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Htel des Invalides
Hôtel des Invalides
#About The Compound

One of the most famous places in France is the Hôtel des Invalides. It was built at the initiative of King Louis the 14th as a hospital ("Utel des Invalides"), which was designed to provide shelter and care for his 7,000 soldiers who suffered from disabilities, old age or other defects. This was a rare and admirable act, given that at the same time governments didn't take responsibility for the damage caused to soldiers by the wars they were sent to fight in. At the time 6,000 soldiers who were wounded by the wars of France, lived here. Many don't know that to this day there are some discharged soldiers who stay at this compound and receive dedicated treatment and care. The compound is located in the 7th district of Paris, on the left bank of the city. Today this place is used as a national museum and sometimes it is used for military purposes. In 1789 weapons were stolen from the Invalides cellars and were used to liberate Bastille in the French revolution.

In the plaza of the Invalides, the ranks of Alfred Dreyfus were revoked after he was convicted of espionage, an act that is completely anti-Semitic.. A few years later, after he was exonerated, and his ranks were returned to him here.

The Saint Louis Chapel contains the tombs of Napoleon's brothers and of the French army ministers.



#Architecture

The construction of the Invalid complex was completed within five years from 1671-1676. The Golden Dome, which actually belongs to the Church of San Luis, is made of six kilograms of gold. The architect used a style considered in France to be a typical style of the Jesuits (the members of the Order of Jesus) and derived the the original idea from the first Jesuit church built in Rome. However, the architect also used classical elements which made his style identify with Paris. There are 6 tombs under the golden dome, containing the body of Napoleon which was returned to Paris from St. Helena in 1840. In the year 1861 at an official state funeral in the Dom Church, Napoleon was buried.



#What's in the Compound?

The front of the compound is decorated with statues of the gods of war and wisdom - Mars and Minerva sculpted by Guillaume Coustou. On the gable (the triangle on the facade of the building), you can see another statue of Cousteau the 14th riding on his horse.

You can find 4 museums: the Museum of Contemporary History, Museum of Models, Military Museum (in which you can find the uniform, armour and other belongings of Napoleon) and the Museum of Order and Liberation. Furthermore, it contains two churches: the Church of Saint Louis des Invalides and the Church of the Dom. The compound also has some important national institutions of France: the National Assembly and government offices.

There is a promenade inside the compound, covered with lawns and trees.



#What Happened Here?

One of the events that took place here was in 1894, when the ranks of Alfred Dreyfus were revoked in a humiliating ceremony at the front of the main building. Dreyfus was charged with spying for Germany and after being convicted, without any connection to reality, a ceremony was held here to revoke his ranks.

Years later, after a public struggle for a retrial, after a subsequent conviction and then a pardon and an exoneration in 1906, a different ceremony was held here, in which Dreyfus's ranks were returned to him.



#About the Museums in the Compound

There are several important museums in the Invalides:

The Military Museum (Musée historique de l'Armée) - The museum that was founded in the mid 19th century began as an artillery museum. As the years past, it combined with the Military museum and today it displays historic weapons, uniforms, armors, decorations of the French army and more. The museum is spread over a huge area of about 12 thousand square meters and includes a large and impressive garden. The chronological order enables a comprehensive and profound view of the wars France took part in, using historical information, videos, pictures, paintings and hundreds of thousands of military exhibits that illustrate the nature of the period. The floors about the First and Second World Wars are fascinating and recommended.

The Museum of Models (Musée des Plans-Reliefs) - relief maps and 3D models of French cities, were designed to teach how to attack and defend cities if a war were to break. These models were built for the use of Louis the 14th so he could prepare attack and defence tactics for the army during combat. More than 100 models were built by the best engineers and architects of Paris and they were kept and preserved for hundreds of years. In the 18th century they wanted to get rid of them, but the models were preserved and moved to an area in which they are still kept today. During his reign, Napoleon ordered a few more models. The museum is open to the general public since 1943 and is a historical testimony to the appearance of France in the old days.

The Museum of Order and Liberation (Musée de l'Ordre de la Libération) - "The Order of Liberation" was founded by Charles de Gaulle in the 40's of the 20th century and he led "Free France" and the rebellion of the Nazi occupation. "The Order of Liberation" is the second most important order in France. The museum includes many exhibits from World War II, members of the Orders, weapons, and historic documentation of the actions of "The Order of Liberation."



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/yM4LIGCZfiA


Napoleon's Grave:

https://youtu.be/fITk98T9z9U


An Outside View:

https://youtu.be/TdxfjqiDifc
Muse de la Vie Romantique
Museum of the Romantic Period
#About the Museum of the Romantic Period

The Museum of the Romantic Period (Musée de la Vie Romantique) is located in the ninth district of Paris, not far from the Opera House. It is surrounded by a blooming garden and rose bushes, and exemplifies the Romantic period, using art pieces and many lectures. The Romantic Museum is located near Pigalle Place in the ninth district. The museum is inside a villa built in 1830, where a Dutch artist lived name Ary Scheffer, who was the King of France's favorite painter (the last king, King Louis Philippe).

During the 19th century the villa was used as a meeting place for the elite artists, poets, composers, painters and authors. Among them: the poet Lamartine, the composer Rossini, the painter Delacriox, and the author George Sand with her lover, the composer Frédéric Chopin.After Scheffer passed away, the villa was inherited by family members, and in 1982 it became a museum dedicated to Scheffer's life works and the wild life of George Sand.

the museum's exhibits have to do with the Romantic period. The museum displays Scheffer's work from the years 1795 - 1858, the years he hosted the elite artists of his time. The atmosphere was bohemian and it is as if it froze in time, far back in the 19th century.

The house where the museum is located was built in the 18th century by the student (and family relative) of legendary Ventura Rodriguez. The museum shows a collection of furniture, musical instruments, porcelain, ceramics, different decorative items, the living room where the meetings were held, a long dining table, even the bathroom of King Fernando VII. All these things together bring to life the life styles of that period.

You will also find a magical garden to pass a little time in.



#A Short History

The small house with the garden is dedicated to its owner, Ary Scheffer, and reminds of a whole artistic movement and legendary artists of that time in the ninth district. Scheffer was a Dutch painter that arrived to Paris with his mother. He befriended Louis Philippe before he was made king, and was a teacher to the King's children. Later he was awarded a the title of Duke in the royal court. The house was built in 1830 and Scheffer built a studio for his work and for hosting.

In 1985, the family donated the house to the city, who turned it into a museum showcasing Scheffer's work in his own home. You will also find a library here that has accumulated over 4 generations. The place is also a memorial for George Sand, French author from the 19th century, a neighbor and friend of Scheffer's, who was a leading feminist. Her granddaughter saved many of her belonging, which you can find today in the lounges, which restores her original apartment.

The small museum has temporary and impressive exhibits, it is worthwhile to see when these exhibits are happening and come accordingly.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/AXh7hWSAERk
Musee des Egouts de Paris
Sewers Museum
#About the Museum

It may sound like a joke, but the Sewer Museum (Musee des Egouts de Paris) in Paris really exists and you are really standing at its entrance! This interesting museum is located in the seventh district, on the left bank of Paris, near the Pont de l'Alma bridge and across Pier D'Orsay number 93, which is the building that exemplifies the complex sewer system in Paris. Visiting the museum is an adventurous and unique way to get to know Paris through the underground sewer system, it is a sort of underground city underneath Paris's magnificent sites. This famous sewer system was also mentioned in Victor Hugo's "Les Misérables."

