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#About the Polish Capital

Warsaw (Warszawa) is the capital of Poland, and is also the largest city in the country. With almost 2 million residents, Warsaw is the country's center for politics, finance, technology, and culture.

Warsaw is divided by the flowing Vistula River, that goes through Poland. Like two physical halves of the sides of the river, Warsaw also has a wonderful combination of cultures, that creates the cultural traditions of Poland and was greatly influences by the Royals and Catholic Church, there is a vibrant cultural history here, which can be seen best in Polish villages.

Today's Warsaw is a huge, developing, and lively city. This is a modern and multicultural city, which in recent decades has become a significant cultural and commercial center in Central and Eastern Europe.

Warsaw experienced many disasters in its history, but managed to recover. Most of the construction around Warsaw is new, after the destruction that the Germans planted during World War II. The reconstruction of the old quarter was carried out with remarkable precision and dozens of buildings, such as churches, palaces and ancient fortresses, have returned to the city skyline after ruin.

The old quarter is one of the most interesting parts of the city today, and in 1980 it was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO organization, with Gothic alleys that were a time of old times, beautiful squares with colorful houses and Baroque palaces restored with love and respect at the sight of their originality.

Warsaw is also an important city in the history of the Jewish religion. In the first half of the 20th century Warsaw was one of the main Jewish centers in Europe. Jews represented one third of the city's residents, and had a profound impact on its everyday life. During the Holocaust, the Jewish community of Warsaw was almost completely destroyed. Although the Jewish ghetto was almost completely destroyed, many sites in the city perpetuate the Holocaust.

Today's Warsaw is an interesting mix between a painful history to a beautiful recovery, old architecture and new and modern buildings, historic sites and cheap shopping opportunities, and mostly - the capital of a nation with a long history, who has revived itself after its release from the Communistic hold.

#When to Visit?

Between May to September the weather is the nicest, and September-October is also great. From July to August it's best to avoid Poland, as so many of the cities and hotels are packed with visitors.


The trains in Poland are very efficient, cheap, easy to use, and reach almost anywhere. Traveling by bus is a little less comfortable, and slower. Renting your own car is easy, with renting points in many locations around the major cities.

Krakow is 4 hours by car (2 hours by Train) and Auschwitz 4.5 hours.


You can buy hygiene and pharmacy products at Rossman and Hebe. In Warsaw and Poland as a whole prices of these products are really cheap.

Prices for food are also low at Rossman, and you can buy food for your whole trip.


Polish cuisine is not very refined. But worth eating in it that is delicious and homey, especially when it comes to winter food. It is mostly based on meat, potatoes and thick soups, which are rich in meat and potatoes, which is especially recommended when the soup is served in loaves of bread.

The perogi, the dough pockets filled with water, stuffed with meat or other fillings, should be eaten in piriganias, workers' restaurants offering excellent Polish food at a cheap price. Try the bigus - beef stew and sauerkraut. For those who are interested, there are also pork sausages and goulash dishes and delicious also the dried cabbage, mushrooms, cheese and of course the fruits of the forest - all alongside the national drink here, which is vodka


In Polish restaurants and cafes its customary to leave a 10% tip. Many locals tend not to tip at all.

#Poland Country Code



Shopping in Warsaw is definitely worth it! It is actually the favorite shopping destinations in Europe. The reason is mostly the low costs

In the malls around the city, Arkadia and Zloty Tarrasy, you can find endless brands. Great outlets

See below a link for shopping recommendations


The center of entertainment for Friday and Saturday nights - Nowy Świat Street (Ulica Nowy Świat). There are a variety of cafes, restaurants, and great clubs.

For a great night out at a reasonable price, Mazowiecka Street is also a great option, with many clubs and other places to hang out. It's not expensive to get in, and the drinks are also reasonably low. Pay attention to the dress code in these places, and dress accordingly, otherwise you'll be waiting outside all night.

#Electric Outlets

The possible types of plug are Type C, Type E and Type F. See the link before with a photo.

A taste of the upcoming trip? - Here's a video that will show you the city in all its beauty:

Noyk Synagogue
Nożyk Synagogue
#About the Synagogue that was not Destroyed Because it was Used as Stables for the Nazis

Until World War II, Nożyk Synagogue was among the five large synagogues in Warsaw.

