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Jaffa Port
Jaffa Port
#About the Most Ancient Port in Israel

Jaffa port is one of the oldest ports in the world. It is a port that has been operating continuously since the Canaanite period. It is mentioned all the way back in the Book of Jonah, as the port from which Jonah the prophet fled to Tarshish. The verse: "And Jonah rose up to flee from the face of the Lord, and went down to the sea, and found a ship in the land of Thrashish ..." (Jonah, chapter 1).

It was this port that made Jaffa one of the most important cities in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea. For centuries, the port of Jaffa has been the western's gate to the Land of Israel. For thousands of years, the port has been used by sailors, fishermen, merchants, pilgrims, conquerors, immigrants to Israel and other immigrants to and from Israel.

The port of Jaffa was a port to which all the immigrants arrived in Israel by ship. To which Herzl arrived during his famous visit to Palestine in 1898, commissioned by the Turkish Sultan. Until the middle of the British Mandate, it was the main port of the Land of Israel. In 1920, the first High Commissioner of the British, Herbert Samuel, arrived.

The British Mandate authorities renovated the port of Jaffa, erected a lighthouse, large warehouses, a customs house and an administration building in the international style that today became a disliked building in the port. The British also added a concrete breakwater to the coastal rocks.

On the second floor of the southern building, guides say that the window overlooking the Mediterranean Sea is from Poliker's "Window to the Mediterranean Sea". Of course, there is no connection between the city and the poem, which is not biographical but inspired by the stories of the parents of the composer, Poliker, and the lyricist who wrote the lyrics of the song, Yaakov Gilad.

Today fishermen leave the port of Jaffa early in the morning or at night and return later and sell what the caught on the pier. It is worth buying fresh fish and cooking them at home. If you are hungry, there is a line of more and less picturesque restaurants, featuring the best fish and seafood on the beach.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/X4L0LqhAiGg
Bialik Square
Bialik Square
#About the Small Square for the Bigger than Life Poet

Bialik Square is located in the heart of Tel Aviv at the intersection of Bialik street and Idelson street. The square was renovated in 2009, together with the old town hall, and today is a trendy place. This popularity is thanks to Statick and Ben-El Tavori, successful pop singers, who shot their music video for their big hit "Tudu Boom" here. If you look closely, you will occasionally see children recording and imitating more or less the ridiculous dancing of the duo's popular clip.

Historically, the square is an integral part of the small street with the same name, Bialik Street. Both are of course in the name of the national poet Chaim Nachman Bialik. Among them are the music library of Tel Aviv-Jaffa and Beit Bialik itself, the house where the poet lived, since he immigrated to Israel.

Bialik Square is one of the most important heritage sites in Tel Aviv. Despite its tiny size, it was used during the British mandate as a central meeting place in small Tel Aviv. Various ceremonies and municipal events were held, as well as demonstrations against the British Mandate authorities.




A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/bLQZKEimMIg



The Square in a Music Video:

https://youtu.be/Y_OLslE3bX8
Neve Tzedek
Neve Tzedek
#About the First Jewish Community from Tel Aviv

Not everyone knows that Neve Tzedek was established before the city of Tel Aviv was born, as a new neighborhood for Jews outside of Jaffa's walls.

The ones responsible for this were the Chelouche family members, a family that arrived in Jaffa at the end of the 19th century from Algeria, and began working in trade. Aharon Shalosh, the father, got rich from his business and then got the courage to leave Jaffa's walls, to a new neighborhood he developed - the one that is destined to become Tel Aviv's first neighborhood, Neve Tzedek.

Neve Tzedek is the first Jewish neighborhood built outside of the Jaffa walls. There were some years that this neighborhood declined and became a real slum. At the same time there were even thoughts of destroying the neighborhood and building new buildings instead.

However in the 1980's the neighborhood began to attract young artists, that loved its simplicity, the cheap prices of apartments, its closeness to the beach, the Carmel Market, and more. Since then and especially during the last decade, it has become one of the trendiest places in Tel Aviv, for living and as a loved tourist spot. The preservations of apartments has become popular, and residential movement to Neve Tzedek has turned this popularity very profitable.

Wandering around the alleyways in Neve Tzedek is one of the nicest strolls in Tel Aviv. The tightness and close proximity of the narrow roads make this tour very special. Creating artistic shops, fashion boutiques, ice cream parlors and relaxing cafes - all these make staying in Neve Tzedek for an afternoon or Saturday brunch a great location.