As you enter the museum, you descend into the sewer system itself, you get to learn about the different sewer levels around and how this system is upheld, while walking closely to the sewer pipes. The tour intermixes walking around pipes that are used today, and older pipes that are outdated and are abandoned. Above these is the history of the Parisian sewer system, from different view points, including drawings from different time periods. Though today the sewers are updated, the tours include a few alleyways of the older systems, that are located down there just for display.

Beyond the tour, you can see photos from the history of the sewage of Paris, and get exposed to different maintenance methods that these difficult logistical pipes require.

Visitors on this tour are asked not to bring food, and at the end of the tour are requires to wash their hands.



#The Sewer System

Until the Middle Ages, drinking water in Paris was taken directly from the Seine River, where used water was drained to fields or unpaved streets. For an unclear reason, the water was able to return to the river, which lead to many health issues for the residents. This unusual museum is dedicated to the real underground city in Paris - the sewer system.

The divided sewage system is something of an achievement for the capital's residents from the 13th century, when King Philip August gave the order to build the drainage channels. At a certain point Napoleon ordered to have these channels moved underground, and in 1850 began the building of the sewage system that today reaches more than 2,100 kilometers of tunnels.

Until the 1970's, the sewage system was a fascinating tourist destinations that rode around in carriages, and later by walking tours. Today tourists are satisfied by visiting the museum, which has managed to turn this stinky topic into a chic place to visit. Here you can learn all about the Parisian sewage system.

The museum is located under the Pier d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine.

If you go on one of the hour long tours, you will be able to see the photos exhibited about the materials that were developed over the years to maintain and repair the sewage pipes. Massive wooden balls that were used for cleaning the pipes, maps that show the expansion of the tunnels by the architect Eugène Belgrand, and dolls dressed in uniforms of sanitations from different time periods.
Mmorial de la Shoah
Holocaust Museum
#About Paris's Holocaust Museum

The world has no small number of museums and memorials for the crimes committed to the Jewish community during the Holocaust. In Paris as well, you will be able to find a memorial for the commemoration of those who perished (Mémorial de la Shoah), and the meticulous documentation of the Jewish communities that lived here before the Holocaust.

In 2005, a site for commemorating the memory of the Holocaust was established, in honor of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. The place offers a well-rounded experience that is fascinating for anyone seeking more information about the unbelievable and hard to accept Holocaust.

The building is divided to two parts that complement one another. There is an outdoor open area, where you can find a memorial in the memory of the killed with a main motif of light and shadow. Around the monument you will find the "Wall of Names," with written names of the 76,000 Jews that were banished from France (among them are 11,000 children). There is a monument for the "eternal flame," similar to the one at the Arc d'Triumph, and a monument to the anonymous Jewish hero, and the Righteous Among the Nations (there are about 2,700).

In the inner part of the building is the museum, which has taken on itself to make a bridge between the generation that suffered the Holocaust, and future generations. Testimonies, exhibits and informational learning centers - all these are available to visitors as well as the Jewish documentation center, containing all the information about the Jewish history during World War II. Visitors can listen to the chronological order of events that the French Jews suffered during the Holocaust and learn about the atrocities.

There are also temporary exhibits that also focus on this, like the destiny of the Jews of Europe, etc.

Museums in Paris

Muse d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaism
Museum of Art and History of Judaism
#About the Museum

In Europe we can find many Jewish communities, however French Judaism is perhaps the largest and most magnificent. The history of the community includes ups and downs in the attitude of French government and society towards them. The Museum of Art and History of Judaism (Musee d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaism) is very interesting, moving and stimulates thoughts on the question of who is a Jew in general and who is a French Jew in particular. It is located in the Marais district of central Paris, on Temple Street.

In 1986 Jacques Chirac, then mayor of Paris, designated a building that once served as a luxurious private hotel for a museum dedicated to French Judaism. As early as 1948, there was an active museum in Paris dedicated to Jewish art. Many of its collections were transferred to the new museum.



#Content of the Museum

The museum, which opened in 1998 after five years of preperation of the building, contains a dignified and enlightening display of Jewish history in the city. It presents an impressive collection of works of art by the Jews of the city. Among others you can enjoy the works of Chaim Soutine, Marc Chagall and Chaim Lifshitz, alongside a collection of Judaica objects and antique Judaica items. There is also a new piece by Christian Boltanski commemorating the Jewish occupants of the building who perished in the Holocaust.

In the 19th century, three floors were added to the building that housed the museum, which were later removed in future renovations. Then they divided it into small apartments where Jewish families from Poland, Romania, and the Ukraine were housed. During the Nazi occupation, the Paris police deported them to the Drancy concentration camp, from which they were transported to extermination. 13 of the residents of the house did not return, and the museum now remembers and mentions them.

From the top of the building to the ground is the installation of Christian Boltanski, known as the "Inhabitants of the Hotel St.-Anien, 1939." This work records the names of the inhabitants of the house, whose commemoration was reconstructed in the form of mourning notices used in Eastern Europe. Sometimes, in addition to the name, the place of birth and profession are also listed, such as marking the tragic amputation of an untold story.

The museum has a large library that focuses on Judaism and the history of the Jewish people in Europe and in Israel.



#About the Dreyfus Affair

This historic affair gets a lot of attention in the museum. The Dreyfus Affair was an anti semitic plot that took place in France in 1895. During that period, Alfred Dreyfus, a French Jewish artillery officer with the rank of captain, was charged with betraying his country and spying for Germany. This was after the French army intelligence revealed a letter sent to the German Embassy in Paris detailing secret military documents. Although no concrete evidence was found against him, Alfred Dreyfus was suspected of sending the letter and was prosecuted in a military court. Not only was there no evidence against him, in order to reach a verdict in the trial, the prosecution presented false evidence that had not been submitted to the defense. Dreyfus strongly rejected the charge of espionage, but the false evidence convinced the judges of his guilt and they ruled that he was guilty of treason. He was sentenced to life in prison on the Island of Demons off the coast of French Guiana.

After the conviction and imprisonment, there were quite a few people who tried to prove Dreyfus's innocence. The French public was deeply interested in the affair and even divided into two rival camps. With the accumulation of many suspicions about the falsification of evidence, a retrial of Dreyfus was held on August 8, 1899. In view of the harsh conditions in the prison, his physical and mental condition was already difficult and he was again found guilty. Due to "mitigating circumstances," was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Ten days later, he received a pardon from President Emil Luba and was released from prison.

It was only in 1906 that the court acquitted him of all charges and cleared his name, finally Dreyfus returned to the army as a major.
Muse de l'Orangerie
Orangerie Museum
#About the Museum of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Art

The Orangerie Museum (Musée de l'Orangerie) is located next to the Concorde Square, on the south side of the Tuileries Gardens and on the banks of the Seine River. This is a museum of Impressionist and post-Impressionist art. In 1852 the building was used as a greenhouse for orange trees that grew in the palace gardens. That's how it received its name - "The Orangerie" (The orange green house).

It is not too large compared to other museums (it is only 1% as large as the neighboring Louvre Museum) and the truth is that you can go through a variety of works in somewhere between 1.5 and 2 hours.

