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Rome
Rome
Even if nowadays not all roads lead to Rome, it is still the poster for a good life. Here there is a perfect combination between the ancient world, its ruins, its impressive antiquities, incredible archeology, and a modern, vibrant, fashionable and tasteful city. There are narrow alleyways and broad avenues in this city, beautiful squares, magnificent churches and fantastic houses, alongside amazing ancient sites, museums full of artifacts and many wonderful monuments.

In Rome there are fascinating combinations between ancient and more recent history, and a rhythm of contemporary life. From here the Roman emperors ruled the entire ancient world. Here Christianity was persecuted until the emperor turned it into the religion of the empire and persecuted all who did not accept it. Here the Pope acted and controlled the entire Catholic world. Here the dictator Mussolini spoke and tried to establish a new empire and ended up hanging in the streets like a fool.

However, Rome is also Italy of the Renaissance and the Baroque, of the sublime art of Raphael and Michelangelo. Rome experienced in real time the inventions and discoveries of Leonardo de Vinci, one of the geniuses of mankind. In Rome, high-quality cinema was born, created by an Italian neo-realism. About cinema, "La Dolce Vita," the sweet life, is in Rome. In the city where the heart grew, also grew the pizza, the Italian ice cream, the pasta, the sounds of the Italian opera, the Italian design and fashion, the beautiful and incredibly fast cars of Italy, the handsome young men and of course the Italian women, from the abundant "mamas" that adorn you from delicacies to the beautiful women, who are dressed in the best of fashion and walk around soaring high above.

Rome is a cheeky and provocative candy. Visit to enjoy it!



#Accommodation
Staying near the Trevi Fountain and Via del Corso areas are recommended for young people, as they are city center, easy to get around and really fun, everything can be reached by foot. Staying in the Trastevere area across the river is nice and cheap and fits people who are more well off, remember you will need public transportation to reach almost all the tourist destinations.

Young partygoers choose to stay near the Spanish Steps and Navona Square.

Those looking for a relaxing stay that is easy to get to with public transportation can choose to stay near the Termini area, it is not central or touristy but considered quiet.



#Must See
Want to see the most popular destinations? - Click on the tag "Must see in Rome".



#With Children
A trip for the whole family? - Click on the tag "Attractions for children in Rome".


#Food
The Roman gastronomy is divided into two parallel streams: the first takes inspiration from Cucina Romana, the classical Roman kitchen. The second presents a modern and up to date Italian kitchen. Either way, there is no doubt that in Rome the pasta and pizza will be key players on your tables, especially if you are with children, but not necessarily. There are many pizzerias, and in the Forno chain you can enjoy good pizzas and mainstream enough for the whole family to be able to enjoy. Couples can share the heart-shaped pizzas.

Pastas - we recommend Cacio e Pepe, with a sauce of parmesan and Pecorino, butter and black peppers. Another recommendation is Bucatini allwamatriciana.

Additionally, look for typical street food in Rome, like Trapizzino, a sort of pizza that is cone shaped with dreamy fillings. Supli which are risotto balls with Mozzarella and more, covered in bread crumbs and deep fried. There are also fried zucchini with mozzarella and anchovies.

It is worth remembering the excellent Italian ice cream, which many consider the best in the world. Be sure to distinguish the quality ice cream and natural ones by their more natural colors, and not the ones full with food coloring.

As for coffee, of course, in Rome there is Italian coffee - definitely from the top line in the world. Tiramisu next to a cup of coffee is a great combination.


So enjoy your meals and check out the tag "Must eat in Rome".

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NS-QfEfRnGo


#Shopping
The best time to shop in Rome is during the SALDI seasons (sales). Then begin in Italy around January until February. Of course, the easiest to get to are the summer sales that go on for most of August.

Do your shopping in the expensive Via Veneto, or the elegant and expensive Via di Condotti that connects the Spanish Steps to the Via del Corso. Here are much more reasonable prices for Italian designers and famous brands like Benetton, Sisley, Zara, and Pull and Bear.

Continue from here, through the Piaza del Popolo, to Via Cola di Rancho, near the Vatican. Here you can continue your shopping, with excellent brands and designers. Other streets around Piaza del Popolo are Via del Babuino and Via di Ripetta.

Italian fashion at reasonable prices you can find at Viale Marconi, in a simple neighborhood, a little far away from the city center.

With the best designer stock, leading brands and big discounts, Teichner Outlet is one of the best-known stores in Rome. Every day from 10:30 am to 8:00 pm, 4 floors will wait for you with unbelievable prices, brands like GUESS, Armani, Patricia Pepe. The address is Via Appia Nuova 2.


#Saving
In the Penny Market chain spread throughout Italy prices are cheap. Even the supermarket chain commonly used, Coop, prices are not expensive.

If you came for some serious shopping, try getting to the big outlets outside the city, where you will find much cheaper prices.

Be careful of pickpockets in the city market.


#Tip
In Italian restaurants and cafés, there is no need to add tip to a check, since is already included in the price (servizio include).


#Entertainment
You will want to spend the evenings in Rome's entertainment district, the Trastevere district across the Tiber river.



#Italy Country Code
+39


#Shopping
See link below for recommendations.


#Entertainment and Clubs
To drink? - In the San Lorenzo district next to the university, you can enjoy along with some students, bars and clubs that are young and inexpensive. Marmo is one of the popular bars here and you can meet many local young people and students.
Piazzale del Verano 71.

Dancing? - The former workers' suburb, the Via del Pignetto, has recently become Rome's unofficial hipster stronghold. Apart from many restaurants, there are popular bars and concert halls. At the Fanfulla Club you will find good DJ's, great performances, in a variety of styles - dance, rock, funk, and electronic music.
Via Fanfulla da Lodi, 5.


