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Disney World
Disneyland Paris
#About the Most Popular Amusement Park in Europe

Half an hour away from Paris is Disneyland Paris, known to many in its previous name "Euro Disney." This amusement park, the most successful one in Europe, is located in Marne-la-Vallee, France.

Disneyland Paris is intended mainly for small children and fans of Disney, but, who doesn't get excited about a land of adventure that will bring you many experiences with pirates, trains or abandoned caves? Who will not enjoy sleeping beauty's castle and the mass of experiences from movies that suddenly become real and amusing?

In the Wild West country you will experience the wild and amusing America of the 19th century, inside the phantom estate you will recognize a thousand friendly and amusing ghosts, like skeletons that remove their hat, and their head remains in their hands.

There is also Disney's classic fantasy land, the many familiar characters from Disney's animation, and Sleeping Beauty's Castle, with the park around it, the dragon in the basement and the surrounding square trees and much more.

Do not miss out on the futuristic section; theres a ride on a spacecraft with the Star Wars robot.



#Important Tips

This place is worth arriving early in the morning. Take the train to the end of the park as soon as the park opens and start there, so you can enjoy the attractions before the crowds reach them, without long lines and waiting.

FastPass card allows you to take a ticket at the counter at no extra charge to arrive at the desired attraction at the designated time, until that time you will walk around to other attractions instead of standing in line! - Be sure not to be late!

When shopping, ask for all your shopping to be collected at the park gate, and gather them when you exit. By the way, all the shops sell the same things so you do not have to go through all of them.



A Closer Look at Disneyland:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80oweYfeRM
Tour Eiffel
Eiffel Tower
#About the "Temporary" Building that Became the City's Symbol

The Eiffel Tower (Tour Eiffel), one of the most recognizable symbols for the city of Paris, was the tallest building in the world until 1930. It is entirely made of iron and reaches a height of 324 meters. Notice the great river that runs by the Eiffel Tower, this is the Seine River.

The tower was designed and built by French engineer Gustav Eiffel. Today it seems an inseparable part of the city, but the truth is that the tower was a source of controversy and drew a lot of criticism from many Parisian artists and intellectuals. These critics argued that the industrial and modular structure was not suitable for the city's architecture. The criticizing group called itself the "Three Hundred Committee" (according to the height of the tower) and claimed that it was a black smoke chimney that would light its barbarity onto the delicate French statues. The resistance was so great that the writer Guy de Mopsan used to eat his meals at the tower's restaurant by himself. His argument was that "this is the only place in Paris where you cannot see the Eiffel Tower."

Despite the controversy, the tower has returned its investments in construction within 1 year of being opened, only from the sale of entry tickets. Originally, the tower was to be dismantled after 20 years (in 1909), but due to the tremendous success among visitors to Paris, the decision was made to keep it.

The Eiffel Tower was built at the height of the Industrial Revolution. Its components can be seen in several references: the use of steel, the clean construction of stained glass and decorations, and the decorative-industrial design. The base of the tower is made up of four gates that combine into high stability on the one hand and flexibility on the other. This combination is what allows the tower to deal with strong winds. The arches also contribute to the unique appearance of the tower. The elevators in the tower are also special. They are based on a hydraulic mechanism that places safety before speed and therefore the elevators are rather slow. This mechanism was considered very advanced for it time.


#Gustav Eiffel

Eiffel was a French engineer and architect, whose name is probably familiar to you thanks to his famous building, the Eiffel Tower.

Eiffel was a creator during the industrial Revolution, which explains the big impact on his work. He was impacted by the growing need for public transportation - as a result of the city's urbanization processes and transitions of people. This exposed Eiffel to diverse materials from different parts of the world.

Eiffel was one of the pioneers that used steel - a new material in the building sector in his time. Eiffel used steel bars as both constructive and decorative elements. He designed the steel interior of the Statue of Liberty, and gained fame by his many various designs. In 1887 he was invited to build the Eiffel Tower. The building was actually built for the international exhibit that took place in Paris in 1889, celebrating 100 years for the French Revolution.

During its construction, the Eiffel Towerwas the tallest building in the world, and it took a great deal of courage on part of Eiffel to build such a structure. Each element in the building was meticulously designed by him for about a year and a half, until construction itself began.

On the tower itself are engraved the names of 72 engineers, scientists and French mathematicians in recognition of their contribution to the construction of the tower. The decision was made by Eiffel, due to concerns about protests against the tower, and were engraved on the sides of the tower under the lower balcony.

Gustave Eiffel's career lasted 30 years. He died on December 27, 1923 at the age of 91.


#What is So Impressive About the Eiffel?

Oscar Wilde once said that he wanted to live at the top of the Eiffel Tower, because this is the only spot in Paris where you can't see the hideous tower.

However the Eiffel Tower is a Parisian symbol, and without a doubt one of the most famous buildings in the world. It was originally supposed to be built in Barcelona, for the world Expo, but because lack of funding the building was delayed, and only 10 years later it was built in Paris, for the world Expo of 1889. It was originally planned to remain for 20 years, before being destroyed, by the end of that timeline however the building was so loved by Parisians and tourists that it stayed. It is ironic because during the building's first 2 years, many demanded its dismantling for its lack of beauty.

The Eiffel Tower has no less than 1,665 steps, and on a good day you can have visibility of 70 kilometers!

The designer and architect of the tower was Gustave Eiffel, a genius engineer who had many other important projects in France, especially in building steel bridges. The tower's height is 324 meters, and up to 1930 the Eiffel Tower was the tallest building in the world.

By the way, the expensive construction price was returned by money profited from entrance tickets to the exhibition already at the end of the first year!



#The Eiffel Tower at Night

From the day the Eiffel was built in 1889, it was photographed by every tourist or photo enthusiast who passed it, or even just saw it on the horizon. However, in 2014 the official Eiffel Tower website published that the Eiffel Tower at night was a copyrighted look, and should not be photographed anymore.

To understand first what happens when darkness descends on the "City of Lights," the Eiffel Tower became a spectacular display of gilded lights, using no fewer than 336 powerful projectors. Starting from sunset until 1 am, 20,000 LED lights glitter on the tower every 5 minutes.

According to the official website of the tower, the lighting is under copyright and brand rights, and in order to use images where the tower appears at night there must be approval from the company operating the Eiffel Tower. According to the company, the tower itself is public, but night lighting is a kind of art and the use of this art by photography or distribution is strictly prohibited.



#The Eiffel Tower During World War II

During World War II, when France was under German occupation (1940), the French were careful to cut the cables for the elevators so that the tower could not be used as a lookout and a military position. The tower was closed to the public during the Nazi occupation and the elevator was repaired only six years later.

As a result, on the first day of the occupation, the Nazi soldiers had to climb the tower all the way to the top floor to hoist the Nazi flag at the top of the tower. The flag was so big and heavy that it ripped and flew away with the wind a few hours later. It was replaced by a smaller flag.

The Eiffel Tower remained intact during the war, mainly because it lacked strategic targets for bombing. Nevertheless, towards the end of the war and the surrender of Germany, Hitler gave an order to destroy the tower along with the rest of the city. However, General von Choltitz refused to carry out the order.