One of the most famous exhibits is Claude Monet's "Water Lilies", which is 100 meters long! The paintings were painted between 1914-1926, inspired by Monet's famous garden in his home in the village of Giverny. The paintings are spread over two elliptical rooms that create a beautiful reflection for visitors and were given as a gift to the French government in honor of the French victory in World War I. Monet specifically requested that his work be presented in an aesthetic and poetic manner in order to offer a haven of calm and thought for the Parisians. They were displayed on the ground floor of the building and were lit up in daylight.

In 1965 it was decided to present the Walter Guillaume collection that includes many Impressionist paintings. Walter Guillaume's collections have accumulated over the years because he is a well known art dealer. The works are unique and reflect the style in the early decades of the 20th century.

In order to display the collection, a second floor was built in the building, and the water lilies were lit with artificial light, despite Monet's request. Today the museum has returned to display it in natural daylight.



#Renovations in the Building

In 1999, the building was closed for renovation purposes. As part of the renovations, a basement floor was built, illuminated by windows that allow natural lighting to display the works, and the top floor of the building was dismantled in order to allow the water lilies to be presented again in natural light.

During the construction and digging of the basement floor, remains of the city wall of Paris, dating back to the 16th century, were discovered. The wall is now on display in the museum and serves as one of the walls of the new halls. In addition, a lecture hall and a library were built underground.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hUEbssoCtzI&t=59s
Muse Guimet
Guimet Museum
#About the National Guimet Museum of Asian Art

The Guimet Museum (Musée Guimet) is a small, high quality museum located in Daina Street in the 16th district of Paris along with its magnificent treasures. The museum is dedicated to Asian art and includes the largest Asian art collection in the world (outside of Asia itself). It contains 45,000 items, some 5,000 years old, from China, Japan, India, Laos, Nepal, Vietnam and other countries. In 1885 the museum moved from Toulouse to Paris. It was inaugurated in 1889.

The museum was founded in 1879 in the city of Lyon, France by the industrialist Emil Etienne Jima, who received a mission from the French Minister of Education to collect findings from the Far East. The museum presented the items collected in Jima's travels and included 20,000 Chinese pottery and 11,000 Japanese artworks, sculptures, jewelry, paintings of various drawing styles, as well as artifacts from ancient Egypt, ancient Greece and the Roman Empire.

The museum includes several sections, halls and rooms for permanent exhibitions, but also for temporary exhibitions.

In a separate part of the museum you can visit a pleasant Japanese garden with a small waterfall.

It is also worth visiting the wood paneled library on the top floor.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-GA5vG53LiU
Muse du Quai Branly
Quai Branly Museum
#About the Museum of Ethnography and Culture of Africa, Asia, Oceania and America

The Quai Branly Museum (Musée du quai Branly) is a museum of ethnography and culture of Africa, Asia, Oceania and America located on Branly Street, in the 7th district of Paris, near the Eiffel Tower. The museum is named after the street where it is located, which was named after the French physicist Edouard Branly.

The Quai Branly Museum opened on June, 2006, after a special committee, set up by French President Jacques Chirac, decided that the area adjacent to the Eiffel Tower would be used by the museum.

The museum's display includes about 267,000 exhibits, of which only about 3,500 are presented to the general public, with the exhibitions occasionally changing. It presents the collections transferred from the National Museum of African and Oceanian Art (now closed) as well as collections from the Anthropology Department of the nearby Man Museum. In addition, the museum exhibits many works by contemporary Australian Aboriginal artists.

The building was designed by the renowned architect Jean Nouvel. It is like a huge bridge surrounded by a garden that includes 178 types of trees, including maple, cherry trees and magnolia. On the southwestern side of the building is a "living wall" 200 meters long and 12 meters high, designed by Gil Kalman and Patrick Blanc. The wall contains watering systems that allow the plants to grow all the time.

The museum complex includes the museum building, which stands on pillars on the second floor, and the museum garden below which is located below it on the first floor.



#The Displays in the Museum

The Quai Branly Museum, which was founded in 2006 by French President Jacques Chirac, is dedicated to tribal art and includes 300,000 exhibits from Asia, Africa, Oceania and America.
The construction of the museum took 11 years and cost 285 million dollars.

Museum architect Jean Nouvel explained that his goal was to create a kind of nature reserve for tribal art collections. 3,500 items will be displayed regularly in the museum and arranged in a circular manner. Many of the exhibits are in France because of its colonial past, and some fear that their renewed exposure to the public will reignite the debate over the right of the French to hold these exhibits, rather than their countries of origin. Also, exhibits from other museums were brought to the Quai Branly Museum, and there is an uncertainty about the continued relevance of the other museums. One museum has already been closed due to the changes.

Among the thousands of items on display are objects from Papua New Guinea, masks from Africa, Amazonian headdresses, embroidered garments from Vietnam and bridal jewelry from the Middle East. The museum's tall space also features a 14-foot Indian tumbler and a glass tower where some of the museum's musical instruments are displayed.

Chirac admitted that he hoped that one day the name of the museum would be renamed and named after him, however it is still called the Quai Branly Museum.



#The Museum's Green Wall

Are you standing in front of a vertically and impressive garden? You are probably facing the green wall of the Quai Branly Museum.

The building causes the people passing by to look at it in amazement at the façade that is full of plants - from top to bottom.

The wall was built by Patrick Blanc, a French botanist and scientist who has been planting gardens on walls since 1994 and this wall is his most famous work. He is one of the pioneers in this field and he has developed a system that allows vertical gardens to grow almost everywhere - inside a building with the help of artificial lighting, and on the exterior walls of buildings (even without a supporting wall). This is because the system is very light and weighs no more than 30 kg per meter, and also the wall is built of a metal infrastructure, a PVC surface and fabric, with mosses, ferns, ivy and other pre-selected plants, so that it creates a live and impressive 3-dimensional carpet.

Patrick Blanc's vertical gardens have been built in at least 18 sites around the world and are proof that even under imperfect conditions (on the facade of buildings facing busy streets in a city), impressive and captivating vegetation can develop.

The wall has 15,000 plants from 150 different species.

The gardens inside the museum are also impressive, but the overall interior design has been criticized by architects who claim that the dominant design takes all the attention out of the exhibits.



A Closer Look at Some of the Museum's Exhibits:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHYQf5Qxvv0


Muse de l'Arme
Military Museum
#About the Museum

The Military Museum (Musée de l'Armée), which surveys the military history of France, is one of the biggest museums of its kind in the world. The museum is located in the "Invalides Palace" in the seventh district of the Paris, the capital of France. It was established in 1896, and in 1905 was combined with the Museum of Artillery (A Museum that was established a short time after the defeat in the Franco-Prussian war). This merge created the Military Museum we see today.

The museum holds more than 500,000 exhibits, such as weapons, armour, artillery, uniforms, decorations, paintings and sculptors which are displayed on an area of about 12,000 square meters. In the showrooms you can see military flags, dolls of soldiers and cavalry with their uniforms and weapons from various historic periods. Children who love cannons and knight armour will find it very fascinating here.