#Electric Outlets
Possible plugs to use are Type F and Type L (see link below with photos).


A Taste of the Upcoming Trip? - Here's a video That Will Show you the City in All its Beauty:

https://youtu.be/y_4p6_KsqoE


A Bit From the Local Kitchen:

https://youtu.be/c7TbpsRGCCI
Rome
Museo Delle Carrozze D'epoca
#About the Museum that Displays Historical Carriages

If you are looking for a light attraction in Rome, combining intriguing antiquities for both children and adults, this is the perfect museum.
Here you will find more than 300 antique carriages, decorated and stylized, collected here from all over Italy.

In addition to the wide variety of carriages, there are also weapons and other antiques. The toys from different periods are of special interest to children. They give a lot of pleasure and enjoyment to children and those young in their hearts –adults with a nostalgia for the toys of old.

Pay particular attention to the chariots in the museum that have appeared in the films, such as those used to film the movie Gladiator.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/7XQojXljcFo
Fontana Di Trevi
Trevi Fountain
#About the Trevi Fountain or Fontana di Trevi

The largest and most nostalgic of European fountains is undoubtedly the Trevi Fountain (Fontana di Trevi). No matter what time you arrive here, in the bright morning or in the middle of the night, there are many people milling about. During the evening and through the night there are spectacular lights illuminating the entire area, the fountain in particular. A beautiful sight worth seeing ...

In the fountain you'll see Neptune, the God of the sea, riding a chariot in the shape of a shell. His statue is located in the center of the fountain in an alcove. Beside this statue there are other statues depicting marine creatures that help him "tame the water." On both sides of Neptune you will see two other niches, one of which is a statue of the god of abundance and the other of health.

The fountain was built by the architect Nicola Salvi and was designed by several artists from the Bernini School. The title was given to it because of the adjacent neighborhood "Trevi" (the phrase Tre vie), indicating that this is the nexus between three main roads of the city. The tourists gave it the nickname "Fountain of Wishes."

There are quite a few strange customs associated with this fountain, the familiar among them is the tossing of coins by tourists, which will ensure the fulfillment of their wishes. It is rumored that these wishes will be fulfilled by drinking the water of the fountain, although we absolutely do not recommend it.



#History of the Fountain

This is the point where one of Rome's canals ended which brought water to the city from 20 kilometers away, built in 19 BC. This aqueduct
was called Virgin River, after the young Virgin Trevi, who showed the Roman soldiers to this stream of water.

By the way, the construction of fountains at the point where the aqueducts ended (aqueducts) was a well-known custom of the Romans. In 1453 the pool was added to the fountain by Pope Nicholas V.

Nearly 200 years later, in 1629, Pope Urban VIII invited Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, the great Baroque architect, to plan a renovation of the fountain and the pool, wanting it to be more grandiose. Although these plans didn't come to fruition, it inspired future plans.

Indeed, about 100 years later, Pope Clemens initiated a massive renovation of the fountain by the architect Nicola Salvi. The works began in 1732 and ended in 1762, after the two died - both the Pope and the architect ...



#Tossing Coins into the Fountain

Legend has it that tossing a coin into the fountain will ensure the return of those who had thrown them back to Rome. It also ensures the fulfillment of the wishes of the coin tossers. You're probably asking yourself where this strange legend came from. Well, the source is probably a book written by John Hermes Scondari in 1952 called "Coins in the Fountain." The book tells of three figures who throw coins into the fountain and then find themselves in more or less positive romantic situations. This led, among other things, to the rumor that throwing three coins into a fountain would guarantee marriage - or divorce.

Every night, the fountain floor is estimated to be worth about three thousand euros. This is despite the fact that the value of each coin is not high, but their quantity reaches this value. These coins are collected by the City of Rome. The municipality itself uses them to finance a supermarket that provides free products to the needy.

Do not try to get coins from here. From time to time Rome's police stop private people trying to pluck coins from the floor of the pool.


#The Fountain in the Cinema
In Fellini's 1960 movie "La Dolce Vita," beautiful actress Anita Eckberg enters the fountain waters at night, bringing Marcello Maestroiani to bathe with her. It's a memorable, sensual and romantic scene.
Piazza di Spagna
Piazza di Spagna
#About the Piazza with the Staircase

The Piazza di Spagna, built in the 18th century, is the square that became very popular to tourists thanks to the Spanish stairs that ascend to the Church of Trinita di Monti. These steps are by far the most popular meeting point for tourists arriving in Rome.

At the center of the square you will find the Fontana della Barcaccia. This fountain was designed by the renowned architect and sculptor Bernini in 1598. At the center of the fountain you will notice the statue of the little ship. The inspiration for the statue is from a real ship that got stuck in the Tiber River and could not move.

Around the Spanish square are some of the city's glittering and elegant streets. Are you interested in purchasing or window-shopping for some Prada or Gucci? - Head out into the surrounding streets, where Rome's most prestigious shops are located.

Among the houses surrounding square is the home of the poet John Keats, one of the most important romantic poets of England, who moved to Italy on the orders of his doctors after the English weather harmed his health. Today the house functions as a museum named after him.

Another attraction in the square is the 15th century palace of the talented Italian general Lorenzo Sibu. Among his ancestors were, among others, the rich Medici and two Popes.


A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/-3RN8NoOw8Q


The fountain:

https://youtu.be/J_VsEoQkgXI

Rome

The Spanish Steps
The Spanish Steps
#About the Staircase

The Spanish Steps of Rome connect Piazza di Spagna and Piazza Trinità dei Monti. Try to count how many steps you take during climbing, as there are more than 100 steps here. Many more. How many did you manage to count?