On August 24, 1944, the French tri-color flag was placed on the top of the Eiffel Tower as a symbol of victory and Paris's freedom. It was created from three separate sheets sown together.


A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/PhWrt9absDE


A visit:

https://youtu.be/S1bkBxR-I5A


Sparkling & twinkling at night:

https://youtu.be/ORfbeJHAifs


Guidance:

https://youtu.be/DUafW5QkASA
Jardin du Luxembourg
Luxembourg Gardens
#Tourists in the Gardens

The beautiful Luxembourg Gardens (Jardin du Luxembourg), located in the heart of Paris, are open to the general public and attract not only tourists but also locals.

In the gardens you can find scattered statues of prominent figures from French history: female figures of French queens and figures of writers and poets.
There is plenty of room to relax, eat ice cream or drink coffee from the many stands in the area. You can enjoy the warm and relaxing sun, rest and gain energy for the trip in the Latin Quarter.
In the center of the garden there is a large pool surrounded by dozens of green chairs ment for tourists and they provide the perfect atmosphere for a moment of comfort and relaxation.

The gardens are not only an attractive destination for the Parisian population, but also for tourists:

You can rent a boat and let kids push it with a long bamboo stick from bank to bank on the big lake.

When you go up, to the center of the garden, you can ride around on ponies or if you a are with younger children you can ride the local carriage.
Deeper in the park, you can find a carousel and a puppet theater that has shows almost every day and in the southwestern corner you can find beehives, and courses on how to raise them.

You can find places to read and play petanca (bowling) for adults, a romantic trip for couples or a lunch break for students, who usually come from the Sorbonne - the famous University of Paris, located right next to the gardens.

It is one of the most beautiful green pieces in Paris, with a proper blend of light and shade, trees and lawns, hidden corners and public spaces for both children and adults. Take a basket with a little food and a blanket - and go for a picnic.



#The History of the Gardens

The construction of the gardens began after the assassination of King Henry the 4th in 1610.

The widow of the king, Marie de Medici, could not bear to live in the Louvre filled with her shared memories with her husband and moved to the Luxembourg Palace.

In 1624 the construction of the Luxembourg Palace was completed for the widow, who ordered the architect, Salomon de Bruce, to build a Palazzo Pitti style palace, like the palace she left behind in her hometown, Florence. The gardens around it were designed to remind her of the landscape of her childhood.

The truth is, that although the Queen planned to spend the rest of her life in the palace, fate must have wanted something else, and in practice the royal widow had not lived in the palace for more than five years. She was exiled to Cologne in 1630 by the order of the new king. During the revolution, the palace was confiscated and for two years served as a prison; It was then designated as the location of the Assembly of Representatives. The monastery next to it was destroyed.

By the way, another historical anecdote - about the famous writer Ernest Hemingway, it is told that as a young man he was hungry for bread and used to go out to the gardens to hunt pigeons for consumption.



#The Luxembourg Palace as Parliament

In the heart of the symmetrical and impressive gardens is the Luxembourg Palace. The palace was originally built according to the design of the French architect Solomon de Bruce, to serve as the royal residence of Marie de Medici, the mother of King Louis the 13th.

After the French Revolution it was re-designed by Jean Chalgrin and was converted into a parliament. The main staircase was destroyed and replaced by the Senate Hall on the first floor. Chalgrin also destroyed the Chapel de Medici. Chalgrin closed the terraces and turned them into a library. At the same time he built a staircase in the western wing, which was surrounded by iconic columns. The construction ended with the destruction of the gallery.

In early 1835, architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden aisle. The new Senate Hall was located in what was then the courtyard area between the gardens. The new aisle included a library with paintings by Eugene Delacroix. In 1850 by the request of Napoleon the 3rd, Gisors created a conference hall.

During the occupation of France by Nazi Germany in 1944, the palace became the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, and in general the palace was a strategic place for the German forces that defended the city.

During the year 1946, the palace was used as a venue for the Paris Peace Conference.



#The Architecture of the Luxembourg Gardens

The park and its beautiful gardens manage to put nature in the heart of the Parisian urban fabric and makes travelers rest and feel embraced by nature.

Not only do the visitors get to experience the nature and space, the garden also has a magical atmosphere, it is beautifully maintained and the garden beds are designed in a meticulous French style. Self-pruning and chestnuts attract Parisians and tourists of all ages.

In the center, you can see an octagonal pool with a fountain, where you can rent and sail on models of ancient sailboats. This part of the garden is decorated in a classic French style - with straight and symmetrical lines. While later, from the center to the edge, the style becomes like an English garden style, in a less formal way of curving paths and random clusters of trees.

The current design of the gardens was given to them in the 19th century by architect Chalgrin.



#The Luxembourg Gardens Fountain

The Luxembourg Gardens, spread across 57,000 square meters, attract many tourists and locals, because of the well-tended gardens, the wonderful sculptures and the relaxed and Parisian atmosphere.

But one of the true charms of the garden, which is not visited too much by tourists, is the spectacular Medici fountain.

The fountain was built in 1630 and has deep routes in the rich French history. Because of location, in an isolated corner of the garden and because the boulevard of tall trees hides it a little, many visitors are unaware of its existence. The fountain was also commissioned by Marie de Medici in 1624. She wanted to give it typical Italian mannerism features: a complex fountain, an artificial cave decorated with statues, just like the one she knew from the Beauntanti Cave in the Boboli Gardens.

The architect Tommaso Francini, who was in charge of the fountains and water, in the gardens of the Medici villas in Prinza and Rome, was chosen for the construction and planning of the fountain.

He created a large water basin leading to a huge sculpted fountain, topped by two statues of nymphs spilling water from their hands and a gable bearing the Medici emblem.

The fountain was located on the left bank of Paris, where free water flowed and the groundwater was quite deep, and therefore considered one of the wonders of that period.

After Medici's death, in the mid 18th century, the fountain needed serious repairs due to poor maintenance. The neglect was so severe that the statues on the fountain disappeared (to this day they do not know when exactly they were stolen) and the supporting wall collapsed. In 1811 Napoleon appointed architect Jean Chalgrin to renovate the fountain, the same architect who created the Arc de Triomphe.

During the reign of Napoleon the 3rd, it underwent another incarnation (by architect Alphonse de Gizur), which shifted its position by 28 meters to make way for the construction of a street behind it. In the empty space left behind, another fountain was built, the "Leda and the Swan," which stood in one of the adjacent streets and the two matched each other like a glove. To the sorrow of the original Medici fountain, most visitors focus on her new sister.

Another change was the addition of two new sculptures representing the Seine and Heron rivers at the top of the fountain, where the nymphs once stood. He reconstructed the Medici emblem that had been damaged in the French Revolution and set up a sculpture set by the sculptor August Otten.




A Closer Look of the Gardens:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsZ1O6tJKbc
Champs-lyses
Champs-Élysées
#The Birth and Renewal of the Most Famous Avenue in the World

The Avenue des Champs Elysées, also known as the "Avenue of the Fields" is one of Paris's main avenues, and one of the most famous streets in the world.

This avenue is one of the most prominent symbols of Paris. It is 2 kilometers long, and here you can find a lot of luxury and glamor. This is because of the palaces and luxury buildings that are built along the avenue. The street begins at the Arc de Triomphe, and ends at the Place de la Concorde and is part of the "historic axis."