The museum is divided into two sides: The western side on the first floor displays weapons and equipment from China, Japan, India and Turkey. On the second floor you can view items from the 14th-18th centuries, and on the third floor you can see artillery. The eastern side contains displays from the days of Louis the 16th until the days of the Napoleon the third (floors two and three). Every floor is divided into rooms that showcase a different period of military and general French history, especially from the Stone Age until World War II. Between the two sides lies the Soldiers Church, which is part of the "Dom."

The museum also contains a detailed remake of Napoleon's private room from his house on the island of St. Helena, the same room in which he past away in 1821. By the way, in 2005, the museum celebrated its 100th anniversary at the inauguration of the renovated western side.



#The Invalides

This compound is located in the 7th district of Paris and is a famous complex with buildings and museums that are about the military history of France. There you can find the Military Museum, the luxurious grave of Napoleon in the Church of Dom, a shelter for the crippled and wounded from the wars of the 17th century, Model Museum, Museum of Order and Liberation and the Church of Saint Louis-de-Invalides. With one ticket you can visit all these places.

The compound was built in 1671, after the orders of king Louis the 14th. At the time, the government didn't take responsibility for damages that the wars caused to their soldiers that were sent to fight. In an extraordinary move the king decided to establish a compound for the disabled and wounded - a remarkable act worth mentioning. At the time the compound was called "The House of the Disabled" and sometimes there were more than 5,000 soldiers there. In fact, untill this day discharged soldiers live there.

The churches in the complex were also added during the reign of the king, who decided that a chapel would serve as a place of worship for the soldiers (the Church of Saint-Louis-de-Invalide) and a private royal chapel (the Dom Church).



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/elnbfmDi0T0
Cognacq-Jay Museum
#About the Museum

The Cognacq-Jay Museum (Musée Cognacq-Jay) is a museum of decorative art items.

The museum was once a private collection of the couple Marie-Louise and Ernest Cognacq. Ernest Cognacq has founded many shops and commercial centers in the city, including La Samaritan, which is characterized by the metal architecture of the new Art Deco wave. They carefully collected the furniture and artifacts from 1900 till 1925. After their death, the collection was handed over to the Paris municipality who presents it to the general public.

The museum is located in the Dunoon House - one of the Mare district villas. The district was built in the late 16th century and was specially renovated for the museum. Hotel Dunoon, impressive in itself is added to the long list of houses and places worth visiting in "Mara" in particular, and Paris in general.

The museum contains an extraordinary collection of decorative art items, about 1,200 items in total, with an emphasis on 18th century France, from European and Chinese ceramics, jewelry and snuff boxes, through paintings by Louis-Leopold Baui, Francois Boucher and sculptures and furniture. The 17th century is also represented, especially in Rembrandt's paintings. The 19th century is represented by the works of Camille Coro, Paul Cezanne and Edgar Degas.

The paintings of Mila are especially exciting, which are displayed on the second floor. They accurately describe the life of the Parisian bourgeoisie in the days of King Louis the 16th and the gardens in which the bourgeoisie spent much of their time. You can also see the furniture and artifacts used by the bourgeoisie during the Age of Enlightenment.

The museum manages to recreate the spirit of the times and that's what makes the visit so special.


A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBRpgLz25Kw&t=43s
Edith Piaf Museum
#About the Museum Dedicated to the Music Legend from France

On Crespin du Gast Street in Paris you will find an emotional spot for music lovers. At house number 5 is the Edith Piaf Museum (Musée Édith Piaf).

The meseum is located inside a normal apartment, the same one Edith lived in when she was 18 years old. It was founded by her fans, and for many years did not charge for entry.

The museum, whose background music consists of Piaf's voice, is a sort of temple to the singer. It has an impressive collection of photos, shoes, bags, and gloves that belonged to the diva, alongside her famous black dress, and endless fan letters written to her throughout her lifetime. These letters are full of love, that filled people's hearts with warmth and love in very tough times.
Cluny Museum
#About the Cluny Museum of the Middle Ages

The best example of Middle Age architecture in Paris is the the National Museum of the Middle Ages (Musée de Cluny), which is located in the fifth district of paris. In 1843 Alexander Di Sommerard, a collector of Middle Age art, purchased the building, housed his collections in it and turned it into a Museum. After his death, the collection was purchased by the country and his son became the museum's first curator. The museum became public in 1833.

In the museum you can find art and furniture from the Middle Ages as well as golden jewelry and ivory artifacts. The museum has a rich collection of sculptures, ceramics, carvings, carpets, various artifacts in gold and bronze, glass works, metal, wood and ivory, weapons, jewelry and everyday medieval objects. The most notable exhibits are the outstanding wall hangings that display the well known piece now known as "The Lady and the Unicorn" - a series of 6 beautiful wall hangings from the 15th century, displaying a female character next to a unicorn.



#Archaeological Exhibits

The importance of the museum is not only in its rich and impressive collection, but also in the combination of authentic archaeological exhibits displayed in it from the ancient times until today. Remains of Roman baths were discovered beneath the building from the 13th century called "Cluny Baths." In the baths you can find items from the Roman period such as "Pillars of the Descendants" also known as "The Sailors Pillar." Carvings from the first century of mythological Roman gods were found on the limestone pillar. It is thought that the pillar stood in the Gallic-Roman temple that was in Paris before. It was originally 5.24 meters high, however, only broken pieces of it are left today. Some of the ancient baths were preserved very well. Such as the 'cooling hall' in which the walls are about 2 meters thick, and the ceiling is 15 meters tall.

In the next hall there are 21 statue heads on display, some of them broken, and they are treated as the kings of Judah and Israel. The truth is that the statues don't belong to that place - they were discovered by accident in an ancient building in Paris, and an examination revealed that the heads were removed from statues that stood on the facade of Notre Dame Cathedral. During the revolution, the revolutionaries mistakenly thought that these were statues of French kings, and in a fury against the royal house, shattered them without knowing that these were all statues of the kings of Judah and Israel who had done them no harm.

In the museum's garden you should pay attention to the ancient well, that was used by the monks at the time, it is no longer in use however, but it still full of water.



#About the Lady and the Unicorn

At the Cluny Museum you will find the renowned piece "Lady and Unicorn", a medieval creation of six wall hangings woven in Flanders in the 16th century.

Five of the carpets describe the five senses: taste, hearing, sight, smell and touch. The last carpet is called "my only passion."

Please note that the carpets are very large and impressive. Come closer and see the colors in which they were painted with. These are natural pigments created at the time by using ancient techniques. Sit with your back to the biggest rug of them all, the one with the blue tent. Now look at your left side. To the first carpet.

In the carpet that describes the sense of taste, the lady is shown taking a candy from a tray held by a servant. The lion and the unicorn stand on either side and hold banner flags.

In the carpet that describes the sense of hearing, the lady plays on an organ that is on a table covered with a Turkish rug. The maid in this case holds the organ. Here too, the lion and the unicorn stand on both sides of the Lady holding banner flags, however, unlike in the other carpets they turn in opposite directions.

In the carpet that describes her sense of vision, the Lady sits and holds a mirror, a unicorn kneels at her feet and looks at his reflection in the mirror. The lion stands on her left side and holds a banner flag.

In the carpet that describes the sense of smell, the lady stands holding a bouquet of flowers. Her maid stands holding a basket full of flowers. On both sides of the Lady stand the lion and the unicorn holding banner flags.

In the carpet that describes the sense of touch, the lady stands and touches the horn of the unicorn. In the other hand she holds the banner flag. The lion looks at her.

