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Templars

Temple Church
Temple Church
#About the Church

The rounded Temple Church was established in the 12th century in London and its impressive presence lent its name to the entire region. The round church is 16.7 meters in diameter and supported by marble pillars. It was first inaugurated in 1185.

Originally, the purpose of the church was to serve as Templar headquarters, a military order that operated during the Crusades. The Templars required a large site where they could meet. They purchased the area on which the church was located for this purpose. Buildings were erected to serve the Order: a training area, residential and leisure areas. The Knights Templar fell in the 14th century and the church became the property of the kingdom.

In 1215, negotiations were held between the nobles and King
John over the signing of the Magna Carta, the great charter of liberties. In the 14th century, after the fall of the order, the land of the church became the property of the kingdom and since then it has been the center of two of London's law offices.

Unbeknown to most, the circular structure of the church was designed in connection with the Church of the Holy Sepulcher located in the capital of Israel, Jerusalem. Graves in the church are of many familiar people, among them William Marshall and King John.

The church was completely destroyed during World War II and in the Great Fire of London in 1941, but it was renovated and restored in 1958.



#About the Magna Carta

There is no other historical symbol of the rule of law, human rights and democracy more iconic than the Magna Carta. It was a scroll that the English King John was forced to sign in 1215, by his barons, owners of great estates, who decided to limit king's unrestricted power. In a meeting between the king and his barons, his hand was forced to sign a waiver on his ownership of the noble lands. Although the 40 landlords forced him to sign, in order to avoid a situation where the king could blame a noble Baron who sinned and then confiscate his land or transfer it to another nobleman, this was the first time in history where constitutional monarchy was created and landowner rights were agreed upon.

Important principles that we now recognize as basic principles in civilized countries stemmed from the historical signature of the Magna Carta. For example, the fact that "no one is above the law" means that a king is not authorized to do as he pleases. He cannot attack other countries and then impose taxes on his citizens in order to finance these military expeditions. The same decision that a king cannot impose taxes at his will not only a financial matter - it is the basis of the rule of law, which was later established as a cornerstone of democracy.

The Magna Carta led to the establishment of parliaments and legislatures. Those fortunate enough to be voted in by the people are to represent the citizens and preserve their rights. The paramount right of due process – a fair trial and consequent punishment which can only be carried out after the accused has been found guilty. Furthermore, freedom of speech, freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial are all principles born of this signature and have since become the rights of all citizens. It should be noted that in the Middle Ages, they were only intended for nobility. Today, all democratic states, starting from the American Revolution and other democracies declared since then, draw from the International Magna Carta declaring a demand for freedom and the protection of human rights for every person in the world.



A Closer Look at the Church:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tD3zles4Hlg&t=52s
Tempelhof
Tempelhof
#About the Nazi Airport that Turned Into a Family Park

Tempelhof airport was built in the 1920’s. Back at the end of the 19th century this airport was used for the first ever flight of an airship.
During the Nazi regime this airport was one of the spots were the Nazis wanted to show their strength and superiority by building the world’s largest building. This turned into the Tempelhof terminal, the building was in the shape of a rainbow, who’s length was 1.2 kilometers, and who’s size was 258,000 square meters.

During World War II the airport was not bombed, with the allied forced thinking that after the war they would use the airport themselves.

In 2010, two years after being closed because it bothered the local community of Berlin, the airport was reopened as a public park. The airplane runways were turned into running tracks and bike lanes, and the area between them became big grassy lawn sections. Locals from Berlin even voted against the plan for mass buildings around the park, in order to maintain the suburban and calm atmosphere within the park.

This is how what started as a training marching field for Frederick II, the King of Prussia, to become a lively public park for the residents of Berlin, a place for festivals, gatherings, picnics and nature among the roaring city.



#About the History of Tempelhof

The insane Nazi fever did not pass over German architecture. Again and again Hitler and his architect Albert Speer started new and massive projects that were narcissistic and disproportionate to anything that had been built in Germany up to that time. One of the best examples of this is the massive terminal that was built at Tempelhof airport.