It is the single only synagogue to survive the Holocaust and is active until today. The synagogue has actually been active since its establishment in 1902, and managed to survive the Holocaust.

The synagogue was established in 1902, by a couple with no children, Zelman and Rebecca Nozyk. The well-off couple, a textile merchant and his wife, asked only one request - that whenever the Mourner's Kadish was prayed, their names will be mentioned. Up to this day, the request is etched in stone next to the Holy Ark.

With the Nazi occupation, the Jewish community was still allowed to pray here, but in 1941 the Nazis took over and used the spaces as horse stables and a food warehouse. It survived the war up to May 6, 1943, when the Germans bombed the synagogue with a ceremonial final blow to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

By 1948 the place was once again a synagogue. In the 1980's there was a Jewish awakening in Poland, and the synagogue was restored, with the encouragement of the Polish government, with Jewish funds. It was rebuilt in 1983, and since then it has served as the central synagogue in Warsaw.

In the Nożyk Synagogue is the original Torah scroll that used to be in the Great Synagogue of Warsaw, which operated before the war on Tlomackia Street. Apart from a place of prayer, the synagogue became the main meeting point of the Warsaw Jewish community and a place of major cultural events, such as concerts, exhibitions and public discussions.

A Closer Look at the Synagogue:

#About the Trendy Warsaw District

If Warsaw's history interesting to you, the Praga district is one of the places where you can actually feel it. The neighborhood is full of industrial complexes from the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. It is surrounded by Soviet residential buildings and has many groves and smooth green vegetation.

Pay attention to the interesting detail. In one of the courtyards in the quarter is a statue of Madonna with candles and flowers in front of it. It is a symbol of the residents' creative solution to the curfew problem that prevailed during World War II. The residents built themselves local prayer areas, which were, in fact, a substitute for church services.

It is recommended to avoid entering the yards (neglected, to be noted) of the houses during the dark or from photographing the windows of people's homes. There are quite a few apartments here that are worn out, almost falling apart, but despite the neglect of the area, there is a great connection between the residents of the area.

#About Praga's History

Old and historical Praga was actually a small settlement that sat on the east bank of the Vistula River, right in front of Old Warsaw. At that time wooden houses were built here, and Praga suffered a few fires.

Over the years attempts were made to connect it to Warsaw via bridges, but it did not work. It remained a separate city even in the 18th century, and the connection between them was expressed only through the ferries or the passage on the frozen river. In the end, the neighborhood was connected to Warsaw at the end of the 18th century.

However, it is important to note that the detachment from Warsaw was probably what preserved Praga during World War II from damage and destruction. This is also the reason why it later assumed an important role during the reconstruction of Warsaw - meanwhile, the public institutions of Warsaw were being housed there.

To this day there is a sort of separation between the two areas. The neighborhoods of the Praga quarter are considered dubious neighborhoods in the eyes of Warsaw residents, and the only reasons for which the Warsawites would come here might be a soccer match at the stadium or a visit to the city zoo.

A Closer Look at the Praga district:

Holy Cross Church
Holy Cross Church
#About the Church with the Heart of Chopin

The Holy Cross Church (Kościół Św. Krzyża) across the main University of Warsaw campus, is one of the most prominent Baroque churches in the Polish capital. It is widely known as the final resting place of the composer Frederic Chopin's heart.

Frederic Chopin, the great Polish composer, lived for many years in Paris, where he rose as a great piano composer. Chopin continued to miss Poland for the rest of his life. In 1882 when he passed away, his will requested that he be buried in Poland.

His wish was fulfilled, partly. While his body was buried in the famous Parisian Père Lachaise cemetery, his heart was taken out of his body and buried in Warsaw. The heart was placed inside a vase that was placed in a niche, in one of the chapels in this church. Near the niche a marble plate was placed, with Chopin's figure, sculpted by Leonardo Marconi.

#About the Church Building

When you visit the Holy Cross Church, it is worth watching in the reconstruction of the original wooden chapel from the 15th century, from which the impressive cathedral was born.