In the last rug, called "my only passion," the lady stands in the middle of a the carpet and her servant stands to her right and holds a box. The Lady puts the necklace she's wearing in the box. To her left you can see a bag with coins. The lion and the unicorn are also here on either side of the Lady, holding the banner flags.


#Tips
Free entry of the first Sunday of the month.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.


A Closer Look:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aiHf79fbidQ
Rodin Museum
#Rodin Museums History

The Rodin Museum (Musée Rodin) is housed in a beautiful 18th century palace called Hotel Biron. The palace was built in 1731 as a luxurious residence of a wealthy barber and sought to establish for himself the most beautiful house in Paris of that time. After the death of the original owner, the palace changed several ownerships until, in 1905, the palace was purchased by the French government and divided into several luxury and expensive housing units.

The unique design of the palace and the magnificent gardens surrounding it attracted various artists such as Henri Matisse, and in 1908 the sculptor Auguste Rodin rented part of the ground floor of the palace to store his works. In the rooms he rented he used as a studio, where he worked and entertained his many friends. At the same time, Rodin began talking to the French government to fulfil his life's goal: to turn the palace into a museum dedicated to his works.

In 1916, as part of an agreement to establish the museum, Rodin donated all his works, sculptures and paintings, photographs and archives, as well as the private collections he had accumulated over the years. But Rodin did not live to see his dream come true - he died in 1917, while the museum opened its doors to the general public only two years later.



#What's at the Museum
In the 17 galleries of the palace, and in the nearby sculpture garden, you can see the famous works of Auguste Rodin, among them also those that have earned him great fame such as "The Thinker", "The Bourgeois of Calais" and more. Alongside Rodin's works are the works of Camille Claudel, who was his student and his beloved and a gifted sculptor, and works by other artists such as Van Gogh, Renoir, Monet and Monk.

One of Rodin's famous sculptures, the "Bronze Age", caused great rage when it was first shown in 1877. It was a statue of a naked man who looked so natural and real that the artist was accused of casting him on a living model. After it became clear that the accusations had no basis, the rage was replaced with great admiration, and Rodin was regarded as one of the greatest sculptors in the world.

Another famous sculpture, perhaps the artist's most famous sculpture, is the statue of "The Thinker" - a self contained human figure, who rests his head on his hand in a 'thinking' pose. This sculpture was part of a comprehensive work by Rodin. "The Gates of the Underworld" inspired by Dante's Divine Comedy, was also presented as an independent sculpture. In 1906 "The Thinker" was placed at the front of the Pantheon in Paris, thus becoming the first sculpture of the artist to be exhibited in a public place in Paris. After the opening of the Rodin Museum, the sculpture was copied to the sculpture garden of the Biron Palace, where it stands to this day.


#Auguste Rodin
The Rodin Museum is named after the French sculptor Auguste Rodin, who is known for his realistic style and for his famous sculpture "The Thinker."

Rodin was born in Paris to a poor family and despite his talent, at the beginning of his artistic career, he could not take off. For twenty years he made a living by carving, his application was rejected three times by the "Ecole des Beaux-Arts" (National High School of Fine Arts).

The turning point began in the mid 1870's, when he toured Italy and saw Michelangelo's works, from which he drew inspiration for his creation, "The Bronze Age." Rodin's characters were so realistic and distant from what was customary at the time that they accused him of casting with the bodies of living models. After it became clear that the charges against him had no basis, he received tremendous admiration for his impressive achievement and he was recognized as one of the greatest sculptors in the whole world.



#The Rodin Museum for Tourists
The house, cafe and garden of the Rodin Museum are dedicated to the work of the genius sculptor, Rodin, who lived and sculpted here during his last years. This is a small museum and one of the most unique and beautiful in the city. Many choose this museum as a favorite for them in Paris because of its beauty and pleasant and artistic atmosphere, along with the magnificent sculptures that make Rodin the successor of the Classical period sculptors.

The museum opened in 1919 and is located in the Hotel Biron, which was built in 1727 and where Rodin lived since 1908.

If you come here with children and the museum is not able to intrigue them enough, you can stroll through the museums garden and look at Rodin's sculptures. You can also sit in the museum's café, because it is open to the garden and while your sitting, the adults, can let the kids go wild in the lawns and learn about Rodin's works through the sculptures.

Hotel Biron underwent a three year and 16 million euro renovation, it reopened in November 2015. It also revealed 600 items that were never displayed before.



#Rodin's Most Prominent Works

At the museum you can find some of Rodin's familiar sculptures:


#The Gates of Hell

This is a huge sculpture project commissioned by the French government - a large bronze gate called "The Gates of Hell." The gate was to be the entrance of a decorative art museum, but it was not executed because it was never finished and the gate itself was not completed for 37 years until the sculptor's death.

#The Thinker

One of Rodin's most famous sculptures. It describes a bronze man immersed in his own thoughts. It's construction was completed in 1902 and two years later the statue was released to the public. The truth is that Rodin called it "Dante, the Thinker," but the more common and known name is "The Thinker."

#Les Bourgeois de Calais

The sculpture was completed in 1888 and describes the surrender of the city of Calais in 1347 to Edward III, after a siege that lasted over a year, during the Hundred Years War. Edward III offered not to destroy the city, provided all six of the most important dignitaries of the city came and sacrificed their lives. After the six dignitaries agreed and were persuaded by Queen of England, Philippa of Hainault, Edward III agreed not to carry out the execution. The sculpture presents the different characteristics of each of the six figures. The statue was controversial because Rodin chose to present the city's representatives as broken people rather than heroes.

#The Bronze Age

This is one of Rodin's most famous statues, and it sparked a great rage when it was first shown in 1877. The reason was because the statue of the naked man seemed so natural and real that the artist was accused of casting him from a live human model. After it became clear that the accusations had no basis, they recognized him as a genius and he was admired and appreciated as one of the greatest sculptors in the world. Many have since regarded him as the successor to the great sculptors of the classical period.



#Rodin Gardens

The Rodin Gardens are a magical wonder, like a gem inside a museum. There's a lot of beauty in them. Not luxurious, but a combination of simple, comforting and relaxing beauty at the same time. Classical symmetry and classical sculptures. You can not say that the sculptures scattered in the garden are only beautiful, but also arouse quite a bit of thought. From time to time tourists can be seen trying to imitate the more or less complicated poses of the statues.

The gardens spreads over 3,000 square meters and are divided into a rose garden and a large ornamental garden.

Between the two main buildings of the museum is a charming garden where passerby can see "The Thinker" and the famous roses of the gardens. But in order to really discover the large and wide gardens, one has to go through the wide structure.

To reach another magical garden, smaller than the previous ones, go all the way to the large pool surrounded by sculptures. When the garden seems to be over - continue beyond the big arches. There you will see a small garden, with an English ambience and dimness.


#Tips
Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from October to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.


A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wItu0e07KNk
Museum of Decorative Arts
#About the Museum

The Museum of Decorative Arts (Musée des Arts Décoratifs) presents useful art, from the Middle Ages to the present. It is located near the Louvre Museum and actually includes four museums:

The Museum of Design - displays products from the Roman age until today.

The Museum of Antique Furniture - presents furniture from different historical times.