This staircase was built between 1723 and 1727 by the architect Francesco de Sanctis, financed by the French diplomat Stefano Gufierre. Ironically, French-sponsored stairs are called the Spanish Steps!

As you can imagine, at the time this construction cost a lot of money. The stairs connected the Spanish embassy to the church and the Vatican, so they were immediately called the Spanish Steps.

The Spanish square was once a residential center and a gathering spot of many European artists and writers. The well-known poet John Keats lived in a house near the square where he also died in 1821. His house became a museum in his memory.

Since we are mentioning the arts, perhaps you came across this staircase in the famous scene from the film "Holiday in Rome" (1953). The two heroes passed these steps in one of the scenes in the film. You must not miss this place!

At the bottom of the stairs you can see the "boat fountain" or the barcaccia - the old boat. This was built by the father of the famous artist Bernini. The theme of ​​the fountain came after the Tiber River flooded the entire area and the boat drifted up to this spot. Beautiful statues of biblical figures such as King David and Moses were placed around it.


A closer look:

https://youtu.be/-3RN8NoOw8Q


A visit:

https://youtu.be/3jdNvh0dEJ0


Guidance:

https://youtu.be/IJqjmBHUzpY


Prohibition of sitting:

https://youtu.be/0dqAaqdDSP8
Castel Sant'Angelo
Castel Sant'Angelo
#The Mausoleum

In the vicinity of the Vatican, on the banks of the Tiber River, stands a huge and majestic fortress - Castel Sant'Angelo, meaning "Castle of the Holy Angel." It was originally built as a mausoleum by the royal emperor Hadrian and his family in 123 AD. The mausoleum of Sant'Angelo was built over the walls of Rome and had quite a few underground passages leading directly to the Vatican. Hadrian later ordered the construction of a bridge leading from the city to the building.

Later, the burial structure was given the name Sant'Angelo along with the adjacent bridge. There are chilling stories regarding the terrible crowds on the bridge, when people fell off and into the water below, and were killed.

After his death, as Emperor Hadrian had requested, his ashes, his wife's, and his adopted son's are buried in the treasury, the main room in the building. He was followed by other emperors, the last of whom was Caracalla, who was buried there in 217 AD.

In 1277 the fortress became church property and a papal fortress. By connecting the fortress to the Vatican (to the Church of St. Peter) in a fortified passage, it was used as a closed escape and thus served as a stronghold castle that managed to protect Rome and the Vatican during their many wars.

In 1688 Bernini upgraded the Sant'Angelo Bridge - he decorated the parapets with 12 statues of kings symbolizing the Passion of Christ.

Today you can see the National Museum of Museo Nazinale di Castel Sant'Angelo. It features sculptures, paintings and pottery. The weapon collection from the 15th to 19th centuries is particularly interesting, which certainly fits the theme of the fortress. During the summer months, lovely concerts are held here.



#The Flight of Pope Clement VII

The period following the appointment of Pope Clement was characterized by political unrest and instability in Italy, which influenced the messianic undertones (even among the Jewish community).

In 1527, a revolt took place within the Vatican due to the political intrigue caused by Pope Clement. That year, Cardinal Pompeo Colonna's troops occupied Rome and besieged the Vatican. Rome was already under attack and the smell of smoke had spread to many parts in the city. Clement realized that he had to flee for his life and so he began to urge his entourage. Carl V, the Holy Roman Emperor, arrived with his army of mercenaries to the gates of the Vatican and tried to assassinate him. Clement and his men began to escape through the secret passage that led to Castel Sant'Angelo. It is the very place where you are standing now. This secret passage, also known as Passetto (Fausto), was built in 1277. It was the fortress outside the Vatican walls. Pope Clement had managed to reach the bridge, which had been rising in the last few seconds and had managed to shut himself up in the fortress.



#The Passetto's Uses

The secret passage from the Vatican into the fortress, the Passetto, was not only an escape route in moments of crisis and war. It was also a path where beautiful girls from Rome were snuck out to spend time with the Church's leaders when they were not working. The fourth floor was set up especially for these purposes. Today one can still see the erotic paintings on the walls and on the floors.

Another attraction in this fortress is the conclave ceiling which creates an acoustic wonder: people can talk to each other without other people eavesdropping. It was an anti-wiretapping mechanism that was critical for the pope's court, where quite a few conspiracies took form.

This passage was neglected for years and no visitors were allowed. A little before the beginning of the 2000's renovations began and it was later opened to the general public. However, it is open only three weeks a year - from mid-August to early September, late in the evening.
An interesting detail about the transition: it is said that those who suffer from male impotence, should go through the passage 77 times in a row - 800 meters in each direction. Legend has it that whoever succeeds in finishing the entire course, over 61 kilometers, will regain his masculinity!
Campo de' Fiori
Campo de' Fiori
#The Market Square that Perpetuates the Sacred of Science

Campo de' Fiori is a rectangular square in Rome, a cultural and business center in the city. Located in the Christian part of Rome, it dates back to the Middle Ages. Today it contains a vibrant food market. This region is colorful and rich, full of fruits, vegetables, colorful pastas, organic honey, spices, cheeses and more. There are plenty of different stands here. Around the square are shopping streets with great prices and cafes, which offer mostly free wireless internet.

In the square is the Giordano Bruno Monument, the scientist who preceded his time and the church which executed him for his ideas in relation to the location and importance of the Earth in the solar system. Note also the iron plaque next to the monument, which is intended to commemorate the books of the Talmud that were burned in this very square.

The name of the square means "field of flowers" ("Fiori" in Italian is a flower). It is assumed that in the past there was an open field with beautiful blossoms and hence the origin of the name. If you inquire on the subject, you will also learn about a rumor that perhaps the square is named after Flora, Pompey's lover - it is unclear whether she was an existing woman or literary fiction.