#Never Tzedek's History

Neve Tzedek's story starts in 1838, when young Aharon Chelouche arrives by sail boat from Oran, Algeria to the land of Israel. He arrives in Israel as a part of large family, works as a jeweler in Jaffa, and pretty quickly as his business does well, he buys land outside of Jaffa. Chelouche understands that Jaffa is becoming densely populated and soon will begin to build neighborhoods outside its walls. Indeed, these are the days of the First Aliyah. Tens of thousands of new immigrants arrive in Israel and some settle in crowded Jaffa. In 1887, two brothers from Jerusalem, Elazar and Shimon Rokach, established a company called Ezrat Israel. Through the Neve Tzedek Association for Building Houses in Jaffa, they establish a spacious Jewish neighborhood outside the walls of Jaffa. Their inspiration is from a successful project in Jerusalem, to go outside the walls. They took the name of the neighborhood from the book of Jeremiah: "When I return, the Lord will bless you, Neve Tzedek, the holy mountain."

Chelouche, who saw the new neighborhood as a significant base for Jewish settlements, offers the brothers to buy the land at a discount with good interest. By the end the company bought Chelouche's land at a third of the price he originally offered. Chelouche also promised to put aside a good amount of money for the upkeep of the synagogue near the already built house, at the edge of the neighborhood.

Neve Tzedek was marketed to the well-off Jews of Jaffa. 48 houses were built, and at the beginning there were no separations of nationality. Quite the opposite - mixing was done purposefully among the Jews of different backgrounds. In 1904 the neighborhood had more than 100 families.

Neve Tzedek became the beginning of the settlement, which will eventually turn out to be the most populated area in Israel, The Gush Dan Metropolis, Tel Aviv. A decision that made this possible was that, opposite of Jaffa that had poor sanitary conditions and toilets were septic tanks, this will become a clean and organized place where each house will have its own kitchen and bathroom.

Neve Tzedek was extremely successful. From a young and calm neighborhood, that dared to leave Jaffa, it became an open area, wide and full of fresh air, all Jews living in comfortable homes that had their own space. The new architecture, the narrow alleyways, all clean and organized, like the artistic culture here - made the neighborhood vibrant, and a sort of European mission in the Middle East.

In the 1960's the city of Tel Aviv almost destroyed the neighborhood. It meant to develop a business district on its ruins, near the beach. Due to different individuals and organizations objecting, that were still mourning the ruins of the Herzliya High School, to build the Shalom Tower, the project to destroy the beautiful but neglected neighborhood was stopped. Towards the end of the 1980's a project to preserve and renovated the neighborhood was accepted, the young people were given various benefits to move in. Since then, the neighborhood has been undergoing a process of population renewal, gentrification, and young well-established people buy homes and renovate them for their own needs. An attempt to build high-rise buildings in the neighborhood, is in the midst of a conflict, has encountered the struggle of the residents of Tel Aviv and Neve Tzedek. In the end, this was prevented and it was decided to preserve the original and low outline of the neighborhood. On its outskirts, tall and modern towers were erected, which many believe are damaging the view of historic Neve Tzedek.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/S3AZc4InZ0k


A Tour of the Neighborhood:

https://youtu.be/fJbp-N8B1zc
Flea Market
Flea Market
#About Tel Aviv Jaffa's Flea Market

The picturesque flea market in Jaffa is a well-known and loved Tel Aviv establishment, by residents and visitors. Like all of Israel and especially Tel Aviv Jaffa, many interesting people can be see here: buyers of old furniture who buy one day, and the next sell at exorbitant prices, French immigrants who live nearby and come to meet the people in the market, tourists who come to see locals haggle and sunbathe in the winter sun and collectors looking for bargains with sophisticated sellers, as if there is no tomorrow ... and by the way, if you are looking for a good deal, you should arrive early in the morning, because later all the good items disappear.

This flea market has operated for many years, from the 19th century, at the time when Jaffa was the entryway to the country. Here you can find second-hand products, sometimes their prices are ridiculous, but often prices are reasonable, which show how popular the market is today. Business here is centralized in different areas, by categories. There is an area for jewelry and clothing, there are many furniture stalls on the main road of the market, the inner market alleyways are full of Middle Eastern items, like rugs, nickel lamps and more, there are also rather expensive stores for ancient art pieces from around the world. There are no tours here - you should just wander, discover whatever you can!