The Museum of Textile and Fashion - includes costumes from the 14th century and displays French fashion over the years.

The Museum of Advertising - presents more than 20,000 posters from the 30's to today.

Every year the exhibits are renewed with more than 2,000 items, and alternating exhibitions are held.

The museum, which was founded in 1877, is very large and contains tens of thousands of items that tell the development story of various fashions, tastes and preferences of people in the different times, as reflected in their houses and daily objects. The museum also offers guided tours and lectures on various subjects.

Among the exhibits you can find glassware and ceramics, works of art, jewelry, furniture, wall coverings, paintings, ornaments, pictures and decoration, toys and in general - beds and beddings from different periods, blankets and pillows, cupboards, tools and lampshades. In fact, you can find in the museum all the usual things a home needs, with an emphasis on design and decoration.

The modern part of the display is not as large as the older parts, but new items are added to it all the time. At the moment you can find for example, works by 20th century designers such as designer bedrooms, an Art Deco style apartment, or a decorated living room by George Honchel. On the third floor you will find toys.

The museum also has a large library on a separate floor with books and many materials on the subject of design. As usual, there is also a shop with design items and things designed for sale.



A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XwWnSyrrBJY
Petit Palais
#About the Petit Palais - The Parisian Museum of French Art

The two buildings that house the Parisian Museum of French Art, the Petit and Grand Palais, were built at the end of the 19th century for the Paris International Exposition in 1900, the same one for which the Eiffel Tower was built. This world exhibition was designed to sum up the 19th century and celebrate the opening of the 20th century in the center of the "Belle Epoque" period (The Golden Age of Europe, that was created thanks to the peace that prevailed at the time between the powerful countries, it brought prosperity and growth in the fields of science, and also for a significant improvement in quality of life). At that time, the exhibition was the largest ever to exist and included 50,000 visitors. The exhibition covered 112,000 square meters.

Within the framework of the magnificent buildings that were created for the exhibition, we can also find the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais.

Today, the Petit Palais serves as the Parisian Museum of French Art. The permanent collection includes paintings from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, 18th-century furniture and the offcial city of Paris painting collection (including works by Rembrandt, Delacroix, Monet, Pissarro, Modigliani, etc.). There were several impressive collections in the palace, including ancient Egyptian and Greek sculptures, Renaissance painting art, china and furniture, medieval books, and more.

A small staircase with glass doors and gold decorations leads visitors in the palace to a collection of classical French art. After a short walk around the museums inside and underground section, visitors will be able to go to the inner courtyard that has the glass dome, Greek columns, golden angel statues, special plants and a cute cafe. In the courtyard, which is shaped like a half moon, the gardeners have re-planted different kinds of palm trees that have existed there since the early years of the 20th century.

Entrance to the permanent exhibition is free and entrance to the changing exhibitions has a fee.



#The Architecture of the Petit Palais

At first glance of the Petit Palais, one might think that the building was once home to elegant and royal aristocrats. But in fact, it was built in 1900 in honor of the Parisian Universal Fair, just like its neighbor, the "Grand Palais." Both buildings have always served as museums. The Petit Palais, the smaller palace (which, by the way, is not really small, only in relation to the huge palace opposite of it), is located between the Seine and the Champs-Elysées. It is a delicate and beautiful structure that displays French art.

The building was designed by Charles Girou in the Art Nouveau style, and in its center is a flowering garden with a blue fish pond and gold decorations. The painted ceilings, the magnificent mosaic floors, the huge windows, the golden gates and the beautiful patio were designed solely for displaying art for the people, it is simply amazing.

The small palace also serves as a fine display of architecture - the front door is full of thin, complex gold designs and invites visitors to enter the large marble lobby, with huge windows and sparkling chandeliers. It is set in a vaulted structure of gilded iron and Italian mosaic. Inside is the Museum of Fine Arts, you can find the permanent creations of Delacroix and Corbé. The renovation restored the exterior of the stone from which the palace was built and revived its original white color; In addition, the ceiling panels were renovated in bright blue, depicting motifs of beauty, thought, mysticism and matter.



A Closer Look at the Petit Palais:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-X1S-jaKEQ
Palace of Tokyo
#Vision and Art

At the Paris Museum of Modern Art, located in the eastern side of the Palace of Tokyo (Palais de Tokyo), you will find works from cubism, surrealism, abstract works, contemporary works, decorative arts and more. This is not a regular museum, but a pilgrimage site from noon to midnight, which is attended by people of all ages and walks of life. The directors declare that its goal is to allow artists and designers to combine their needs and desires without restraint. The place is characterized as contemporary and dynamic - local and global.

Here you can find one of the biggest paintings in the world: Raoul Dufy's 1937 creation. This oil painting covers an area of 600 square meters and consists of 250 wooden planks.

The museum underwent a two year renovation period and was reopened in February 2006. As part of the renovation, an exhibition space was added in the basement and a special "black room" was built to project artistic videos and art. Dufy's work was also renovated: asbestos was removed from it and the painting was placed on curved walls illuminated from the floor, according to the original vision of the artist.

The modular space, which was built and curved in a conical shape, allows for different types of exhibitions.

Ever since January 2004, a large number of jugglers and fire artists meet every Saturday evening in the outer courtyard.

Electronic music concerts are hosted here a couple times a week, you can also find video game rooms and, of course, works by 30 artists from around the world. You will also find a collection of cubist works, made by Modigliani and George Rowe, Matisse and others. The museum offers a variety of temporary exhibitions by contemporary artists in a variety of genres and styles. Below the terrace of the museum's restaurant, on the back side of the museum near the Seine River, you can find large and colorful graffiti.

Here you will find a self service restaurant, a cheap cafeteria, art with strong social awareness and some strange and interesting shops. The place is open until midnight and every evening there are lectures and concerts. On Saturdays you can also find a pleasant market behind the palace that specializes in organic products.



#About Palais de Tokyo

"Palais de Tokyo" is a modern and contemporary art museum located in the 16th district of Paris. The Museum of Modern Art is located in the eastern side of the building, which belongs to the municipality of Paris. The "Palais de Tokyo" has been operating since 2002 in the western side of the building which belongs to the country. It is considered one of the most prominent sites of contemporary art in Paris. The original name of the building is "The Museums of Modern Arts Palace". The building later received the name "Palais de Tokyo", derived from the nearby street - Tokyo street.

The victors of the architectural design competition of the building were Jean-Claude Doondel, André Aubert, Paul Viar and Marcel Dastonier. The building was built in a monumental style (a lot of size and power), consisting of two completely symmetrical sides, separated by a fountain and a staircase. The windows in the ceilings allow natural light to penetrate and illuminate most of the building's rooms.

In the outside of the building you can find many statues such as the ones placed on the bank to reflect in the water. Today there is nothing left of them, except for the sleeping nymphs.

The Palais de Tokyo is spread over 7,700 square meters out of 22,000 square meters, which is the total area of the building. It was mentioned that - when necessary, it will be able to expand its activities very easily.



#The Uses of the Palais de Tokyo

The Museum of Modern Art was built in 1934. Its history is full of interesting uses:

During World War II, the lower floors of the building were used as shelter for Jews that had fled and hid in them.

In the 50's of the 20th century, the eastern side underwent extensive renovations. So in 1961, Paris's Museum of Modern Art could be opened, based on the works of Patty Palais. In 1977, collections from the Museum of Modern Art were taken from the western side of the building to the Centre Georges-Pompidou.

