in the French capital skyline.

If you stand in front of the church, you will see the whole center of Paris spread in front of you. On a bright day you can even notice statues and other points of interests in the city. You will probably find the Montparnasse Tower with its 56 floors, that much before its establishment, bohemian and avant-garde people would walk there in the Montparnasse district. They did so after abandoning Montmartre, in the post-World War I period.

If you agree to climb more that 230 stairs to the dome of Sacre Coeur, you get to enjoy a spectacular view. You may buy the entry tickets to the dome in the entrance to the chapel.

A staircase leads from the basilica to the bottom of the hill. You can also go down through a Funicular - a tiny cable train.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0g799q-jMls


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

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בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.