Although the avenue is very expensive, it is vibrant and full of tourists, who tour the area throughout the day. The avenue has been appointed a task force whose purpose is to maintain the area's prestige. Among the people who live here, the most famous tenant is the president of France, who lives in the Elysee Palace.

Champs-Elysées was not always as bright as today. During the 1980's the boulevard was neglected and abandoned by both business owners and tourists. Jacques Chirac, who was the mayor of Paris in the early 1990's, decided to do something and invested 36 million Euros in the dying boulevard. The architect Bernard Huatt and the designer Jean-Michel Wilmotte were brought in and asked to rebuild what was needed.

So what was actually done? The sidewalks extending from the Arc de Triomphe to the square in the middle of the avenue were re-paved with elegant granite stone. 55 benches were built especially for the boulevard, and placed down the street alongside matching designed lamps. New parking arrangements that made it easier for tourists to reach the area, and renovations for the metro, all contributed to the renewed atmosphere.

During the hard days of the avenue, criminal activities and violence were felt everywhere. During the years of rehabilitation, a reinforced police unit was placed on the avenue. The pickpockets and the bag grabbers were treated badly and the results were not long in coming - since 2000 the perpetrators have left the area and made room for tourists.

The biggest measure of the rehabilitation of the boulevard is the cost of rent per square meter in its real estate, which climbed to the second highest place in the world - 7,219 euros per square meter.



#The Avenue's Prestige

Properties around the famous boulevard have increased in value over the years. The real and inconceivable measure of this is the high cost of rent per square meter that climbed to the second place in the world - 7,219 euros per square meter. This huge tariff causes businesses that cannot survive these prices to give up their spot in the prestigious location. In recent decades, 10 theaters have closed, the old travel agency of Air France has also given way. In their place, a huge Louis Vuitton shop, Zara, Benton and a Cartier jewelry store leased a 650 square meter property at the foot of the Arc de Triomphe.

The legendary Publicis drug store underwent a massive renovation and a new luxury hotel came into the picture. The old Phuket Restaurant (1901) acquired the four buildings around it to build the hotel - the new palace of Paris, right in the center of the avenue.



#Shopping at the Champs-Elysées

The famous Avenue des Champs-Elysées is one of Paris's largest shopping areas. It offers dozens of beautiful luxury shops, brand stores and high fashion alongside more popular chains, souvenir shops and more. It is one of the most important avenues to visit during a visit to Paris, along with dozens of restaurants and cafes that will enhance your Parisian feeling.

You will find exclusive stores of important fashion designers, names like Cartier, Hugo Boss or Louis Vuitton. The prices of these luxury stores are particularly high, but you also have more affordable and accessible options in the well-known clothing chains around the world, such as the famous H & M. At the boulevard you will also find the flagship store of Paris, known as Sephora.

On the boulevard you will also find Disney's famous toy store and you can jump to the fabulous dessert store "Laduree." We recommend you to taste the wonderful macarons they make and even pack some home as a gift.



A Closer Look at the Avenue:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4idGwtdhIgI

Must See in Paris

Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe
#About the Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe of Paris is a huge stone building that stands in the center of Charles de Gaulle Square, at the end of the famous Champs Elysees. The gate can be seen from great distances - it's about 50 meters high, 45 meters wide and 22 meters long. The structure is so large that in 1919, during the World War I victory parade, an airplane flew through the arch successfully!

General Napoleon ordered the erection of the Arc de Triomphe in 1806 to glorify the names of those who fought for France during the French Revolution and during the wars of his time. However, the construction of the Arc de Triomphe ended only thirty years later, in 1836, years after Napoleon's death.

Many pictures and many figures of Parisian history were associated with this gate. The gate became a permanent point from which the victorious military parades emerge after successes, and the annual military parade on Bastille Day. Even after the victory of the French in World War I, a parade was held in the Champs-Elysées to celebrate the victory over the Germans.


#Architecture of the Arc de Triomphe

The structure of the gate was influenced by the Arch of Titus, built by the Romans, but the decorations characterize the neo-classical style of the 19th century. The gate is full of sculptures and decorations depicting historical moments related to victories. At the base of each foot at the gate is a group of central sculptures, each of which was built by another famous French sculptor. On the walls of the building are the names of the generals who were killed during those wars, alongside the names of 128 battles. Below the Arc de Triomphe is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, a site that was added to the compound in 1921 and at 6:30 pm every night, the eternal flame is lit in their memory.

At the base of the Arc de Triomphe is a small museum, which reviews the history of the gate's construction, as well as the heroism of Napoleon.

From the balcony of the building, located at a height of fifty meters, you can see the 12 avenues that split off from it. This is an excellent vantage point for Paris. Although the climb involves climbing about two hundred steps, the view from the edge is a worthy reward.



#Historical Route

The Arc de Triomphe is part of the "historical route." What is the historic route, you ask?

The historic route is a route of sculptures, buildings and roads that pass through central Paris towards the west. The route is also called "the road of victory" and "the royal road". The starting point of the route is the statue "Louis XIV on Horseback" located at Napoleon Square in the Louvre. The route begins in the first district and ends in the eighth district of the city.

The construction of the route began alongside construction for the Avenue des Champs-Elysées in the 17th century, designed by the gardener of Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre. The construction approach was similar to the planning of French gardens built in the palace of Versailles. After changes over the years, it was only in the 20th century that the route became as familiar as it is today. From there the historic route of Paris continues to the small Arc de Triomphe, the Place de la Concorde, the Avenue des Champs-Elysées, the Grand Arc de Triomphe and the Paris 2000 area, La Défense.




#Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

"Tomb of the Unknown Soldier" is a nickname for many monuments around the world that were built to commemorate soldiers who fell in wars without being able to identify their bodies. These graves are the focus of state memorial ceremonies.

Even under the Arc de Triomphe there is such a grave. The bones of soldier buried during World War I were transferred to the site on the day of the armistice (the day the cease-fire came into effect in World War I) in 1920. In memory of these anonymous soldiers, the eternal flame is lit for an indefinite period. The eternal flame was lit for the first time in an official ceremony in 1920, and each year a ceremony is held on November 11, the day the war ended.

The coffin was placed in the chapel at the top of the arch on November 10, 1920, and was buried six months later. On the grave is written in French: "Here is the burial of French soldiers who fell for their homeland 1914-1918." The truth is that the French government intended to bury the anonymous soldiers in the Pantheon, but following public protests it was decided to bury them under the Arc de Triomphe. In 1961, US President John F. Kennedy and his wife placed a wreath on the grave, together with the French President Charles de Gaulle. Following Kennedy's murder in 1963, his wife Jacquelyn Kennedy asked that her husband be buried with an eternal flame, similar to the one she had seen in the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Paris, and so her wish was granted.



#Friese

Above the arch of the Arc de Triomphe is a friese, above which are 30 knights' symbols and names of their victories in the French wars.

A friese is an architectural element originating in ancient Greek architecture. The friese is the thickest layer of the entablature, the upper part of the structure above the columns. It is located above the architrave and below the carnation and the gable. The friese is one of the horizontal layers that appear on the typical facade of classical and neo-classical structures. In some cases these frieses will be decorated with stone decorations intended to convey a message, a historical or religious story.