The airport officially became Tempelhof airport, one of the first airports in the world, back in 1923. It was already used back in 1897 by the airship pioneer David Schwarz as a base for the first airlift in history. 12 years later, one of the Wright brothers (Orville Wright), pioneers of aviation, set the world record for highest altitude flight.

At the height of the airship era, in 1930 landed an airship at Tempelhof, the Graf Zeppelin, after flying over the Atlantic Ocean. The residents from the Tempelhof neighborhood, templar descendants, went wild with excitement.

But the Nazi era made this small and modest place famous worldwide. The Nazi megalomania did not pass over the airport, and in 1941 the building of the world’s biggest building was completed.

What is amazing, is that during World War II this airport was not bombed by the allies, because they wanted to use the airport after their victory. The American army did end up using the airport, it was used quite often by their Air Force during the Cold War to overcome the Soviet imported siege on West Berlin in 1948, and get supplies into the city. Also, children in Berlin used to nickname these supply planes, who would bring candy and chocolates to them, ‘The Candy Bombers.’



#Tempelhof Architecture

As was common with Hitler, the building of the massive Tempelhof was built in the preferred Nazi architecture, with a brutal spirit, based on exposed concrete. The terminal building and the huge offices inside were designed by the Nazi architect superstar, Albert Speer. As always, he was given a budget and told to build the building with clear understanding that he was to show off the Aryan superiority of Nazi Germany.

From the ground, the mass size of the building is not easy to comprehend, but the long walk along its façade, and aerial shots, give a better understanding of its true size.



A Closer Look:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T4YL8m61968
Sarona
Sarona
#Sarona Neighborhood

Sharona was born in the second half of the 19th century, as a colony established by the German Templars. In fact, this is their fourth colony in the Land of Israel. At the time, the settlement was located a few kilometers north of Jaffa, but today it is located in the center of Tel Aviv and is one of the most popular and important places of entertainment in the city.

At that time, the agricultural areas of the moshava spread eastwards, on the two banks of Wadi Musrara, where today the main axis of Tel Aviv, Ayalon Highway, is located. At that time they crossed the river on the Sarona Bridge, which was exactly where the Peace Bridge now stands, and the path of peace.

During World War II, the Templar residents of the moshava were expelled because of the identification of some of the inhabitants with Nazi Germany. After the residents hung swastika flags on their homes and some of them went to Germany to volunteer for the German army against the Allies. After the war, the British did not allow the Templars to return to their homes. The British Army itself settled in the areas of the colony and upon the establishment of the State, many of the institutions of the State of Israel settled there. The area was nicknamed the "Kirya" and until a few years ago many government and military installations were located there.

In recent years, the southern part of the moshava has become a restored recreation site crowded with people. This was followed by the completion of conservation and restoration work, which also included the moving of entire buildings to expand the nearby Kaplan Street. All these made the German Colony of the past a beautiful and fashionable place and a favorite entertainers. It was also surrounded by luxury towers, one of which opened the prestigious Sarona Market.

Today, in the northern part of the moshava, there are many military installations. The base of the Kirya that belongs to the IDF will be evacuated in the coming years.

Note that the central settlement streets, Kaplan Street and the contemporary David Elazar Street, stand together and form a cross. This is a form that characterized the planning of the Templar colonies, since the Templars were devout Christians.



#What did the German Templars do in Eretz Israel?

The Templars who were devout Christians came from Germany in the middle of the 19th century. Together with the Christian faith in their duty to settle the Holy Land, they brought with them the modern technology of Europe. In every field they dealt with, including agriculture, production and construction, they renewed and increased their productivity and success. The Templars built exemplary settlements in Israel and succeeded in bringing about momentum in all these areas between the Arabs of the country and the Jews in it. Many imitated them and thus the Israeli economy progressed and was greatly improved by their right.

The Templars left seven settlements, such as Sarona, the German Colony in Haifa and Jerusalem, and several settlements that became the moshavim of Bnei Atarot, Bethlehem of Galilee and Alonei Abba.

During World War II, the third generation of the Templars identified themselves in the colonies with the Nazis. Many of them hung the swastika flags on their houses. Some of the young Templars went to Germany to volunteer for the German army and fought against the Allies. The British responded by putting all the Templars into closed camps. During the War of Independence, the Palmach expelled the Templars from their homes and were not allowed to return.