The Jaffa flea market is open six days a week, Sundays to Fridays, from early in the morning until the evening. The charm and magic of the Middle East market melt the hearts of visitors, and is also pleasant for Israeli and Tel Avivians, many who come here on a weekly basis.

There are nearby culinary establishments, such as Abulafia and Dr. Shakshuka, these are pleasant to the palate and the belly. Go enjoy!



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/8-TkY9HI2Oo

Must See in Tel Aviv

Rabin Square
Rabin Square
#About the Square of Celebration and Sadness in Tel Aviv

Rabin Square is the most important square of Tel Aviv and without a doubt the most famous square in Israel. Here, all the most important demonstrations for the state's existence have been held for many years. Here they protest against government decisions. Here, politicians are called upon to resign, and here they celebrate great victories in sports, elections and more.

The square is shaped like a rectangle. The elevated plaza in the northern part connects the square to the city hall. Sometimes it is used for speeches, while there are rallies in the square as well.

In the southern side of the square you can see the Holocaust and Rebirth Monument, the work of the famous sculptor Yigal Tumarkin. The shape of the monument is of a pyramid standing on its head and it is made of rusty iron and glass.

The square, which is located in front of the Tel Aviv-Jaffa municipality building, was formerly called Malkhei Yisrael Square. The change of the name was decided after the assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. The murder was carried out by an Israeli who was part of a group of conspirators at the end of a peace rally in which Rabin participated on November 4, 1995.

There are annual events in the square such as the Hebrew Book Week and the Four Species Fair. In addition, demonstrations were held in 1990 and called for changes in Israeli politics. The "Four Hundred Thousand Demonstration" was held in protest against the events of Sabra and Shatila in 1982, and according to media estimates, it contained 400,000 people, which is considered the largest demonstration in the country's history.



#About Rabin's Murder in the Square

On November 4, 1995, at 9:42 pm, a political assasination was took place here that no one had anticipated it . At the square, a rally was held in support of the peace process conducted by the supporters of Rabin and his government in order to strengthen their hands in the Oslo agreement they had made with the Palestinians.

At the end of the rally Yitzhak Rabin was murdered by an assassin. A few moments before, just before the end of the rally, all the participants sang "A Song for Peace." After the murder, the words of the song, stained with blood, were found in his shirt and became a symbol.

On the northern side of the town hall, where Rabin was assassinated, a monument was erected in his memory.

The ramifications of the murder on the political situation in Israel were very significant and many see it as the breaking point in the relations between right and left wings in Israel. It took place after a period in which the public atmosphere was particularly turbulent, due to the signing of the Oslo Accords and the subsequent attacks. The right saw the government and its leaders as those whose policies led to attacks and strongly opposed this policy. The rift between left and right in the country was getting worse and the murder was its climax.



# Closer look:

https://youtu.be/bg6FtJQOBqU


#he Rabin Memorial:

https://youtu.be/BAjRXe8PwDg
Carmel Market
Carmel Market
#About the Most Popular Tel Aviv Market

Tourists, shouting vendors, hipsters in sunglasses and striped shirts, and tourists stunned by the variety of colorful vegetables and fruits - all these and many others gather every day in the most colorful and exciting market in Tel Aviv.

The Carmel Market is the most famous market in Tel Aviv and has become one of the largest food centers in Tel Aviv in recent years. It is a bustling market, colorful, fragrant, boisterous and full of good and Mediterranean energies. In recent years it has been filling up with excellent street food stalls, small and high quality restaurants, young hummus bars and stalls with special ethnic food products.

The Carmel Market is named after the Carmel Street in Tel Aviv. Over the years, it has expanded to nearby streets, in the neighborhoods of Kerem Hatemanim and Nahalat Binyamin. Today the market operates 6 days a week and you will find a variety of stores - food, clothing, home accessories, flowers, sweets, restaurants, delis and more.



#Market History

During the 1920's Russian Jewish merchants came to Israel who bought land in Tel Aviv for 1,000 rubles. They thought less about immigrating to Israel and living in these houses, but more about their children and the land they could bequeath to them. After the Bolshevik revolution took place in Russia in 1917, they had no choice but to travel to Israel. They had no property except the lots they had bought.

In addition to the economic difficulties, they also failed to integrate into the local labor market and therefore opened a small market in the Kerem Hatemanim area - "Hakerem". The purpose of the market was to provide work in trade in fruits and vegetables. Meir Dizengoff, who was mayor at the time, made the place official and in 1920 and called it "Carmel Market." At that time the market was well developed and contained fish and poultry stalls, fruit, vegetables and pastries.