The dimensions of the friese in classical construction vary but are proportional to the other components.


#Tips
Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from November to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.


A Closer Look at the Arc de Triomphe:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQ9DDFX_OTw
Sacre-Coeur Basilica
Sacred Heart Basilica
#About the Sacre Coeur - The Basilica of the Sacred Heart

Ever since the Romans days, Montmartre, which is now a lively entertainment area, is associated with worship. The Gallic Druids saw it as a sacred site and the Romans built there temples dedicated to Mars and Mercury. In the 19th century, during the difficult war between France and Prussia, when Paris was in one of the lowest moments in its history, when the siege and hunger were unbearable, two of the city's residents vowed that if Paris were saved from the German blockade, they would set up a church on the top of the holy hill - dedicated to the holy heart of Jesus. This is also the reason the basilica is called the "national vow."

The construction of the Church in question, Sacred Heart Basilica (Sacre-Coeur Basilica) was the responsibility of Paul Abadi, who won the competition for its construction. The church was built in direct partnership with the government of the Third Republic and was funded by France as part of a national fund. The construction was completed at the beginning of the twentieth century, but because of World War I it was not officially inaugurated until 1919.

The church's impressive dome is the second highest point in Paris. To get to its famous balcony you must climb many stairs or ride a cable car. But despite the effort, the climb is worth it.



#The Architecture of the Sacre-Coeur

The Sacre-Coeur Basilica, which is large and impressive, is seen by many as a huge wedding cake. It was built in a Byzantine-Romanesque style. The basilica was constructed from travertine, which contains a material that ensures that the structure will remain white, will not be affected by the weather and will be noticeable from many points in the city. The basilica has 4 domes, the main one being 80 meters high. It includes a large number of windows that bring lots of natural light into entirety of the church.

The main hall is 100 meters long and 50 meters wide.

The entrance of the basilica is especially impressive. Above the main entrance there are two guards, two horsemen, who are religious and national symbols of France - Joan of Arc and Louis Lepre.

Inside the church, in the choir area, is a huge mosaic describing Jesus and the Sacred Heart. On his left side stand Michael and the Virgin from Orleans and on the right, King Louis the 16th and his family. The interior of the basilica is built in the shape of a Greek cross and is decorated with amazing mosaics, which are located on the roof of the apse, the semicircular niche on the eastern wall of the classical basilicas. The largest mosaic in France is located there, covering 475 square meters.

Other unique points in the church include France's largest bell and one of the largest in the world (18.5 tons). The bell is located in the square tower. The church also has a very impressive organ, which sounds great.


#Detective Mission

Try to find the decorated mosaic of the Star of David in the basilica.


#Religion and Tourism in the Basilica

The basilica was built in 1870, after the hard war between the French and the Prussians. After France's defeat in the war, the political upheavals from within and from the outside drove the nation into a terrible depression. Groups of Catholic believers fed up with the atheist spirit of France set themselves the goal of building a spectacular church on Montmartre Hill, which would be a symbol of renewed hope and repentance.

Despite the declaration of construction as a "public benefit" taking place in 1873, the construction itself only began three years later, and out of the 78 plans submitted to the committee, the one chosen belonged to architect Paul Abadi. The construction wasn't fast enough, was filled with problems and difficulties that caused the whole project to be delayed.

In 1919 the church was opened to the faithful, that saw it as a place of religious and patriotic identification as one.

The church is a focal point for many tourist to this day, especially in the spring and summer months. These tourists sit on the wide stairs leading to the church and use them to view the magnificent view of Paris, that opens in front of them from the hilltops.



#Joan of Arc

At the entrance of the basilica stands a statue of Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc), the French general who was executed when she was only 19 years old. Joan of Arc was the one who led the resistance for the liberation of France from the English occupation during the Hundred Years War, in the 15th century. In a heroic struggle she led the French army to war against mighty England.

The devout Catholic girl was hearing voices in her head since her childhood. In order to convince her that she, a villager, has been chosen by God to lead France, she came for a meeting with King Charles, went straight to his room, and in a series of quick tests proved her supernormal abilities and "her connection with God." King Charles gave her the army and in a series of brilliant battles, dressed in male clothing, she broke the blockade on the city of Orleans and brought about the surrender of the English. She conquered the city Reims and formally crowned Charles as the rightful king of France, also under the law.

The young maiden proved to be a brilliant general when she realized that the English were always victorious because of the great battles they fought. Therefore, she replaced the French army's poor war tactics with superior guerilla warfare tactics and repeatedly defeated the British with her soldiers. However, after being injured 3 times, she was captured and sent to the English. After a long trial conducted by the church she was declared guilty of witchcraft, of connections with Satan, and of other offenses.

Joan of Arc was sentenced to death by fire. Legend has it that an English soldier who was present at the execution cried in horror, "Oh the holiness we burned!"

In 1456, a couple years after the execution, a retrial was made for Joan of Arc. The verdict of the trial was a total acquittal and "Miss Orleans" became an official national heroin of France. In 1920, the Catholic Church also declared her as a saint and finally recognized the greatness of the young girl.



#About the Basilica

The Sacred Heart Basilica was built at the end of the 19th century in an attempt to atone for the sins of France, which led, according to popular belief, to the defeat of the French against the Prussians in 1871.

Because of the style of the basilica, a combination of Neo-Romanesque influences with neo-Byzantine elements, not many Parisians will say that the structure is refined and beautiful in their eyes. However, over the years the basilica became a wanted and popular sight in the French capital skyline.

If you stand in front of the church, you will see the whole center of Paris spread in front of you. On a bright day you can even notice statues and other points of interests in the city. You will probably find the Montparnasse Tower with its 56 floors, that much before its establishment, bohemian and avant-garde people would walk there in the Montparnasse district. They did so after abandoning Montmartre, in the post-World War I period.

If you agree to climb more that 230 stairs to the dome of Sacre Coeur, you get to enjoy a spectacular view. You may buy the entry tickets to the dome in the entrance to the chapel.

A staircase leads from the basilica to the bottom of the hill. You can also go down through a Funicular - a tiny cable train.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0g799q-jMls
Jardin des Tuileries
Tuileries Gardens
#Some History

The Tuileries Gardens (Jardin des Tuileries), or the beautiful Tuileries, are a large public park, located between the Place de la Concorde to its west and the Louvre on its east. The gardens were planted by Caterina de Medici (the wife of Henri II of France) starting in 1564. Their main purpose was to decorate the Tuileries Palace, whose construction began simultaneously that year. The whole area is named after them - the Tuileries area. In the garden you will also find a big fountain, a zoo and a cave. The Musée de l'Orangerie was added in the early 17th century.

In 1664 Jean-Baptiste Colbert ordered the redesign of the gardens by André Le Nôtre, a French landscape architect and gardener of Louis XIV. Le Nôtre gave the garden its wonderfully symmetrical shape, with its clear lines, which can be seen to this day.

Le Nôtre built a central avenue on the Palace's axis, on the east a pool of rounded water, on the west an octagonal pool. He built two terraces-one by the water's edge, along the quay, and the other along Rivoli Street; In addition, he built two terraces along the current border of the Place de la Concorde.

In 1871, the Tuileries Palace was set on fire by the Paris collective. After the arson, some of the building remained in its place, and it was only more than 10 years later that it was decided to completely destroy the remains, and the palace was never restored.