#Campo de' Fiori Square for Tourists

This is a spot for early risers in Rome. The square of Campo de' Fiori has stand owners who arrive early in the morning to settle into their permanent spots. This is one of the points you will not want to miss if you come to Rome, at least to visit once.

The first tourists arrive at 8:00 am. By 12:00 pm the place is bustling and full. The afternoon will be the most calm time of day. However, do not be mistaken - the day is not yet over and at 8:00 pm the square will wake up again, this time for its night tour and will provide entertainment venues, varied bars and even a nightclub.



#History of the Square

Though today the square is inviting, full of attractions and colors, it was not always so. During the Roman Empire, the river would occasionally flood this square, along with other parts of the city. The area is dried for good only at the beginning of the first century AD. This was when the construction began in the area. Nevertheless, it was still relatively abandoned and served as an insignificant "field of flowers".

The real interest in the area began in the 15th century, when the Popes wanted to use it to demonstrate their wealth and power. Pope Boniface arrived here to build the Church of Santa Brigida. Today, in its place, stands the French Embassy. Next came the third Pope, Calligraphy, who demanded that the square be paved. A few years later, Palazzo della Cancelleria and the Orsini family's palace were built.

In time the square became a local market. Horses and other products were sold and the crowds began to stroll through. However it was not used solely for trading. During the Inquisition, in the 16th and 17th centuries, the square was a central place for the execution of criminals and heretics. One of the most famous executions was of Giordano Bruno.



#Who was Giordano Bruno- A Man the Church Executed for his Astronomical Dreams

Many see him as the "martyr of science". The story of the Italian astronomer Giordano Bruno is a tragic story of a scientist who was ahead of his time and paid dearly for his theories and beliefs. It would only be later that generations would catch up with him.

Among the well-known, Bruno was considered "the first martyr of the world of science." In contrast to Copernicus, who said similar things and proved them mathematically, not many in the general public know Bruno's name, who preceded everyone in understanding the universe and our place in it - or simply - that the earth is not the center of the world and that the universe is infinite.

Bruno, from Naples, is the first cosmological theorist to sacrifice his life in the name of science. Bruno was executed for his "space dreams." It all began when he read a book by Lucretius, a Roman poet who wrote 1500 years ago that the universe is infinite. Bruno had dreamed of a universe where man and the earth took up very little space.

Bruno began to spread his ideas about the vast universe, where there are many more planets like ours. He came to the conclusion that the stars shining in the sky were actually suns very far away, which had their own stars around them.In the eyes of his contemporaries, who believed in the centrality of the earth in the universe, this was hallucination. All the different movements in the Church boycotted Bruno and his arguments and regarded him as a heretic. In England, where he traveled to lecture on his ideas, the scientists of the time scorned him. Not long after he returned to Italy, he was imprisoned because of his "foolish ideas." Giordano Bruno was tortured by the the Inquisition for eight years but refused to deny his ideas. It was to this end that Giordano Bruno was executed by the church.

Ten years after his death, Galileo will first create the telescope and join Bruno's ideas, which proved to be accurate. Gradually, the scientific world would come to similar conclusions and at a later stage, the church as well, that the earth is far from being the center of the universe and that Bruno was right. Today there are universities named after him as well as research institutes.



#Tips

Visit the market as soon as possible. Beyond the brand new merchandise, the crowds are thin and the atmosphere is enormously pleasant. You can even start your day there and enjoy breakfast in the market.
San Luigi dei Francesi
Church of St. Louis of the French
#The French Church of Rome

It looks relatively modest on the outside, but very impressive inside - the Church of St. Louis of the French (San Luigi de Francesi). It is located near Piazza Navona and the Pantheon and is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, St. Denis and the King of France, Louis IX, the patron saint of the Catholic Church.

In the church you can see statues and paintings of national heroes and saints such as Charlemagne, King Clovis, Saint Clotilde and more.

The church was built between 1518 and 1589. In 1527 the construction was put on hold due to a crisis in Rome, but it was eventually completed by the Queen of France Caterina de Medici and her generous financial aid.



#The Artwork in the Church

In the fifth chapel, also known as the Cappella Contarelli, you can see the three famous works of the painter Caravaggio, who was a prominent artist during the Renaissance Era. Despite his turbulent life and being the murderous painter of art history, Caravaggio, who in 1906 escaped from Rome after killing a man in a fight, left his artwork in the city and fled.

In the three works on the walls of the church painted between 1598 and 1601, you will learn about the life of Saint Matteo. Above the altar is the work "The Muse of St. Matthew" and on the wall you can see the "Martyrdom of St. Matthew."

The works are characterized by many colors, detailed realism, a play between light and shadow which was innovative at the time. These artworks also created some resistance, for church leaders thought that the realism of the works indicated a lack of respect for the religion.

Apart from Caravaggio, you can also see works by other artists: Cavalier d'Arpino and more.

A recommended continuation route from the church is a visit to the famous square of Rome, Piazza Navona, the bustling square of the city.



#About Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, the Murderer Artist

Yes, he was a revolutionary artist, one of the most talented painters in history, a genius with an innovative and groundbreaking artistic conception and yet ... a murderer.

Caravaggio was a man of many components and faces. On the one hand he was a violent character, a chronic drinker and drunk, who eventually murdered someone. However on the other hand, he was one of the greatest artists, a man of strong religious faith, whose paintings express an unprecedented emotion, a painter of incredibly precise detail, whose groundbreaking art depicted biblical scenes and stories of Christian saints drawn in the form of ordinary people.

Caravaggio painted his paintings on large, impressive canvases. The church did not really like his paintings, especially the religious paintings. However, wealthy Italians loved and acquired his powerful and polished paintings, which showed a great deal of passion.