The Holy Cross Church is a very ancient and important church in the city of Warsaw, originally a Roman Catholic prayer house. The church was established in the 15th century, as a small wooden chapel of the Holy Cross. In 1526 the church leaders decided to destroy the fragile chapel and established a new church. 100 years later, in 1615, it was renovated and expanded by Zembrzuski Paweł and continued to grow so that it could meet the needs of the evolving Warsaw.

The current structure of the Baroque church was rebuilt at the end of the 17th century. This happened about 30 years after the church was destroyed and damaged by a flood. The new architect was chosen by the royal architect, Józef Szymon Bellotti, an important and famous Polish architect who also taught at the Royal Academy of Architecture in Warsaw.

Thus, beginning in the 17th century, the Holy Cross Church was considered one of the most important churches in Warsaw, which at that time replaced Krakow and became the new capital of Poland.

In the 18th century two towers were added to the church and above them were mounted special bells. Today the church is run by missionary monks, from the Father Vincent de Paul sect, who donated the money to build the magnificent church building originally.

A Closer Look at the Church:



Biblioteka Uniwersytet Warszawski
Warsaw University Library
#About the Library with the Unique Botanical Garden

Near the University of Warsaw is the University library (BUW, or Biblioteka Uniwersytet Warszawski), built in an impressive architectural building, whose walls are full of texts in all languages.

Books, however, are not what pull tourists into this library, but the big garden, rich and unique that lies above. This is not a library, nor a park, but a hybrid building, innovative and groundbreaking.

The library attracts many tourists, plant enthusiasts as well, who come to enjoy the beautiful roof with the botanical garden. The garden opened on June 2002, and is one of the largest roof gardens in Europe, having two different floors. The building and garden intertwine, in a harmonizing way, both from the inside and out, a combination of light and darkness and between restriction and freedom.

The big library (10,000 square meters) was built by the architectural duo Marek Budzynski and Zbigniew Badowski with the landscape architect Irena Bajerska, after winning a competition to design the building in 1993. They presented a whole new design concept, that fit the changing political, cultural and financial scene at the time, after being under Communist rule until 1989.

The whole building is covered in climbing plants, and is a great example of energy conservation and green building. The roof is open from Spring to Fall. From the roof you can see the view of the city landscape, and of passersby on the streets below.

There is an abundance of attractions that work well with the pretty building, like a stream, coy pond, fountains, bridges, seating areas, walking trails, greenery, granite sculpture and viewing areas.

A Closer Look at the University of Warsaw Library:

Miejski Ogrd Zoologiczny w Warszawie
Warsaw Zoological Garden
#About the Zoo that Saved Jews During the Holocaust

The Warsaw Zoological Garden (Miejski Ogród Zoologiczny w Warszawie), established in 1928, has 5,000 animals of over 500 species. There are animals like brown bears, storks, and other exotic species, like gibbons, African elephants, rhinoceros, giraffes, different kinds of birds, reptiles and various tropical fish.

On the grounds is the house of the zookeeper, Willa Żabińskich, where real drama occurred during World War II. Back then, Jan Żabińskich and his wife Antonina lived here. The two hid dozens of Jews in animal cages from the Nazis, and saved their lives while risking their own. It's an incredible story that they were able to keep the Jews hidden from the Germans, when a German unit was placed right inside the zoo itself.

For saving 300 of Warsaw's Jewish residents, the couple received the "Righteous Among the Nations" award.


If you want to visit the Hero's House, that got famous from a movie about the story. You can arrange a tour in advance, or arrive without a reservation on the last Saturday of the month, between 11:00 am and 3:00 pm.

A Closer Look at the Zoo:


Trailer to the movie "The Zoo Keeper's Wife":

St. John's Cathedral in Warsaw
St. John's Archcathedral
#About Warsaw's Oldest Church

St. John's Archcathedral (Archikatedra św. Jana) is the oldest church in Warsaw, and is directly related to the important historical events that took place in Poland. Quite a few discussions between kings and knights have been held here and it has been used for the coronation of quite a few kings and the swearing in of public figures.

The Great Cross was transferred here in the 16th century, when kings used to pray for victory before going to war. Today this cross is a Polish-national holy place.