The garden has sculptures of various statues spread around the park, including Rodin, Alberto Giacometti, Maillol and others. From the 19th century, the gardens became the Parisians' leisure and recreation spot, and were mentioned in many works of art.



#About the Gardens

The Tuileries were once the gardens of the royal palace of the Tuileries. In the past, the kings and queens of France used to calmly stroll through these gardens. They became a public park in 1667, after the French Revolution. From the 19th century, the gardens became the Parisians' leisure and recreation place, and were mentioned in many works of art.

If you wondered about the origin of the name, it is named for the tile factory that was located on this spot (tiles in French at called 'tuiles').

The gardens have many cute corners where you can read and relax, as well as attractions and amusement facilities for children. Sculptures of various statues are scattered throughout the garden, including Rodin, Alberto Giacometti, Maillol and others. In recent years, modern sculptures have also been placed in the gardens to give an atmosphere of renewal. In 1988, a statue of Alfred Dreyfus was also added. You can walk around the two big fountains, sit on one of the chairs scattered around them and watch the miniature boats floating on them. On both sides of the central avenue, you can sit down and breathe the air on the benches in the shade of the trees and watch the Parisians playing on the grass surfaces with ball games. Children can play in the playgrounds, go horseback riding, watch a puppet theater, or sail small sailboats in the water pools. The gardens have cafes and ice cream parlors with drinks.



#The Gardens Throughout History

The garden's story begins in 1564, when Caterina de Medici decided to build herself a palace, and a garden to accompany it and be in her favorite Italian style. But the person who is responsible for the great change that the garden has undergone is actually a family member of de Medici, Marie, the mother of Louis XIII. She decided to plant a line of elm trees that formed a promenade, between the southern border of the Tuileries and the Seine. The ultimate goal was to allow the aristocracy of the city (at first it even blocked entry to the commoners) to travel in the new carriages and showoff their wealth to everyone.

This was a great success, and thousands came to watch the noble's carriages. Within a short time, peddlers began walking around offering fruit and sweets between the carriages. Afterwards, the Parisians arrived in the neighborhood and began to provide the aristocratic dynasties matchmaking services, and pass lover notes between prospective grooms and brides.

The success of the garden led Louis XIV to transform the Tuileries gardens into a larger and impressive garden, appropriate for a royal garden. The architect André Le Nôtre redesigned the gardens and gave them their current appearance - the style of the traditional French gardens, landscaped gardens, cuttings of geometrical shapes and organized flower clusters. All arranged in symmetrical and precise areas.

Some interesting events took place in these gardens. In 1783 the Montgolfier brothers chose the gardens for their first hot-air balloon flight. A few years later, in 1792, during the reign of Louis XVI, a revolutionary mob burst into the Tuileries Palace and slaughtered the bodyguards. Two years later Maximilien Robespierre celebrated the "Feast of Reason" in a lavish ceremony held by the pool.



#The History of the Gardens

The subject of taking a stroll, especially when it comes to such pleasant and calm gardens, is almost self-evident for us. Although the main avenue of the Tuileries was wide and adapted for carriage travel, the nobles decided to do something they had not done before - to walk. In Paris in the 17th century it was a tremendous innovation, because there were no sidewalks in the city that made it possible to walk comfortably without getting your feet muddy, or risking being trampled by passing carriages. When the residents of Paris began walking, the Tuileries became the first public park in Europe. It is therefore inevitable that in 1678 the first public benches, made of wood, would be created on which young lovers and leisurely travelers could sit.

The gardens had different uses during that period. Couples who were lovers could come around in the afternoon and meet in one of the side alleys of the garden. A trip on the main boulevard is still a meeting point for all the Parisian residents, where they can chat and drink cool lemonade together.

During the 19th century, the garden underwent changes as a result of the paving of Rivoli Street by Napoleon I. Napoleon III, who was his nephew, added the building of the Orangerie which became a very successful museum in the 20th century. Shortly afterwards, a fire destroyed the Tuileries Palace started by a mob in Paris.

Since the end of World War II the Tuileries Gardens have become more beautiful and inviting than ever, especially because of the impressive statues and green chairs that invite visitors to sit and enjoy all of this beauty.



#Tuileries Fashion

From the moment the Parisians started walking around in public gardens on foot, they discovered that their clothes were a source of attention. In a moment, the Tuileries became a model for the aristocracy to display the most interesting clothes and fashion trends. The rumor spread, and thousands of foreigners would come to the gardens to catch up with the passing fashion to try to imitate it in their country. As a result, at that time the first fashion magazines were created.

Despite the prosperity of the fashion industry those days, there were some less pleasant cases. The women of Paris, who saw the attire of the royals throughout the garden, wanted their tailors to sew them exactly the same clothes. In so doing, they tried to blur the lines between them and the nobles. During this period, professionals began to teach the French how to behave politely in society (basic rules, like how during a French meal it is accustomed to spit only to the right side). This helped women succeeded quite quickly in their goal, and it soon became almost impossible to distinguish between the classes.

Surprisingly, there were equally the same stories about noblewomen who wanted to pose as simple peasants. For example, the story of 1698, in which a Marquise (a title for a European aristocrat) decided to dress up as someone who had just arrived in Paris, began to speak to a Baron she had met at the Tuileries Gardens. After a conversation of more than an hour, she stunned him by saying "goodbye" and went to her luxurious carriage that took her to her Parisian palace.



A 360-Degree View of the Gardens:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8NSlrxxL3xI
Notre-Dame de Paris
Notre-Dame Cathedral
#About the Cathedral

The famous Notre-Dame Cathedral (Notre-Dame de Paris), one of the highlights of Gothic architecture, attracts thousands of tourists every year. Its name means "Our Lady's Cathedral," named for Maria, the mother of Jesus. Many kings were crowned and married in this cathedral, among them Napoleon.

The construction of the cathedral began in 1163 and ended about 200 years later, around 1345. You can see a variety of sculptures, but look especially for the "marginal sculpture." Pay attention to the monstrous and imaginary figures placed at the ends of the rain gutters, figures that symbolize the evil and the questioning and provide a glimpse into the world of the people of the Middle Ages.

After the French Revolution, the beautiful Cathedral was neglected, then in 1831 the building served as a background for the famous work of Victor Hugo, The Hunchback of Notre Dame. After the publication of Hugo's book, the French began to rehabilitate it. This was also the time when the famous gargoyles were added, who to this day are kneeling on the cathedral and making mocking faces at visitors.

Gargoyles are statues that were very common in Gothic architecture. These statues were usually used as decorative water gutters. They were always placed on the roof of the Gothic buildings, as decorated marshes. Interestingly they were designed as demon-like monsters or dragons, monsters who turn outwardly to frighten passers-by who stand at the foot of the building.

The cathedral is located in Notre Dame Square, on the Ile de la Cité, the island which is the historical starting point from which Paris developed. Geographers refer to the cathedral as the zero point from which distances are measured all over France. You can see the metal plate of the "zero point" in the square in front of the church.



#A small detective mission for children

Find the metal plate "zero point" in front of the church square, then explain to the rest of the family its meaning.