In his paintings "The Call to Matthew" and the "Crucifixion of St. Peter," one can see its prominent characteristics: sharp realism, games and contrasts of light and shadow, as well as the genius of using color and placing figures and objects in space. Caravaggio chose carefully what details to emphasize in the light in his paintings and unique models.

Although he died in 1610 and at the young age of 39 years old, his influence on the history of art is enormous. Not many painters have influenced, for so long, the art of painting. Many artists have been influenced by him. Catholic painters from Utrecht in the Netherlands, who in the 17th century went to study in Rome and were known as "Caravagists of Utrecht", admired him along with the great masters such as Rubens, Vermeer, Velazquez and Rembrandt.

In 1606, at the height of his career in Rome, Caravaggio was involved in a fight and killed a man. He ran quickly to found a new patron in Naples and later in Malta. Two years later, he was thrown out of there as well because of his involvements in more fights. After Malta he moved to Sicily and his paintings, like his life, became gradually darker and more shadowed. His moods worsened, he even used a sword to slash paintings that received negative feedback.

The researchers estimate that when he returned to Naples, he was apparently the victim of an attack that injured him and caused severe infection. He must have tried to return to Tuscany, in order to gain forgiveness for his crimes in Rome. It is not clear exactly when and where his life was abruptly put to an end.

It is not only the life story of the "killer painter" that caused great controversy and curiosity; his death was also a mystery. His turbulent character, evident in his paintings, often entangled him in fights, and in the end, perhaps led to his death.

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, named after his hometown in Italy, was considered the pioneer of the baroque style which developed in Europe in the period following his death. He was a genius who was ahead of his time and even hundreds of years after his death. He continued to influence great painters, but inside was a man who was haunted, violent, psychotic, perverse and complicated.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4oGQlR293U


Santa Maria in Trastevere
Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere
#About the Church

One of the most ancient important churches in Rome is the Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere (Santa Maria in Trastevere). The meaning of the name is "Saint Mary of Trastevere." It is located in the Trastevere district, built around the year 340 AD and was the first to have Christian religious ceremonies and open mass ceremonies held inside it.

The current structure was built in the 12th century. It has been destroyed and rebuilt several times before. Therefore, it is possible to see elements from different periods in this stunning building. The Popes invested in it quite a lot and transferred many art objects, such as columns from the baths of Caracalla.

The statue of Madonna and Baby is in the Church on top of the tower, as well as fresco drawings on the wall - these are impressive frescoes.

Pay particular attention to mosaics located in various places in the church. On the one side of the basilica there are mosaics from the 13th and 14th centuries, depicting Mary's life. There are those in Apsis during the years 1140 to 1143, and those on the top of the window under Apsis including "Scenes from the life of Mary" telling the story of the Holy Trinity by the painter Pietro Cavallini dating to 1291.

Pay attention to the inscription on the "Bishop's Chair." This inscription indicates that this is the first church in Rome dedicated to Mary. However this fact is historically wrong - the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, which was also dedicated to Mary, was established before this one...
Tiber Island
#About the Island

Tiber River is the third longest river in Italy. The island you see has an elongated shape, 270 meters long and 67 meters wide.

Tiber Island (Isola Tiberina) is also known as the "island between the two bridges," because both sides were connected to either bank of the river by bridges - the Four-Head Bridge and the Cestius Bridge.

Each year, during the summer months, the "Isola del Cinema " festival is held here. It features classic and modern Italian films alongside international films. They are screened at the festival on large screens, across the island, under the sky.



#History of Tiber Island

In 291 BC a temple for the god of medicine Asclepius was built on the island of Tiber. The entire area became sacred and the sick and crippled would arrive here to be healed.

The medical tradition of the place continues to this day. Among other things, you can find a Jewish hospital on the island. This hospital was established in 1881, because it was near the Jewish ghetto of Rome at the time. The food in it was kosher and had no Christian features.



#Legend of the Island Created During the Revolution

If you are interested in a more exciting story about the creation of the island, Roman legend has it that when the raging crowds brought to the downfall of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last king of Rome, they threw his body into the river. It is then told that the dirt that accumulated around the body which sank to the bottom of the river became an island.
Aventine Hill
#About the Hill

Among the Seven Hills of Rome is the beautiful and romantic Aventine Hill. From the top of the hill you can see the magnificent view of Rome.

Rumor has it that it is named after King Avantinus, who was buried at the top of the hill. Another theory holds that the hill is named for Avantinus’ the son of Rhea and Hercules.

The short walk to the green hill is up glass-covered access stairs. The glass prevents the crows from harming the railing. At the end of the walk you will see the green park and enjoy the magnificent view of Rome. This spot is great for a photo of the city. Entry to the monasteries on the Avantine is free, where you can enjoy two hours of quiet and a stunning view.

The famous Orange Garden is located on this hill, together with the keyhole through which one can peek at the special perspective of a tree-lined avenue that converges to the Basilica of San Pietro of the Vatican.


#The Curse of Aventine Hill

An age old rumor has it that a curse lies on this hill because of the tragic story about the two brothers - Remus and Romulus. The twins were very young and very powerful, hunters who led a group of shepherds. They decided to establish a large new city- Rome. However, these two brothers could not settle on who would rule- and asked for a sign from the gods.

Remus, who saw six vultures, was pitted against Romulus who saw twelve vultures. One claimed that because his vision had come first, he was to rule. The other said that his vision, showing 12 vultures, is greater and therefore he is meant to dominate. The final outcome was determined when Remus was assassinated by his brother Romulus, who went on to become the new city's ruler, in the new city of Rome.