The Arab merchants of Jaffa, who discovered the success of the local market, established a competitive market that was no less good than the original - a large, colorful, and lively market. Quite a few cases of violence occurred in the wake of the successful market competition, which somewhat clouded the local idyll.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/JZgFX5NyZSY
Old Jaffa
Old Jaffa
#About the City of Jaffa and its History

Jaffa is one of the oldest cities in the world, and especially in the Middle East. It is referenced in many places, from Papyrus in Egypt, to Greek Mythology, in Jewish texts like the book of Jonah and in Christianity as well. There are not many cities in the world that were conquered, destroyed, and rebuilt, quiet like Jaffa.

Today it is known as the south pearl of Tel Aviv. It has a lot of offer, starting from the ancient Jaffa ruins, to the Jaffa port with its fisherman and restaurants and popular shopping in the most famous flea market in Israel. There is no place like Jaffa at night, so says a famous song, and it is great to wander around during the day too, or to sit for a seafood meal in the Middle Eastern sunset, or visiting the ancient homes.

Jaffa's establishment is attributed to Yefet, the son of Noah. Ancient documents and excavations have taught the researchers that Jaffa served as a port city four thousand years ago. It then served the Phoenician and Egyptian sailors in their sea voyages. Even after that Jaffa did not stop being a central and important port city. It was inhabited by so many peoples, from the Phoenicians, through the Romans, the Mamelukes in the Baybars era, through Napoleon who brutally massacred its inhabitants and the Ottomans, headed by Muhammad Abu Nabbut. They built the old Jaffa you see around and the clock tower and paved Jerusalem Boulevard at the beginning of the 20th century.

The origin of the name "Jaffa" is from the Sidonian language, which means beautiful.

The port of Jaffa was the gateway to many of the immigrants to the State of Israel. In 1965 it ceased to function as a commercial port and became a fishing port and marina for boats and yachts, becoming the picturesque port of today, with the restaurants and cafés and the breeze from the sea.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/5Knxuzu8-n8



A View From Above:

https://youtu.be/LRQR4ffRwM0
Tel Aviv Museum of Art
Tel Aviv Museum of Art
#About the Museum

One of the most important art museums in Israel is the Tel Aviv Museum of Art. The museum deals with a variety of subjects: Israeli art, modern art, contemporary art, photography and drawing, prints, design, architecture and art from the 16th to 19th centuries. The museum is spread out over three buildings: the Helena Rubinstein Pavilion (currently showing mostly temporary exhibitions), the main building of the museum on Shaul Hamelech Boulevard (where you are now standing) and the Samuel and Herta Amir Building, which is adjacent to it and opened in 2011.

In addition to the permanent collections presented here, you can watch 25 different exhibitions each year - both Israeli and international. Beyond the variety of exhibitions, you can come here to absorb some cultural activity such as classical music or jazz, cinema, lectures, children's shows and more.

The museum also has a prestigious library of about 50,000 books, about 140 periodicals and about 7,000 photographs. If you step out of the museum you can wander through the sculpture garden (a garden where a variety of sculptures are displayed). More than half a million visitors visit the museum every year.


#History

The Tel Aviv Museum of Art is located today on Shaul Hamelech Boulevard in Tel Aviv, but its previous residence was one of the most important in the history of the State of Israel. The original museum, founded in 1932, was located at 16 Rothschild Blvd. at the Dizengoff House, in the house where the independence of Israel was declared in 1948.

Dizengoff House was the residence of the first mayor of Tel Aviv, Meir Dizengoff, who was also the initiator of the museum. The museum collection began with dozens of individual items, which grew over time thanks to collectors and artists who donated their works to the museum.

The museum became an active cultural center in the city, and the more successful it was, the more the more the collections were expanded and larger exhibition spaces were required. As a result, the museum was moved to the Helena Rubinstein Pavilion (at the intersection of Dizengoff and Tarsat) and in 1971 its current building was inaugurated on Shaul Hamelech Boulevard.



#Architectural Structure

In 1971, the main building of the museum was completed in Shaul Hamelech Boulevard. The building was designed by architects Dan Eytan and Yitzhak Yashar and was built in a style reminiscent of brutality.
Brutalism was mostly explosive in the 1950's and 1970's and has a very specific characteristic: construction with exposed concrete and use of various basic forms. There is something very authentic in this style - it looks for the "truth" of the structure and allows material's form and functionality to come out and get real expression. It allows construction materials to remain exposed, using natural light and simple, inexpensive materials. It is possible, then, to understand why structures built in this style were perceived as ugly, opaque and powerful.