#The Hunchback of Notre Dame

The combination of one of the most respected writers in history, with one of the most fascinating and beautiful cities in our world, is a winning combination. Victor Hugo, who lived in Paris, incorporated the building as the central setting for all his works, and therefore this magical city is full of sites connected to him, his work and creations. The novel the Hunchback of Notre Dame, one of the greatest novels of its period, was published in 1831. The book has stirred up many generations of readers with a fascinating and powerful plot.

At the center of the plot is none other than the amazing cathedral where you are at these very moments. However, contrary to reality, in the book the building is located in the slums of Paris. The cathedral is the residence of a stern and severe Catholic priest, Claude Frollo, who adopts an abandoned child, whom he calls Quasimodo. Quasimodo is a distorted, deaf hunchback whose duty it will be to ring the church bells.

The novel is about the love story of Quasimodo the hunchback to Esmeralda, a Gypsy dancer. It is an epic story, full of beauty and sadness, that describes human suffering with strength and compassion. After Quasimodo is accused of trying to kidnap Esmeralda, he is tortured in front of all the city's residents. Whoever rescued him would be none other than Esmeralda herself. Priest Frollo, who is also in love with the dancer Esmeralda himself, tries to overcome the torments of his love and jealousy and plots an evil plan that will lead to the tragic development of the novel.

Hugo wrote the book after discovering in the bell tower a Greek inscription meaning "necessary / must" and was curious to know who wrote the inscription. Hugo's goal in writing the book was to present the treasures of the cathedral to the public at large, after the mass destruction of the cathedral during the French Revolution, which he saw as the symbol of power.



#Changes in the Cathedral

The decision to build the Notre Dame Cathedral was made by the local bishop who decided to establish a complex for the kings of Europe, in the classical Gothic church style - that is, a tall, illuminated, decorated church. The ambitious architectural design made it so a large number of architects were involved in the construction work that began in 1163 and ended about two hundred years later, around 1345.

Over the years, the original structure of the cathedral was damaged. During the French Revolution, the place was heavily damaged - the heads of the statues at the front and above the gates were "beheaded." All bells were melted down for use during the height of the weapon industry. The building itself was then used as a food storehouse. Kings as well tried to make their mark in the place over the years, adding rooms and renovating corners. Other minor damages were caused to the structure during the various world wars that severely hit it, but the structure retained more or less its original shape and is very similar to the structure that stood here during the Middle Ages.



#Saint Denis

All of Paris knows the image of Saint Denis, with his decapitated head, above the entrance to Notre Dame Cathedral. It is told that the Romans had shaved his head, Saint Denis didn't even notice and carried his decapitated head in his hands ... Another statue of the saint is found in the Museum of the Middle Ages also located in Paris. But who was he?

Saint Denis, by his full name Dionysius, was a Christian saint of the 3rd century CE, who was the first Bishop of Paris. Dionysius was sent by Pope Fabianus to rebuild the Christian community in Paris. He built a church here, on an island on the Seine, and converted many residents to Christianity. But the Roman governor's mother-in-law took a stance against him, and the governor ordered to imprison Dionysius and his two companions, torment them, and decapitate them immediately.

Legend has it that after his head was cut off, Saint Denis lifted it off the ground and began to walk away, carrying his head and preaching to those around him. A few kilometers north of Montmartre (where this event was carried out), he met a Roman Catholic noblewoman, put his head in her hands and collapsed. The Basilica of Saint-Denis was built in the place where Dionysius collapsed, and this place became the burial grounds for the kings of France.



#The Notre Dame Church's Organ

An organ is a large keyboard instrument (in fact it is the world's largest instrument), producing a shuddering sound of air, unlike other keyboard instruments that produce sound from shaking strings. The sound in the organ is produced using air blowing through the tubes.

In the Notre Dame Cathedral organs have been installed since the building was first built, and today there are three organs - the large organ, the oldest of the cathedral's organs and installed under the window of the western Rosetta. There is the choir organ (a 30-year-old organ that was installed in the 19th century), and a mobile organ, whose purpose is to accompany the choir and singers.

The first organ was installed in the 18th century by Cliquot. Some of the original pipes by Cliquot are still being used today, more than 270 years after they were installed for the first time. The organ was renovated and almost completely rebuilt in the 19th century. At the beginning of 1989 another renovation was made that was finalized in 1992.

The big organ in the cathedral has 7,800 pipes, 900 of which are considered historical. There are 109 rows, 5 full rows with 56 keys each, and a pedal keyboard with 32 pedals.


The person who plays the organ in the Notre Dame Cathedral is considered one of the most lucrative and sought after positions in France.


#Tips
Free entry of the first Sunday of the month, from November to end of March.

Free for Under 18 and under 26 from the European Union.


A Closer Look at the Cathedral:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PGqyo5rn1Tk


Muse du Louvre
Louvre Museum
#About the Museum

Paris's large and luxurious museum, the Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) is also one of the largest in the world. It is located on the right side of the first district of Paris, in what used to be a palace.

The Louvre was founded by King Philippe Auguste in 1190 as a fortified palace on the western border of Paris, as part of the defense of the city against Viking attacks. In the years following the construction of the fortress, when Paris expanded beyond the western boundaries set by the king, the palace was used as a line of defense for the storage of the royal treasury. Thus, in 1546, under the reign of François I, architect Pierre Lecco began to transform the fortress into a luxurious royal palace.

The idea of making the Louvre a museum rose during the time of Louis 15th. After the French Revolution, it was decided that the place should open to the masses so that they could enjoy the national masterpieces, and the museum opened in 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings.

In the years that followed, the museum was called the "Napoleon Museum" and not by chance. The collection of works expanded greatly during Napoleon's reign, mainly because of the loot he had collected during his wars. The current shape of the Louvre is a huge structure with two arms - the northern Risheleigh side and the southern Dennon side that surrounds Napoleon's courtyard in the center, it exists since 1874.



#Masterpieces in the Louvre

The Louvre currently has a quarter of a million works of art. Along with famous works, such as the Mona Lisa, or the Madonna and the Child of Leonardo da Vinci, you will also find less known art here. In any case, this is an unforgettable experience for every art lover.

For example, Venus from Milos, is perhaps the most famous Greek sculpture in the world. It was found by a local fisherman on the Greek island of Milos, in 1820, when it was split into two separate parts. The Turks, who ruled the island at the time, confiscated the finds, but the French ambassador who was in Istanbul made France buy them and since then it has been in the Louvre.

This is also the story of another mythical statue from Ancient Greece - the statue of Nike, facing against the wind. The statue presents the goddess of victory, Nike, standing against the wind, with her wing. She has no hands and no head, but she is beautiful and many come to the Louvre to see her.

Another famous statue here is the statue of the sitting clerk, an ancient Egyptian statue commemorating the ancient-new profession that was born with the invention of writing - the profession of the clerk, the secretary, who sits and writes diligently.

And there are also the giant Lamassu statues, which guarded the throne room in the palace of the Assyrian king Sargon II. On the ancient stone on which the Hammurabi laws are written, the most comprehensive collection of laws published in antiquity.



#About the Theft of the Mona Lisa

In August 1911, the Mona Lisa was stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris. The thief, a museum employee named Vincenzo Peruggia, hid the little painting under his coat and casually left the museum. The Paris police searched for the thief in vain, they offered money to any informants and interrogated anyone who could have known anything, but found nothing. For two years the thief had hidden the painting that would now become the most famous work in history, in a box under his bed.