This tragic story was treated as a taboo of sorts- no Roman ruler made it part of Rome’s territory due to the curse. In the years between 640-616 BCE it became part of the city, in order to strengthen its defenses. During the 5th century BC, Rome was already spread beyond the Aventine Hill, towards the Field of Mars.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sz2ebwRJ6c0
Arch of Titus
#About the Ancient Arch that Depicts the Exile of Israel and Plunder of the Temple

The remains of the Roman Forum still stands in Rome, where the arch of victory can be seen today. The Arch of Titus (Arco de Tito) was dedicated by Emperor Domitian to his brother Titus who died in 81 AD. The arch was erected to commemorate Titus' successes in the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple. Titus' great honor is expressed in ancient inscriptions on the arch, in imprinted writing and sculptures, which document the entry of the convoy of captives and conductors at the arch of Rome. The inscriptions were designed under Greek influence, as did many of the Roman buildings.

The arch has been here for nearly 2,000 years, carefully rehabilitated and maintained since 1936. This occurred during the time of the Italian Fascists, under the dictator Mussolini. They tried to relive and revive the glory of the Roman Empire

It is hard to miss the inscription of time that can be seen in the crumbling limestone, the material of the arch.

Notice the crown of the arch. It contains a carving depicting the treasures from the looting of the Temple, including the seven-branched Menorah that was in the Temple and which, with the establishment of the State, became the official symbol of the State of Israel.

This impressive arch is one of Rome's most famous symbols today, notable for its beauty and spectacular design. Simultaneously, it’s hard to ignore that it depicts the downfall of the Jewish nation and the exile they suffered for nearly 2,000 years.



#What is Depicted on the Arch of Titus?

The Arch of Titus is a gateway built by Emperor Domitian, dedicated to his brother Titus in honor of his victory over the Jews and the suppression of the Great Revolt in the Land of Israel in 70 AD. When Titus destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem, he exiled tens of thousands of Jews to Rome as captives and slaves.

The Arch of Titus, built as an arch of triumph and glorifying Titus' victory, presents, among other things, engravings which convey the story of the Roman victory. Among other things, it depicts the ravaging of Jerusalem after the destruction of the Second Temple and the conquest of Jerusalem by the Romans. If anyone had any doubts, the Latin inscription reads: "Details from the Arch of Titus describing the plunder and the loot from Jerusalem."

However, a very special fact about the Arch of Titus is that it constitutes the only clue as to the fate of the menorah of the Jewish Temple. The pictures on the stone are of Jewish prisoners, led to Rome, carrying the Menorah of the Temple, the Golden Altar and even musical instruments - all from the Temple in Jerusalem.

For centuries, the Jews of Rome did not pass under this gate, a remnant of the shame of exile and the Jewish destruction. Only in the first half of the 20th century, in Italy's Fascist era, did Italian dictator Mussolini order it to be done. As someone who saw Titus' victory gate as part of the greatness of the Italian people and the glory of the Roman Empire that preceded him, he wanted the gate to glorify Fascist Rome and have the glory of the past project onto it.



#How the Design of the Menorah from the Arch of Titus Became an Inspiration to the Jews

With the establishment of the State of Israel, the Chief Rabbi of Israel of that time decided to adopt the Menorah from the Arch of Titus as the symbol for the State, a national symbol for all of Israel. Over the years there has been much criticism over this decision. Many scholars argued that although the Menorah in the painting has seven branches, and its base is reminiscent of ascending stairs, which, according to Jewish belief were used by the high priest to light the candles. However, they maintain that the Menorah in the Roman Arch contains problematic details that cannot possibly be identified as the Jewish Menorah. For example, the octagonal base of the Menorah that was probably designed by a Roman or Greek artist. In short, the design does not uphold the style of the Menorah that is described in Jewish law. Another source of criticism on the authenticity of the Menorah in the Arch is the decoration of the animals which appear on it. It is impossible, researchers say, that animals such as lions, dragons, and sea animals, which are illuminated by the menorah, are of Jewish origin. According to Jewish law, such paintings are idol worshipping, and their placement on the Temple Menorah is unfathomable.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/vMZHIyIy_aY
Roman Forum
#The Roman Forum

This place is the heart of an amazing archaeological site - the Roman Forum (Foro Romano). The Forum is a central public area in Roman cities, designed in the shape of a square, or several connected squares. Almost every Roman city was built with its own forum, but the meaning of the "big forum" refers to this very place.

During the Roman Empire, the Forum was a central area in which most of the city's life took place. This was the center of the political, economic, social and religious life in the empire. There was a crowded market square with courts, temples, gates and pillars of victory, the House of Representatives, and more.

Many public issues on the Roman agenda were dealt with here. Victory parades marched through this square, eulogies and speeches by leaders and clerics, other social and political events that took place here.

The Forum is located between Capitoline Hill, the seat of the Roman emperors and nobility, and Palatino Hill, the home of the wealthy and Roman rulers.



#The History of the Forum

Dating back to the Stone Age, the Roman Forum, nourished by the waters of the Tiber, was inhabited by human beings. This was despite the fact that it was outside the parameters of the inhabited areas.

During the Iron Age, when man's technological ability to produce iron tools was made, there were cemeteries of the local inhabitants where the city now stands.

During the Roman Empire, when the area was drained of swamps and contamination was cleared, the area became the center of the city's commerce and creative minds. The city was open to people from all over the empire.

However just like a tide rises, so does it fall; With the establishment of the religious and governmental center in the Palatine Center, the status of this Forum began to decline. The need for temples, the strengthening of Christianity and a general abandonment of the Roman lifestyle led to severe neglect of this physical place. The area and the buildings collapsed and were covered the sand, left to the decay over time. During this time the Forum had an unflattering name: "The Field of Meat" – due to animal carcasses disposed of there.

Excavations and reconstructions began in the 19th century, whose outcomes you see today. The most significant momentum took place during the reign of fascist dictator Mussolini in the 20th century.