In planning of this special structure, the architects won the Rechter Prize in 1972 for architectural design, which was awarded under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Culture and Sport.



#The New Wing

In 2002 a competition was opened for the design of the museum's new wing. The big winner was the American architect Preston Scott Cohen who summed up the expected construction cost to about $45 million.

Many donors donated for the construction, but the most significant was the art-loving businessman Sami Ofer and his wife who donated $20 million. After a public protest that did not allow the museum to be named after Ofer, the donation was returned to the couple and the fundraising continued.

In February 2007, Paul and Herta Amir contributed $10 million to the new wing. Work on the building lasted about 8 years (mainly due to the exchange of donors in the middle). In 2011, the wing was inaugurated with a large central space with 10 exhibition halls. The museum's current building, which has a total area of ​​16,000 square meters, has been doubled to a total of 33,500 square meters. The department is considered innovative and a masterpiece in the field of digital planning and complex construction technologies.



A Closer look:

https://youtu.be/C9BM664VcRU


Rothschild Boulevard
Rothschild Boulevard
#About the Street that Illustrates the White City, the International Style and the Bauhaus

Rothschild Boulevard in Tel Aviv is a prestigious street in the city. In recent years, the long avenue has become one of the most important arteries of cultural and social life in Tel Aviv.

On one end there are the Habima National Theater and the Mann Auditorium, the home of the excellent Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, and on the other side is Independence Hall, where the establishment of the State of Israel was declared - you cannot miss it. But on this street, interesting things are happening all the time.

Rothschild Boulevard is also an architectural exhibition of houses built in the international style, or the Bauhaus style. On a walking tour of the boulevard we will see examples of different houses in this style, which were built in Tel Aviv from the 1930's.



#About the Social Protest

In recent years, Rothschild Boulevard has become the prestigious and arrogant heart of the young and fun-loving Tel Aviv. The real estate here has become terribly expensive, and today only the rich manage to survive.

This is probably why in 2011 many young people went to Rothschild Boulevard and began the largest social protest in the history of the State of Israel. On this avenue they lived for months in tents and makeshift houses built for them and protested against inequality in the State of Israel. This protest changed the consciousness of Israeli society forever.



#The White City Architecture on Rothschild Boulevard

Apart from an active and pulsating street, Rothschild Boulevard is also an impressive architectural exhibition of international style construction. A walking tour of the boulevard will introduce you with some of the most beautiful buildings in the white city of Tel Aviv of the 1930's.

Many of the houses on Rothschild Boulevard were built from the 1930's. The modern style, then born in the German school of architecture, the Bauhaus school, burst out of Germany into the world of architecture. Some of the graduates were German Jews and some came from Palestine to study there. They also came to young Tel Aviv, where they built about 4,000 houses in the international style, Bauhaus, and later turned it into an architectural museum of the Bauhaus style.

Among the architects of the White City were Zeev Rechter, Arieh Sharon, Averbuch and Dov Carmi.

Bauhaus style houses can be identified in their typically square shape, using basic geometrical shapes, including long, narrow windows and round balconies. The Bauhaus houses have a lot of asymmetries and often designers have incorporated modern features from the industrial machinery, such as rounded facades or round windows reminiscent of the windows of the ships.

Due to the climate differences between Germany and the Holy Land, the architects in Tel Aviv adapted the Bauhaus to the Middle East. Unique characteristics have been introduced here, most of which are designed to overcome the heat of the sun and increase the natural fusion of homes. The Tel Aviv architects designed the houses so that they would have natural ventilation, depending on the direction of the wind. They greatly increased the windows in Tel Aviv, compared to those built in Europe. Above them they added awnings that made a shadow. On the roofs of houses in Tel Aviv, they often planned pergolas, which allowed for a pleasant breeze to sit on the roof and even a cozy sleeping place on hot nights.

In addition, the large balconies were added for residents to sit outside the apartments, away from the steaming Tel Aviv apartments in summer. The balconies also opened the houses to the street and connected the people. All of these have contributed quite a lot to the creation of an open Israeli society that creates contact and belonging between people and involves everyone in everyone's lives, for better or for worse.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/Jctq4r-dFhY



The social protest of 2011:

https://youtu.be/blVgUQWjCLI


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.