Between 1977 and 1986, the temporary location of the Museum of Experimental Art was established.

In 1988-1990, the Institute of Higher Studies in Plastic Arts used the Museum's old sculpture rooms.

The western wing of the palace, which between 1988 and 1995 was used by the Femis School (Film school), was evacuated. In 1999 the Minister of Culture and Media, Catherine Trotman, decided to partially reopen the western wing and house in it the Center for Contemporary Art. Thus, a competition was held to select a manager for the new center in July 1999, in which Nicolas Borio and Jerome Sen were granted a three year term.

In the newly redesigned spaces, the Palais de Tokyo became a site dedicated to contemporary art in all its forms: paintings, sculptures, designs, fashion, video art, cinema, literature and dances.

About 50% of the site's activity is funded by a subsidy from the French Ministry of Culture, but the rest of the funds comes from the various revenues of the site, such as ticket sales.
Jeu de Paume
#About the Gallery for Contemporary Photography and Video Art

The National Gallery Jeu de Paume is a spectacular exhibition space with different exhibits dedicated to contemporary art and photography.

The exhibit is located in Tuileries Gardens, on the north west side of the Place de la Concorde, in the first district of Paris. The exhibition’s area is 1,200 square meters. It was built in 1861, during the reign of Napoleon the third. In the beginning you could only find tennis courts in the compound. The name of the building is derived from the old nickname of tennis in France - "Zé de femme".

The building was dedicated to art ever since the year 1909, in cooperation with the art institutions, the Orangerie Museum and the Louvre Museum. During World War II the building was used to store creations of Jewish artists who had been confiscated by the Nazis. Between the years 1947 and 1986, the inauguration year of the Musée d'Orsay, the Jeu de Paume Gallery exhibited impressionist works.

At the initiative of the Culture Minister Jacques Lang, the gallery was renovated in the early 90s of the 20th century, and reopened afterwards under the name "The National Gallery Jeu de Paume". The new gallery was dedicated to different types of modern contemporary art, however, since 2004 it is only dedicated to contemporary photography and video art exhibitions.

The gallery is recommended especially for modern art lovers.



#The Significance of a Home

With art being art, political disputes often arise. In 2013 an exhibition by Palestinian photographer Ahlam Shibli called, "Phantom House", was opened and dealt with the contradictory meanings that the term "home" may bring.

In between some of the displayed photos, were portraits of suicide bombers accompanied by texts written by the artist. One photo, in which the perpetrator was labeled "martyr" ignited a storm and the gallery explained that this series of photographs is part of a large series that challenges the contradictions in the concept of the term home and rejected the accusation of encouraging terrorism. The gallery has also made it clear that the term "martyr" is given to the photo only by the artist and does not represent the views of the gallery. Signs were placed alongside the photo clarifying this.

The exhibition aroused controversy and the Jewish community in France pressured and even threatened the gallery to a point were security at the galleries entrance was increased.

The gallery was accused of "glorifying terror" and Jewish organizations in France protested the use of state funds for this. Roger Cokerman, the president of the Jewish organizations, sent a message to the French Minister of Culture requesting clarification from the gallery about the decision to allow the exhibition.

On the other hand, artists, curators and museum directors supported the artist, and the freedom of expression.

After investigating the issue, the French Ministry of Culture announced that it is the right of the gallery to display the exhibition. It then added that the questioning the boundaries of an artists freedom of expression is important and worth looking into.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/14W4D48AjyA


Chaillot Palace
#About the Palace

The Chaillot Palace (Palais de Chaillot), that replaced the old Trocadero Palace, is the building that represented France at the 1937 World Exhibition in Paris.

The Chaillot Palace, which consists of two separate parts with no connection between them, is characterised by two arms that look like a stretched arch from above. The structure was designed in the Strim Lane style, where the element of curvature is especially prominent. It was built by the architects Louis-Hippolyte Bauleau, Jacques Carlo and Leon Esme. The space between the two arms allows for a beautiful view of the Eiffel Tower, the Champ de Mars and the Seine.

The UN General Assembly adopted the Declaration on Human Rights here on December 10, 1948. The event was commemorated by a large stone monument in the square called the "Human Rights Promenade."

A fire that damaged the east side of the palace in 1997, brought it to a state of decay. However, with the years it became a paradise of architecture and construction. The place was redesigned and opened in March 2007 as the Museum of Architecture and Heritage, that tries to examine French architecture from the Middle Ages to the present.

On the east side of the palace you can find the Museum of French Statues, founded from the idea of the architect Viola-la-Duc. The exhibits are organized according to geographic regions and periods of times. This allows viewers to compare different styles and ideas.

Another institution in this side is the School of Architecture. It has an archive of 20th-century architecture and a place for higher education. You can also find here the National Theater of Chaillot..



#About the Museums Inside the Chaillot Palace

There are many interesting museums you can visit in the Chaillot Palace:

The Marine Museum - dedicated to the marine history of France. Here you can find different models of ships, antique maps and marine navigation equipment. The museum is located inside the Chaillot Palace.

The Museum of Man - a museum with ethnographic exhibits. It was founded in 1937 by Paul Riva for the World Art and Technology Exhibition of the Modern Era. The purpose of the compilation of collections under one roof was to present human development from the prehistoric period and the differences between the different cultures.

The Museum of Monuments - the museum presents the development of French architecture from the Middle Ages until today, you will find two galleries: one dedicated to architecture and the other to wall paintings and stained glass windows. The museum offers models, 3D screenings, stained glass windows, paintings, books and films.

The National Chaillot Palace - here you can find the best theatre performances in Paris. The theatre hosts many of the best and famous plays and contains 3 luxurious theaters of different sizes. It has from an intimate and small space to a huge theater. The entrance of the theater, The Grand Foyer, provides a beautiful view of the gardens, ponds and fountains of the Trocadero Gardens.



#The Trocadero Gardens

The Trocadero gardens contain a variety of statues, some very old. In the center of the gardens you can find the long and beautiful "Warsaw Fountain." They are divided into several levels decorated with sculptures. There are 93,930 square meters. In order to view them from the Eiffel Tower, you can cross the Pont d'Léna bridge, which connects the two banks of the Seine.

The gardens were built as part of the original palace that was here before the Chaillot Palace. The original palace - the Trocadero Palace was named after the battle of Trocadero that took place in France in 1823.

The big gardens are open to the wide public and are suitable for a nice picnic in the summer. On the edge of the big square in the center of the gardens you will find a small café with delicious desserts.

At nightime the statues are illuminated and during the day it is nice to take pictures in the gardens with the Eiffel Tower in the background.

For the residents of Paris the gardens serve as a meeting place for "skateboarders." The square is regularly used for demonstrations, events and celebrations.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JtQlB8Yqj8
Picasso National Museum
#About the Museum

The Picasso National Museum (Musée National Picasso) is relatively new in the Parisian landscape and has become one of the flagship museums of Paris. The museum is dedicated to the works of an artist known as Pablo Picasso, probably the most famous artist of the 20th century, and it includes more than 3,000 works of art: paintings, drawings, illustrations, sculptures and pictures of the artist's own life. The works were created between the years 1894-1973.