During World War II, St. John's Cathedral experienced very severe destruction. In 1944 a real battle took place, and the whole area was blown up by the Germans with explosives. Notice the memorial plaque on the exterior wall of the church, which is still a memorial to that event.

Thus, although it began as a small wooden church, after the war it was rebuilt in the form of a magnificent Gothic structure, and today it is one of the most recognizable architectural icons in the city. When you walk around it, notice the impressive Gothic art, the statues and the wooden icons.

Among others, the writer Henryk Sienkiewicz, the composer Ignacy Jan Paderewski and the first president of the state, Gabriel Nrotovitch, are buried here.

A Closer Look at the Church:


A Look Inside the Church:

Jewish Cemetery Warsaw
Warsaw Jewish Cemetery
#About the Jewish Cemetery that Survived the Holocaust

The Warsaw Jewish Cemetery was founded in 1806. This is one of the largest and most active Jewish cemeteries in Poland. During World War II, the cemetery was included in the area of ​​the Ghetto and was more or less the only garden for Jews. Many of them came here during the terrible period of the Holocaust, in order to receive a bit of nature.

The cemetery has over 200,000 gravestones. Hebrew, Yiddish, Polish - the captions appear in many languages ​​and illustrate the complexity of the situation of the Jews in Poland and Europe of those days.

Many of these tombstones have great historical and artistic value. Here you can see the mausoleum of the three Jewish writers. Peretz, Simon Ansky and Yaakov Dinzon. You can also see the statue on the grave of Jewish actress Esther Rachel Kaminska.

In a moving corner of Warsaw's Jewish cemetery, a beautiful memorial is erected in memory of the great educator Janusz Korczak, in which he is depicted walking with the orphans of his orphanage, to the trains and the extermination camps. Korczak knew he was going to die and refused the Nazi offer to be released, because of his fame and his high international standing.

If you look closely you will see that right in front of the cemetery is one of Warsaw's largest department stores, the "Dom Modi Cliff" department store of luxury brands. Thus, both sides of modern Warsaw can be seen - on the one hand, a tragic and bloody history, and on the other - an empire of cheap shopping in a modern, lively and vibrant city.

A Closer Look at the Jewish Cemetery:


Another Look:


Multimedialny Park Fontann
Multimedia Fountain Park
#About the Multimedia Fountain Show that Lights up Warsaw

The length of the Multimedia Fountain Park (Multimedialny Park Fontann) is about half an hour long. If offers a nice entertainment for the early evening hours, and children especially enjoy it.

On Friday and Saturday nights from May to September, at 9:30 pm, at the Multimedia Fountain Park there is a colorful water fountain show, combined with a laser show as well. Sit on the grass along the small hill that overlooks the lights, and enjoys.

Multimedia Fountain Park is a four fountain complex opened by the city of Warsaw, to offer cultural attractions to visitors and residents of the city. The park is located north of the Old City, in Podzamcze.


The show is every Friday and Saturday between May and September, at 9:30 pm.

To have the base view of the show, sit at the top of the hill across the fountains, and not any lower.

It's nice to bring a blanket to sit on the grass.

Come dressed warmly!

A Closer Look at the Fountain Show:

Grand Theatre
#About Warsaw's Opera House

The Grand Theatre (Teatr Wielki) is the National Opera House in Poland, and hosts many classical performances throughout the year, from the big opera repertoire, as well as by known Polish composers.

The impressive Opera House was opened in 1833, the outstanding tradition brought it to a world-class level of first-rate cultural performances. It is considered one of the largest and best theaters in Europe and in addition to opera performances, many ballet performances are also performed here.


Tickets are fairly priced between 10 to 40 euros for a ticket in a good place at the theater.

You can see performances online on their website.

A Closer Look at the Theatre:


Special Lighting:

Bazar na Kole
#About Warsaw's Weekend Flea Market

Bazar na Kole opens only on weekends, and is a sort of heaven combined with a market for great antique findings.

In this market you will be able to buy almost everything that comes to mind. There are second-hand clothing, antiques, souvenirs, Communist-era items, vintage photos, chandeliers, dolls, silverware, kitchenware and furniture.