When he returned to Italy, two years later, Peruggia offered to sell the painting to the Uffizi Museum in the city of Florence. Minutes later, the local police received a phone call that made it the detective hero of the time. The Mona Lisa was found!

The thief at first said, "I acted on impulse." He then changed his version and said that he wanted to return it to Italy, from where Napoleon stole it. In the trial he said this again and again, and the judges eased his sentence, despite the unimpressive historical knowledge he was discovered with. It is ironic that after a short prison sentence, Peruggia the "patriot" returned to France and died just a few years later.



#About the Mona Lisa

The most famous painting in the world is, oddly enough, one of the most modest and small paintings that exist.

The painting is called "Mona Lisa" or "La Gioconda" and it is located in the Louvre Museum in Paris. The painter is a Renaissance man, Leonardo da Vinci, and he painting for a very long time, in the 16th century.

This portrait is revolutionary, because it changed the way of painting portraits, completely accurate copies. If until then they used to paint mostly in profile, it was a frontal painting that completely changed the picture, literally. All the portraits followed his way and were frontal.

The gentle brush strokes and the blurring of the corners of the lady's mouth give Mona Lisa a mysterious and intriguing smile that fascinated generations of art lovers and made this painting known all over the world.

In addition, Leonardo used various techniques such as delicate games of light and shade in the Mona Lisa. The difference between the portrait, the background and the special perspective, increased realism in the painting. But the real genius in the painting is the use of the method he developed called Sfumato. In the Sfumato method, the artist creates a gradual and careful transition from color to color or shade to shade, so that the sub-colors cannot be distinguished. Today in the digital age it is obvious, but during the Renaissance it was an innovative invention, implemented in Mona Lisa and added great depth to the painting.

The Mona Lisa is undoubtedly the most famous painting in the world. Hundreds of copies and fakes have survived over the years. Experts say it is the most copied painting in the world.

But unlike all copies and fakes, a recent painting stands out with a truly exciting story. This is the same lady called "Mona Lisa" painted by Leonardo about a decade before the famous painting. The lady is younger, the scenery is different, the colors are lighter, but the poses and faces are the same. Even the marble pillars cut from the renowned Mona Lisa are painted.



#The Museum's Architecture

The big and luxurious Louvre Museum of Paris is also one of the largest in the world. The place born in the 12th century as a fortified palace on the western border of Paris was initially designed to protect the city from Viking attacks. The Vikings often attacked in the Middle Ages and conquered cities throughout Europe.

The current shape of the Louvre is a huge structure with two arms - the northern Risheleigh side and the southern Dennon side that surrounds Napoleon's courtyard in the center, it exists since 1874.
In 1983, Francois Mitterrand, the French president, proposed the "Grand Louvre" plan to renew and renovate the museum. The Chinese-American architect Leoh Ming Pei, who won the project, offered the Glass Pyramid as the main entrance in the center of Napoleon's courtyard and three small pyramids next to it.

The Louvre pyramid is made of metal frames and glass panels. It serves as the main entrance to the museum. The pyramid and the underground lobby solved the difficulty of including the large number of visitors to the museum every day. What is so special about this structure is that the visitors enter through the pyramid, from which they descend into the spacious lobby and then ascend to the main buildings of the museum.



A Closer Look at the Louvre Museum:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmKeRxv-xwM
Montmartre
#About the Area

The historic and fascinating area of Montmartre, turned in the 19th century from a small village with vineyards and flour mills, to a great bohemian center of painters and Parisian artists. They lived here a life of creation and debauchery. The artist community in Montmartre grew and includes artists that with the years became famous, including Dali and Picasso. In Montmartre, a movement of artists grew, similar to the revolutionary and post-Impressionist Nabis movement (Les Nabis), alongside young artists like Van Gogh, Matisse, Degas and many others. Artists like Picasso and Modigliani that were then anonymous and poor, lived in the commune in the beginning of the 20th century. They lived in a building called "The Laundromat Boat," a building that has become one of the tourist attractions of the area, and later on one of the most expensive living quarters of Paris. Despite being a very touristy place, you can still find magical areas that will help you understand the crazy past of the place.

At 130 meters above sea level, the Montmartre Hill is the highest in Paris. The definition of the name Montmartre is "Mount of the Martyrs", because of the belief that a number of saints were executed on the hill like St. Denis. During the French revolution they tried to change the hill's name to "Montmart", after the name of Jean-Paul Marat, one the revolutions leaders who was murdered. However, the name didn't catch on and it remains as is.

In 1534, the monastery of the Jesuit Order was established in Montmartre, where monks grew vineyards and made wine. On the slopes of the hill there was a small village with wineries and windmills that supplied the flour to Paris.
The comfortable housing prices, the abundance of wine and the right atmosphere attracted intellectuals, creators and artists. The hill became vibrant with life and became an attractive place with lively nightlife and a place for various kinds of entertainment.

The main square in the area, Place du Tertre, is full of tourists every day and night, you can find dozens of portrait artists, caricaturists, street artists and tourists visiting their booths, restaurants and cafes. At the home of artist Maurice Utrillo you will find the Montmartre Museum, which displays the district's past artists creations.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/EqEwPXywvvg


The Area:

https://youtu.be/_X5QBHueJ7c
Georges Pompidou Center
#The Pompidou Center - Center for Contemporary Art in Paris

The Georges Pompidou Center (Centre Georges Pompidou) for Contemporary Art, named after one of the Presidents of France in the 1870's, is one of the highlights of modern and innovative Paris. It is located in the fourth district in the Beauvoir area and close to the beautiful Marais area.

The opening of the center in 1977 caused a big public debate, due to its unusual and strange appearance. Because of its modernist architecture, which was revolutionary and not common at the time, the locals called the center names such as an oil refinery or a textile factory.

As the home of the National Museum of Modern Art, The Pompidou Center contains some of the most interesting collections of contemporary art. From the artworks of the painter Pablo Picasso to the works of Andy Warhol pop art a variety of styles are exhibited here.

In the square at the right near the center, many street performers gather, such as magicians, musicians, fire breathers and other various artists.

The complex also features the famous and entertaining Stravinsky Fountain, where the 16 sculptures represent the works of composer Igor Stravinsky. You will also find a diverse library open to the general public and IRCAM, the Center for Music Research and Acoustics. One of the famous albums created there is “Perfect Stranger” by Frank Zapa. Today, the center deals mainly with computerized music.



#The Pompidou Center Architecture

In 2013 Richard Rogers celebrated his 80th birthday.

The Pompidou Center is well known for Rogers' entire work, which he built together with Italian architect Renzo Piano. The main part of the proposal presented by the architects was the idea that the traditional didactic museum building was no longer suitable for contemporary art, and instead, a special technical structure should be established. Technologically, the structure was designed to provide the effect of exposed steel pipes with cross-tensile rods. Beyond that, the building was equipped with an intensive system of services that could grow and change according to future mechanical demands.