The museum is built in such a way that while you wander through it, you go through the original and chronological creations of Picasso himself and are exposed to informational items and relevant events from his time, year after year. Thanks to this form of presentation, you can understand Picasso's complex artistic development process and the points of reference in his artistic history and historical events during the creative process - the blue, pink, Cubist and surreal period. For example, you can see, along with pictures of Picasso from the 50's, cartoons depicting the attitude of the people of the period to his works. The museum also tries to show the influence of Picasso's granddaughter on his works, which have become much less abstract ever since she was born.

The museum is located in the Marais area in the third district of Paris.

In the museum you will also find works by other famous artists of his time - Matisse, Cezanne, Degas and others, and you can take note of the mutual influences of the artists on each other's works. On the second floor of the museum there is an area with temporary displays and on the third floor are the museum offices and the library.



#The Museum's Building

The building where the museum is located was originally built for Pierre Aubert, the lord of Fontenay. Aubert's great wealth came in the wake of his role as a "salt taxer," which is where the building got the name "The Salt Building".

The buildings architect was Jean Boullier and is considered one of the most beautiful historical buildings in the Marais district.

Over the years, the ownership of the building has changed and its uses have been replaced. In 1671 the building was under the patronage of the Embassy of the Republic of Venice. During the French Revolution the building was confiscated and became property of the authorities and in 1815 it became an urban school of art. The building was purchased by the city of Paris in 1964 and received the status of a building for preservation.

After a competition in which they tried to decide what the purpose would be, it was chosen to serve as a museum showing the works of the artist Pablo Picasso.



#The Items in the Museum

In 1968, a law was passed which allows heirs to pay the inheritance tax through art objects considered part of France's cultural heritage. Picasso, who used to say "I am the greatest collector of Picasso in the world" - has accumulated thousands of his own works, several works by other artists and a large number of primitive sculptures from around the world. Thus, after the death of Picasso in 1973, his heirs were persuaded to donate his works, in order to avoid a huge estate tax they could not pay. This collection, which included about 5,000 items, became a museum. Over time, another 1,000 items were added to the museum.

The museum has four works that deserve special attention:

"Self Portrait" - a painting painted during a hard and lonely winter in 1901 in one of the most difficult periods in Picasso's life.

"Two Brothers" - a painting drawn in 1906 in Spain.

"Two Women Running on the Beach" - a painting that served as a Decorative curtain for the ballet "The Blue Train".

And "The Kiss" - a painting drawn in 1969. This picture was drawn a few years after he married his wife Jacqueline and began to paint also familiar subjects such as love life.


#Tips
Free entry of the first Sunday of the month.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.


A Closer Look at the Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1x1ej90l_IE
Dali Paris Museum
#About the Space

The Dali Paris (Espace Dalí) is a museum dedicated entirely to the works of Salvador Dali in Paris. It is located on the Montmartre Hill near the famous Tatra Square. In the space you will find about 300 original works of art by Dali, in his surrealistic style. Here you can see the collection of the 12 tribes of Israel that he painted on the for the 25th anniversary of the State of Israel, other paintings inspired by the books "Alice in Wonderland" and "Don Quixote," the original statue of the famous "Space Elephant" and the illustration of the "Time Snail." In the museum you will even find a small room of surrealist furniture designed by Dali. During your visit to the museum, music will be played in the background and you can give your children an opportunity to get to know Dali's art through the museum's creative art workshops.

For those of you who like Dali's works and surreal art in general - this place is great for you.



#About Salvador Dali

Salvador Dali was a surreal Spanish-Catalan painter, one of the most important of the 20th century. He liked to combine images of bizarre dreams full of imagination, influenced by the great renaissance artists and by the teachings of Sigmund Freud. His works influenced 20th and 21st century art in all areas: painting, sculpture, music, photography and cinema.

The painter Dali was born on May 11, 1904 in Spain. He acquired his first art education at an urban school of painting, and by 1917 his family had organized his first charcoal exhibition. In 1922 he moved to Madrid, where he studied at the Art Academy and began to develop a status of an eccentric, with long hair, sidelocks, a coat, stockings and old fashioned knee length trousers. He quickly added the famous mustache, which added to his overall appearance a unique character and style.

Dalí was expelled from the Academy shortly before the final exams in 1926. The reason - he decided that no one in the faculty had the means to test his skills. That same year he also made his first visit to Paris, where he met Picasso, from which he would be inspired and influenced by many of his works in the years to come.

In 1929 he met his future wife, Gala. He even began to get involved in the film industry when he collaborated with the Spanish director Luis Buñuel. He married Gala five years later and following the outbreak of World War II in Europe, they moved to the US. The young couple lived in the United States for eight years.

In 1942 Dali published his amusing autobiography "The Secret Life of Salvador Dali." He spent the rest of his life in Catalonia, his hometown, but after his wife Gala died in 1982, the painter seemed to have lost his taste for life and found himself at the center of strange cases that resembled suicide attempts. A group of friends, supporters, and artists who loved him made sure he could spend his last years calmly. He died of heart failure in 1989.



#About Surrealism

The meaning of Surrealism in art is "above reality." It is a branch in which art combines irrationality and surprise. Surrealist works combine illogical dream pictures with surprising similarities. It was Andre Breton who founded the movement and adopted the word "surrealism,"which was already born in 1917 by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire.

Instead of looking outward to the world outside the artist's window, surrealism seeks to change the direction of observation and to look inside, into human thought, and into the human psyche, to use dreams, imaginations, and subconscious as the source of artistic inspiration.

The movement was born in response to the global shock that followed the World War I. This great war gave birth to a terrible sense of failure, of the logic and order that was usual until then. That is why the surrealists came and tried to produce a new branch of art, one that acts without logic, reason and order, but with randomness, creativity and correction to the mental and human problems. Clearly, surrealism was influenced by Sigmund Freud's ideas about the subconscious.

The most prominent surrealists were artists such as Salvador Dali, Rene Magritte, Juan Miro and Max Ernst.



A Closer Look (in 360) at the Dali Space:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5B7llRjnGc8
Musée International de la Parfumerie
#About the Museum that Showcases the Perfume World

In the heart of Paris, near the Opera Garnier, is the Perfume Museum. In the past this museum was used as a theater, and the house of a British merchant.

The Perfume Museum reveals the secrets of the trade, the history and production of perfumes. You will also be able to see an amazing collection of expensive items that explain perfume history - from ancient times up to today. There are descriptions about natural ingredients and how they are combined with fats and other products to create modern perfumes. If you ever wondered why good perfumes are so expensive, at the museums you will clearly understand why: 200 kilos of lavenders are needed to produce one kilo of lavender scent for perfumes.

Visitors can discover the worlds of scents and smells with ancient artifacts, magazines and short videos.

On the second floor of the museum you will find a small museum dedicated completely to perfumes. You will be able to follow the 5,000 year long history of perfume making, through different displays and ancient perfume containers, photos, documents and tools. The museum is located in a building from the 19th century, whose design has been kept to its original architecture.

After touring the museum, on your way out you will pass a small perfume boutique shop. You can spray some of the scents on small pieces of paper. You can also purchase yourself or others a bottle of perfume or two.



A Closer Look at the Fregrance Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OyfpranCSBY
d'Orsay Art Museum
Louvre Museum
Georges Pompidou Center


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

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אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.