Here you can find many reminders of World War II and the Soviet era. Judaica lovers can find Menorahs around the market, Shabbath candlesticks and such, that only God knows how they came here from the rich Jewish world that existed here before the Holocaust and World War II.

During the rest of the week there are some traders operating in the market, on a small and insignificant scale.

At the Kole flea market it's a must to haggle!

A Closer Look:

The Orphanage of Janusz Korczak
#About the Great Educator's Orphanage

There is not much of the original institution at the orphanage of Janusz Korczak. This is a fairly clear fact, given the tragic history that led to his death in the Holocaust.

Korczak, a Jewish educator, physician and writer, was a famous figure in Europe, with a well-balanced radio program and a well-known children's book author. At the orphanage he founded in Warsaw in 1912, he employed pioneering educational methods and examined and advanced educational ideas.

In the courtyard of the orphanage stands a monument to Korczak. It commemorates his death in the gas chambers, together with his students, but also the educational life of the "old doctor," as they called him in better times.

The orphanage operated here until the establishment of the Jewish Ghetto. With the issuance of the Nazi order, which required all Jews to move into the Jewish Ghetto, the entire orphanage moved to 33 Chlodna Street, where it worked for some time before moving to its last residence on Sliska Street.

From the orphanage in the Ghetto, the children were taken in early August 1942 together with their teachers to the Umschlagplatz. Korczak himself, a famous man of international standing, refused the Nazi proposal to be released from death and went with his students to Treblinka extermination camp. There, they were all murdered in the gas chambers.

In the last place of the orphanage, on Sliska Street, nothing can be seen. In its place, there is today a green park, which was created after the war. In fact, the park was built on the ruins of the building and adjacent buildings, all destroyed when the Nazis liquidated the entire Jewish Ghetto.

#Lines for the Character of Janusz Korczak

The Jewish educator Dr. Janusz Korczak was the director of a Jewish orphanage in Warsaw and an admired educator. Before the war he was a real radio star who hosted a regular program on education and children. The Nazis, who recognized his name, freed him from having to go on the trains to the concentration camp, but Janusz Korczak refused and decided not to leave his students even in their deaths, and he accompanied them in a long convoy to the trains, which led them all to their deaths.

And not only his courage and love for his students and the children of his orphanage stand in the merit of this great educator. Korczak was one of the first educators in the world to introduce democratic education. His orphanage gave the children a sort of self-administered automaton. The orphanage included a parliament, a legislative committee, a weekly newspaper and even a rabbinic court, headed by child judges, who changed every week. Every Saturday, the children's courts met to discuss complaints that were filed that week against children and adults alike, teachers and other workers. The children had the right to prosecute even Korczak himself, who was very often tried ...

In the orphanage he led, each child received an older mentor. Thus the young children drew a personal example and constant instruction, while the older ones assumed responsibility and became young and thoughtful teachers. This method is currently implemented in educational institutions throughout the world. Korczak conceived it.

Video Presentation on Janusz Korczak:

Castle Square
#About the Pleasant Square in Town

The Castle Square (Plac Zamokwy) is the main square of Old Warsaw. It contains many of the cultural and governmental buildings in the city. The spacious square offers a variety of street performances and different musicians and artists performing an impressive torch dance. During the holidays, entertainment stages are set up here and the square becomes the center of the municipal celebrations.

Like the rest of the Old City, the Palace Square was almost completely destroyed by the Nazis, but after the war, between 1947 and 1957, it was rebuilt from its ruins. Like many squares in Europe, the square is now beautifully decorated, with all its homes painted in a variety of colors. At the entrance to the square on the left, adjacent to the continuation of the wall of the Old City, you will see a temporary exhibition on the reconstruction of the square from the destruction of World War II.

If you wish, you can go up to the observation tower from the church tower. This is not a very difficult climb, about 150 steps. The panoramic view from above is beautiful and worth the effort.

Pay attention to the Red Building in the square, which is the Royal Palace of the kings of Poland. The king of Poland did not always live in Warsaw. It was King Sigismund III (Wassa), who in the 16th century transferred the capital from Krakow to the city of Warsaw. The statue of King Sigismund you will see stands on a high pillar in the square and looks out at his palace.

And by the side of a palace, you can see the change of guard every hour.