Despite the enormous dimensions of the building, it succeeded in integrating into the existing street system, precisely because it was different from the surrounding landscape. This is an unusual building in many respects: it has no sculptural architecture outside or a space development inside. Even the main staircase, as we know from the architectural world, disappeared here and instead, they built escalators from the subway station, but they were placed outside the building to allow an "architectural tour" in the urban space of Paris.

The center has two unusual fronts:
The public façade has escalators in a glass tube that diagonally ascends along the transparent wall and the back sealed front, which includes the plumbing, air conditioning systems and elevators. All the prominent identity colors of the building are taken from the world of oil refineries and laboratories.

The building made Piano and Rogers become world-class fame architects.



#What is inside The Pompidou Center?

The center contains the huge public library of Paris and the National Museum of Modern Art.

The museum has more than 50,000 works of art of various kinds, including painting, sculpture, drawing and photography. Of which, only about 2,000 are presented to the public. The styles that characterize the works are Fobism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism.

On the first floor of the building there is a changing exhibit of industrial design, on the second and third floors there is a library with half a million books. On the third and fourth floors is the Museum of Modern Art, the largest of its kind in Europe, where you will find an impressive collection of paintings by Dali, Magritte, Ernest, Rowe, Kandinsky, Matisse, Braque, Picasso, Jackson Pollock and Andy Warhol.

In the square in front of the center, there is a lively activity of street artists in the form of silent human statues, imitators and mimes, jugglers, magicians, fire spiders and more.
There is always a large gathering in the entrance plaza, to the delight of tourists looking for attractions and artists collecting pennies.

At the top of the building you will find a luxurious restaurant and an observation deck.



#Tourism in The Pompidou Center

The Pompidou Center is a cultural center that has grown into one of the most important ones in France. The building is surrounded by the iron construction and serves as a residence for the Museum of Modern Art and the Municipal Library. Despite the many debates that raged in Paris until there was approval to build this "ugly" building, its success exceeded the expectations. Its ugliness is actually the secret of its success, which is the most visited museum in the world and has become a victim of its success. The museum receives 25,000 visitors a day, five times what they initially expected. In its first 20 years, 160 million people visited the center.

The structure of the center is designed and built in an interesting hi-tech style. Outside hang pipes of its various systems. Each system has a different color according to its function: Blue - air, green - water, yellow - electricity, red - traffic (such as elevators).

Most of the city can be seen from here: the tall Montmartre hill with its white church, "Sacré-Cœur" to the Invalides where Napoleon Bonaparte is buried.



#Tips

Every first Sunday of the month, entrance is free.

If you are looking to come at opening hours, try getting in line at least half an hour before. There are long lines here, and it's worth it to get here early.

On the sixth floor is a restaurant with a panoramic view that really great.

In the Pompidou Center there is wifi for free - if you need to use wifi, this is a good place to take advantage.

At the square next to the center you can see street performers, and absorb the Parisian air.

It's recommended to go all the way to the top floor of the museum, to the roof, sit by the window and drink a cup of coffee at 'Cafe Beaufort.'


A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op-3dStGqu0
Opera Garnier
#About the Garnier Opera

The National Open House of Paris, Opera Garnier, is a big and impressive building locating in the ninth district, north of the tuilerie area. This is one of the most famous opera buildings in the world, for its prime feature of being the setting of the novel "The Phantom of the Opera" by Gaston Leroux, whose story line has been the basis of many movies

During its earlier years the building was called "The Paris Opera House," but after the opening of the Opera Bastille in 1989, the building's name changed to "Opera Garnier."

The building's area is 11,000 square meters, and has 1,979 seats. The large stage holds up to 450 people. It is possible to go into the building not during show times for a fee.

Today you can listen to the National Opera and see the ballet company.



#Opera Garnier Architecture

In 1858, while Napoleon III was visiting the official opera building with his wife, there was an assasintation attempt against his life. Following this incident, Napoleon decided to build the new opera building, bigger and more impressive then the one where the attempt happened. Charles Garnier won the bid to design the building, and was comparitively young and did not have much experience, not much, that this was actually the first building he designed. Back to our story, to avoid future attempts, a safe passageway was built to allow the leader to descend straight to his carriage. The building began in 1862 and was finished in 1875.

Garnier managed to create a beautiful archictual design, advanced and modern. The building began in in 1861 and was finalized only 14 years later. The reasons for the delays was the Prussian-French War, the fall of the second empire and the conquoring of Paris by the Prussians. Another reason for the delays was an underground lake located under the contruction, an inspiration for the "Phantom of the Opera." The building was completed on January 15th, 1875.

The impressive building is decorated accordingly: marble friezes, gold and velvet walls, and sculptures of cherubs and nymphs. In 1964, the painter Marc Chagall was invited to decorate the ceiling of the opera.

The Opera Garnier is the most expensive building to be built during the second empire. The building is in the Neo-Baroque style, mixed with classical. It is considered an architectual wonder among the theater styles of the 19th century.



#Opera for the Subscribers

The opera building had very particular purposes- serving the opera subscribers. Subscribers had an annual subscription, and strictly came five days a week to the opera. They were less interested in the music, which served as background music for them, but more in the presence - to see and be seen. This is also why the architect Garnier built the building in this manner - the public areas comprise half of the building, the hall itself occupies only a quarter of it and the remaining quarters are rehearsal areas and offices.

The entrance hall is covered with mirrors, so visitors can check themselves out, and from here go up the wide marble stairs leading to the large and spacious waiting rooms. From the steps and the balconies, you can see everyone who enters the hall. What is absurd, is that the hall itself was built so that visitors can easily observe the other boxes, and with a little less of a view of the stage.

An interesting fact about the Opera Garnier is about the velvety red color of the chairs in the hall. Today it looked like a routine color, but back when the opera opened, the use of red fabrics was new. Garnier said that he decided to use this color because the women who come to the opera are like jewelry and therefore they should sit in a jewelry box (which was cushioned at that time). The bold idea succeeded, and today most of the concert halls, cinema and opera are lined with the color velvety red.

In order to provide an attraction to the public, Garnier installed a clock that shows the days of the week and the days of the month and built a "sunset room" with optical illusions. If you stand in the center of the room you can see the sun setting.



#Phantom of the Opera

The Opera Garnier was also the setting for the Phantom of the Opera, a Gothic-detective horror novel that became famous through many films, musicals and other versions over the years, originally written by the French writer Gaston Leroux and first published in 1909. It was serialized in the French press.

The story, some of which is real and some fictional, deals with the tragic love of a twisted genius for a talented young opera singer. According to the novel, the phantom is a twisted musical genius who was involved in the construction of an opera house, where he secretly built a network of tunnels and secret passages that allow him to move around the building like a ghost and impose his authority over the structure. The story is structured as a detective investigation and includes conversations with the various characters who survived and tell the story from their point of view.

The phantom story has become a cult legend and today it is surrounded by sworn fans who invented even a nickname: Phantom Phans. From the complex figure of the phantom Erik, through the music created by Andrew Lloyd Webber, to the design elements associated with the character: the huge organ, candles and candlesticks, masks, black velvet robes, chandeliers and so on. Many of the fans wrote their own versions of the story, some wrote their sequels - they publish their works across the Internet on various fan sites, and some even went so far as to print their versions.

To this day, one fan is known to love the phantom legend so much that she changed her legal name to Christine Daae, like the singer she loved from the novel.


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.