#Interesting Sites in the Area

There are some interesting sites scattered throughout the Forum that are not to be missed:

All the buildings that were found throughout the Forum were a symbol of the victory of the Roman Empire from the various battles: they praised the conquering ruler and the fighters who won the battle and were meant to serve as a token of gratitude to the gods, who helped and supported the empire during times of war.

The selection of ancient buildings here includes:

Arch of Titus - erected after the death of Emperor Titus to mark the victory of the Romans over the Jews and the downfall of Jerusalem.

The home of Emperor Augustus - the residence of the emperor, whose restoration and reconstruction lasted no less than 40 years.

Temple of Julius Caesar

Curia (the restored Senate House)

Vesta Temple and the Vicariate

The Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius

Septimus Severus' Bow

Tro Jan's Market

The Colosseum



#Tips

If you arrive at the Roman Forum in the after 6:00 pm, there will be far fewer tourists in the area.
Palatine Hill
#About Rome's Ancient Hill

Palatine Hill is the most ancient hill of the seven hills of Rome. Its height reaches 70 meters and it is located between the Circus Maximus and the Roman Forum. If you were looking for a spectacular view of all of Rome – you have arrived at the correct place.

Legend has it that the roots of the city of Rome are located on this hill. Indeed, the earliest buildings of Rome were built right here - the first citadel of the city, the "Institute," the most symbolic building called Mundus, and the square around it.

The Emperors came here to build their own palaces, the ruins of which are scattered on this hill. In the year 1000, monasteries were established in this place. Today, couples arrive to be photographed on their wedding day.

Notice the interesting shape of the hill, which resembles an incomplete square. This was also the reason the hill was called "Square Rome."

Today there is a museum open to the public on the hill.



#The Legend of the Founding of Rome

The twin brothers Remus and Romulus were tiny babies when a she-wolf suckled them and took them under her wing. After a while, their foster father, Faustulus, found and raised them together with his wife. As they grew older, the two decided to establish Rome. They resolved the bitter competition between them over control of the region in a painful way: One day, Romulus killed Remus in cold blood. Rome got its name from the first syllable of Romulus' name.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbU07sv6fCo
Monastery of the Knights of Malta
#About the Monastery of the Sovereign Order of Rome

The Monastery of the Knights of Malta (Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta) is located on Aventine Hill overlooking the magnificent view of Rome. This monastery is the center of activity of Malta's sovereign military order. Together with Palazzo Malta, the region is considered outside the Italian territory and belongs to the Order of the Knights of Malta - a completely sovereign entity.

There is a special, almost fairytale-like attraction for children and adults; it is a keyhole in the garden. This is the locked door in the garden with a small peephole. It is called "il buco nella serratura." Through this hole you can see a charming little wonder. It is a long row of trees with a Vatican dome at the center - the Basilica of St. Peter. The sight of the magical perspective, which has a fascinating composition that any photographer would be happy to display in his photographs, was discovered years ago by accident.



#About the Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Order of the Knights of Malta began in the time of the Crusades and its roots trace back to European nobility. Its goals are acts of kindness for the needy. The Order operates hospitals, nursing homes and ambulance services all over the world.

Like the Vatican, this unique order is independent of Italy and completely sovereign, constituting a kind of state within Rome. Although it is a political entity that does not control its own territory, it can use political symbols such as printing its own stamps, minting coins, issuing passports and even identifying car plates.

The non-political public activity, which is completely neutral, gave the Order observer status in the UN and over 100 countries maintain diplomatic relations with it.

This elitist Order includes about 13,000 members, most of them Christians, rich, men, and caucasian. To illustrate its power upon the aristocracy here - in the monastery of the Order was baptized Juan Carlos, King of Spain, by the future Pope Pius XII.

In the center is a clinic that is public and provides free health services to the poor who cannot afford treatments.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lH-GFWmephQ
Turtle Fountain
#About the Turtle Fountain

Rome is full of various fountains. In almost every square you reach, you will find another impressive fountain. The fact that they were designed and built by the greatest architects and sculptors, turns wandering in Rome into an adventure.

The Turtle Fountain (Fontana Delle Tartarughe) in Little Mattei Square, a square built by the wealthy Mattei family, is located in the Jewish ghetto of Rome. In contrast to the statues which characterize Rome, which are often made of marble, this one is made of high-quality bronze.

Its construction was completed in 1588. Originally, the statue depicted four young men leaning on dolphins at the bottom of the fountain and sending their hands up to support other dolphins above.

Some 70 years after the completion of the construction of the fountain, the upper dolphins were replaced by small tortoises made by the sculptor and architect Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. This remains the statue to this day, so the name of the fountain is Turtle Fountain.
Fiumi Fountain
#The Four River Fountain

The Fountain of Four Rivers, Fiumi Fountain (Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi), located at the center of Rome, was designed by one of the most important Baroque sculptors - Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. This fountain was built as part of the design of the square where it is placed - Piazza Navona.

The fountain is made of unprocessed stone and incorporates several materials: marble, stone and water. In the center of the fountain stands a powerful obelisk, symbolizing the church's victory over paganism The fountain's pool has spectacular dolphin statues.

The four largest rivers in the world - the Nile (in Africa), the Danube (in Europe), the Ganges (in Asia) and Rio de la Plata (America) are part of the design of the fountain. Each of the gods in the fountain is shaped in an authentic style of the inhabitants from its continent. They sit on a rock from which one of the rivers flows. Each river represents a continent which the pope wishes to rule.

The message of the fountain of the four rivers is clear - Rome is the source from which all the rivers flow.