A Closer Look at the Square:

Frederic Chopin Museum
#About the Interactive Museum in Memory of the Genius Polish Pianist

The Frederic Chopin Museum (Muzeum Fryderyka Chopina) is dedicated to a cultural hero, a source of pride for Warsaw and the whole Polish nation. It represents a wide variety of items that have been collected in the 1930's, while the greatest composer in the history of Poland was still alive.

The museum, considered today one of the more modern museums in Europe, displays items through technological attractions, and showcases the life, history and works of the composer known for the Polonaise, the Minuets and his beloved waltzes. The museum gives a glimpse into the world of one of the most prominent composers of the Romantic period, and visitors feel like Chopin's guests. Visitors can experience the short but impressive course of his life and hear his works in an experiential way.

The museum has collected many items from Chopin's life, the largest Chopin collection in the world, that began being assembled in 1934, and continues to grow today. Over 5,000 items here are connected to Chopin, such as statues, paintings and photos of him, sheet music, letters, authentic trinkets and souvenirs, hand-written documents by Chopin, personal belongings that he used in his daily life, and even his last piano, from the 1940's.

Among the more sentimental items, there are photos of Chopin in his PJ's, photos of his last moments while laying down on his deathbed, curls from the genius's hair, and dried flowers that had been kept from his sickbed.


On Sundays entrance is free.

The museum hosts many concerts and recitals. Take a look at the schedule on the museum website linked below.

A Closer Look at the Museum:


Chopin's Ballade in G minor from the film "The Pianist":


Waltz to Chopin's "Spring":

SS and Gestapo Headquarters
#About the Terror Center of the Nazi Gestapo in World War II

The building where you are standing hosted the headquarters for the Gestapo and SS until the end of World War II. Initially, this headquarter connected the Jewish Ghetto with the Polish part of Warsaw. From here the orders were issued and here the Jewish suspects were interrogated.

When the termination of the Jewish people started, what was called the "Final Solution," the Nazis were able to observe high up from their windows, onto Umschlagplatz Square. From there the SS oversaw the loading of thousands of Jews onto train cars and to their deaths, towards Treblinka Death Camp.

At the end of the war, the Nazis destroyed the entire Ghetto and its buildings, besides a few buildings used by the Gestapo. This is how this building was not damaged at all, being the headquarters.

Since the war and until now, the building was used as research labs for the University of Warsaw. At the entrance is a sign in memory of the history of the place.
The National Museum in Warsaw
#About Poland's Main Art Museum

The National Museum in Warsaw (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie) presents a huge number of items, approximately 830,000, and a variety of exhibitions dealing with ancient Egyptian art, early Egyptian art, medieval art, decorative art and more. The museum also has a number of exhibits related to Jewish culture and history.

Among the items you can see here are paintings, sculptures, prints, photographs, coins and more. The museum was originally founded in 1862 and is now considered one of the oldest museums in the country. It has 7 permanent exhibitions and quite a few changing exhibitions.

The museum's large building was built in the early 1930's in an Italian Fascist style. In the courtyard, you will be greeted by the museum fountain. Many visitors come to the museum every day, including schoolchildren and students.

Be sure to pay particular attention to the museum's real gem, the work of Polish national artist Jan Matyko, "The Battle of Grunewald," of 1878, which describes the Polish victory over the Teutons. You cannot miss the painting because of its sheer size, about ten meters wide and about four meters high.


On Thursdays, entrance is free between 12:00 pm - 7:00 pm.

A Closer Look at the Museum:

Three Crosses Square
#About the Famous Square From the Famous Book

The Three Crosses Square (Plac Trzech Krzyży) is one of the main squares of Warsaw. This is a beautiful square, that besides its central location, it is an important place for those traveling southward, to Wilanów Palace and Park and Constitution Square.

The square, located along the "Royal Road," an ancient road linking the city's palace with the Old City, is named for the three crosses that are located there. One of them is the cross at the top of the church in the center of the square and two others stand at the other end of the square.