#What is Sarona's Treasure?

For years the Templar deportees kept the secret of the gold hoard hidden in the wall of one of Sarona's houses. In 1941 the Templars were expelled from Palestine by the British. They were Germans and the great majority supported the Nazis and the British saw them as a threat to their rule here. Various espionage affairs in favor of the Germans, which were discovered at the time in Israel, also seemed dangerous.

One of the deportees from Sarona, the Templar settlement near Tel Aviv, Hugo Brengel, hid a treasure of gold coins in his wall before leaving. Some of these coins were a gift received by Brengel's father from Lawrence of Arabia, the mythical man. He planned to return in the future to pick it up but never did.

No less than 62 years later, several Israelis did an investigation and discovered the treasure. They returned it to the older owner, a 102-year-old man who, according to the value of those coins, must have made a good deal.



A Closer Look at the Sharona Complex:

https://youtu.be/TQEdhlsxgDg
Immanuel Church
Immanuel Church
#About the Church

The Immanuel Church was a long and narrow steeple that is easy to identify from far away. This is a small church located across from the Immanuel Hostel, what used to be the Jerusalem Hotel. It is located in the American-German colony, located on Bar Hoffman Street 15, in Jaffa. This colony is famous for its wooden houses and is called the American colony, even though after the Americans left it actually became German...

The Church is also German. The church was actually built for the German emperor's visit Wilhelm II in 1898. The colony residents, the Templars, did not usually build churches, but the Evangelist Christians also settled in the colony at the same time and wanted to build a church, and the land that was donated by the Baron Ustinov, made this possible. There was a plan that the emperor would join the ceremony for the building of the church, but because of delays in the ceremony that the emperor was not able to participate. After the church was built in 1904, the emperor and his wife donated the church bell. A couple of German architects designed the church, Ernest Fogt and Paul Grott.

In European standards, the hostel is not impressive, but it is worth a visit because of its modesty and simplicity, and the organ concerts that happen here occasionally, and sometimes during Sunday Mass. The ceremonies during the week are held both in Hebrew and in English.



#About the Immanuel Church's Organ

The organ in the Immanuel Church in Jaffa is used to ritual purposes but also plays an important role in the cultural life of Tel Aviv. This is the only organ in Tel Aviv that is used regularly for organ concerts.

The planning of the building was designed for a large and impressive organ, considering the building size. As opposed to the first organ which deteriorated and broke down because it did not fit the local weather, the new organ was built in 1977 and it stands pretty well against the warm Israeli weather.



#About the Church's Architecture

The Immanuel Church is not very large. It is built in the Neo-Gothic style. Notice the narrow and sharp steeple, and the bell tower on the western side of the building.

The church is built with a European look - its stones are brown and the roof is made of red tiles. There are colorful stained glass art, made by the Norwegian artist Victor Sparre in the 1977 renovations.

At the church's balcony is the organ. Above the balcony seats is a circular window made up of small windows in the shape of a flower. Other windows have colorful flowery shapes, expect the middle window where two hands are seen lying over a lamp.

On the Eastern wall of the church's hall is an apse, a circular prayer socket with a simple wooden altar and a lamp on it. The three stained glass windows in the apse describe the birth of Jesus, the love of God, the Holy Spirit and angels, hovering over the "New Jerusalem," that was described in the Book of Revelations in the New Testimate. The New Jerusalem is described by its 12 gates and 12 towers, all symbolizing the 12 apostles and the 12 tribes of Israel.

In the church's walls on the south and north sides, are three permanent windows each, the middle one in each of these is slightly higher than the rest.

On the Northern wall you can see the prophet Jonah in the belly of the fish. In the center window the population of Nineveh becoming religious, and on the right is Jonah sitting under the tree. On the south wall you can see St. Peter standing on the left erecting Tabitha from her death, the dream of Peter in the center and the baptism of Cornelius on the right.



A Closer Look:

https://youtu.be/91H9x8slzVQ


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שלום,
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