Capitoline Hill
#About the Hill Overlooking Rome

In the past, Rome was situated atop only one hill, called Palatino Hill. However over the years the territory of the city sprawled out over six other hills in the area. One of the most well-known ones is in the heart of ancient Rome - Capitoline Hill, which is considered to be the highest of the hills of Rome, along with its neighbor Palatine Hill.

It is impossible to overlook the stunning view from this hill. It is located between the Forum and the Field of Mars, two important points in ancient Rome.

At the top of the hill are two interesting and important religious and political centers:

The first is the most important temple of ancient Rome, dedicated to the Capitolians. In this temple they worshiped the family of Gods composed of Jupiter (King of the Gods), Juno (queen of the gods and patron of Rome) and Minerva (their daughter, goddess of wisdom and spirit) - all three were called the Capricorn Trinity. The temple was large and very impressive.

The second is Asylum, a refuge area used in ancient times by criminals who fled the law. Among them, by the way, were also the murderers of Julius Caesar.

Today you can see the remains of the temple and its reconstruction on the hill.



#The View from the Hill

The buildings surrounding the hill were designed by one of the most famous Renaissance artists - Michelangelo. He built a lot of buildings on Capitoline Hill, which became very significant over the years. Among them were the palaces of Campidoglio, facing the Old City, the Capitol Square with its wide and spectacular stairways and the Vatican compound, the World Center of Catholic Christianity. Dating back to the Renaissance Era the hill had the Capitoline Museum, the National Museum holding classical works of art, archeology and science.

Another interesting place on the hill is the Capitoline Jupiter Temple, the most important and impressive temple of ancient Rome. A lot of stories have been told about this place, stories of murders, betrayals, wars, politics and inheritance.
Quirinale
#The Quirinale Palace

You have reached the official residence of the President of Italy. The palace is located on Palazzo del Quirinale atop the highest hill in Rome. Built in 1573 by Pope Gregory XIII, it served as a summer palace for the Popes. Ceremonies took place here, especially those known as “Conclaves.” the election ceremonies of a new pope in the Catholic Church.

In 1870, when the Papal State was conquered, it became the official residence of the kings of Italy. Although they didn’t actually live there, the royal offices were located in the palace. With the abolition of the monarchy in 1948, the palace became the residence of the President.

On Sundays you can enter the palace and see the frescoes of the Baroque artist Pietro da Cortona in one of the palace galleries.

The place is guarded by soldiers. There is a Change of the Guard ceremony at 4:00 pm, where the soldiers march to the sound of a military band.



#The Quirinale Museum

The gallery Scuderie del Quirinale was built at Quirinale Square, beside the Quirinale Palace. This complex contains two floors where the works of great and world-renowned artists are displayed. In contrast to other museums and galleries, the exhibits here are planned three years in advance, ensuring their quality. Impressive events are held here as well.

One of the most spectacular displays which stood here was the 2006 of Antonello Da Messina. Another was the Spring retrospective, which covered the works of Giovanni Bellini.



#Piazza del Quirinale

The square where these buildings are located is called the Piazza del Quirinale. Another palace at the square is Palazzo della Consulta, home to the Supreme Court of the Italian Republic.

At the corner of the piazza is an exhibition space, Scuderie del Quirinale.

A large fountain from the 19th century stands at the palazzo. It depicts the twins from the thousands of horses from the Greek mythology - Castor and Pollux. At the center of the fountain is an obelisk brought here from the tomb of Augustus.



#Tips

It is worth going with the children to the Change of the Guard ceremony at the President's Palace. It takes place daily at 3:00 pm. It was a little early to get there, to get a good spot for observation.
Campidoglio Square
#About the Piazza

Campidoglio Square (Piazza del Campidoglio) is located on Capitoline Hill and is considered an architectural gem.

The square was planned by none other than the famous artist Michelangelo in the 16th century. He was the one who gave the piazza the look you see now - a trapezoid square surrounded by three magnificent palaces. On the fourth edge is a wide staircase designed by Michelangelo in order to allow the nobles of Rome to ascend these steps riding on their horses.

Notice the special flooring from which the square was built. Despite the brilliant design, Michelangelo did not live to enjoy his work, for he passed away some time before the construction was completed.

In the three palaces surrounding the square are the Capitolini museums, where marble statues and paintings from the Renaissance and Baroque era are exhibited.

In the center of the square you can see the bronze statue of the Roman Emperor and philosopher Marcus Aurelius. This is only a reconstruction of the original statue which is located inside the museum.

Although not particularly crowded, there is no doubt that this square is one of the most popular and touristy spots in Rome.
Venice Square
#The Square Where Mussolini Made his Speeches

Venice Square (Piazza Venezia) is located at the foot of Capitoline Hill, near the Roman Forum. To this day, it is considered the main square of modern Rome.

Once, the "Field of Mars," was located here. This was the place for military training of the Roman army. The palace was built in the 15th century and was the first great Renaissance building of Rome.

During the reign of Mussolini, who lived in the palace of Venice, it served as a meeting place, a place for gathering the people and giving passionate speeches. The speeches delivered by dictator Mussolini in the square were then transmitted all over Italy by radio and loud speakers in other squares. This was also a departure point for parades such as the Blackshirts, the military wing of the Fascist Party.

The office used by Mussolini is closed to tourists today, except for occasional tours. Its name originated from the palace beside it - Venice Palace.

Although the square is located at the center of major transportation routes, private transportation is limited and there are no traffic lights. That's why during the rush hours, you can see a policeman on a stand at the center of the square, directing the traffic just like the road. His movements are theatrical but amusing, making order in the midst of the commotion. You are invited to photograph it.

Today there is also the Palazzo Venezia, a museum in the square with medieval works of art.
Church of St. Ignatius of Loyola
Caracalla Spa
Baths of Diocletian
Planetarium and Astronomical Museum
Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

שלום,
נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.