During World War II the square was a central and busy place in the city of Warsaw. In the square was the German headquarters, that brought Jewish children here during the war. They slipped out of the Ghetto and pretended to be Polish. It was precisely here that they made their living selling cigarettes and matches. Joseph Jamian wrote the story of a group of children in the book "The Cigarette Sellers from Three Crosses Square." In 1944, towards the end of the war, the church was completely destroyed after the German planes bombed it.

#The Story of "The Cigarette Sellers from Three Crosses Square"

The book "The Cigarette Sellers from Three Crosses Square" is one of the most famous books from the Holocaust period. The children's story from the square is very interesting and real. The SS headquarters stood in front of the square during the war, and in front of it were Jewish boys and girls posing as poor Polish children and even sold cigarettes to the Nazis.

The cigarette-selling children used to get up at dawn and reach the cigarette dealers to make up their cigarette supply. From there they went to the square and throughout the day they sold their cigarettes to passers-by.

In the evenings they used to go and bathe in the public baths. In order not to be discovered circumcised, the children bribed the guards not to let anyone else in while they were in there bathing.

After bathing, the children used to go to the home of an old lady they called "Grandma." With her, they were free to unload the day's experiences and used to compare the amounts of cigarettes they sold. Beyond the sale to buyers, a simple operation in those difficult times, the children conducted a hidden competition between them, for selling and money. Each day they compared the "results" and the daily winner received a lot of respect from his friends and was crowned winner of the competition.

A Closer Look at the Square:


Warsaw Uprising Monument
#About the Monument in Memory of the Polish Uprising Against the Nazis

The Warsaw Uprising Monument is placed in front of the Polish Supreme Court, take a few minutes to pay respects to this place, the impressive monument is in memory of the Polish underground movement against the Nazis during World War II. In the uprising conducted by the underground movement, about 200,000 Polish citizens were killed.

The monument recognizes the Warsaw uprising, in 1944. It shows two groups of Polish rebels. The first going down into the sewer system, while the second climbs into barricade protection. You can see the entrance to the canal by marking a black and white table on the pavement on Miodova Street.

The monument was made in 1989. Five years later in 1994 a ceremony took place here, where the German Chancellor, Roman Herzog, apologized in the face of the Polish people and the families of the victims of the uprising from the Polish underground - about the atrocities committed by the Nazis during World War II.

A Closer Look at the Monument:

Prozna Street
#About the Warsaw Ghetto's Memorial Street

About one year after taking control of Poland in a lightning war, the Nazis established the Jewish Ghetto in Warsaw. Prozna Street (Próżna), where you are now, was part of the Warsaw Ghetto, also one of the few streets where Jews lived even before the war and the establishment of the Ghetto.

Prozna Street survived the destruction sown by the German planes on Warsaw towards the end of the war. Even today, the atmosphere of the old Jewish Warsaw has been preserved. On the street, a Jewish cultural festival called "Singer's Warsaw" takes place every summer, named after the Jewish writer Isaac Bashevis Singer.

During the festival, aiming to restore the historical and cultural heritage of Warsaw Jewry, Jewish music and Klezmer music are played, theater plays are performed in Hebrew and Yiddish, alongside traditional dance performances, exhibitions, films and discussions on Jewish subjects. Kosher food stands offer much of the Jewish food that is identified with Polish Jewry to this day.

Particularly interesting is the annual performance of the festival, under the name "And I Still See Their Face." In the exhibition, scenes of Jewish life in Warsaw from the days before the war are projected on the facades of buildings on the street, especially on the facade of the house that was left as it was during the war. Here and there you can see on the street pictures on the buildings, which bring back the Jewish people of the past, to today's streets.

#The House on Prozna Street

One of the buildings that survived the pre-war period, has been left behind since World War II, without being renovated. The old brown building is located in Grzybowski Square, right at the exit from the Jewish area, to the Polish area of ​​Warsaw. The pictures hanging on the building belongs to families who lived there in the early 20th century, most of them, Jewish families.

A Closer Look at the Street - Then and Now:


A House from the Ghetto Days:

Chlodna Street
#About the Street that Separated the Two Ghettos

During World War II, Chlodna Street symbolized the separation between the "big" Ghetto and the "small" Ghetto. Here on Chlodna Street the Nazis built a wooden bridge above the street that connected the two Ghettos.

The Nazis kept Chlodna Street out of the Ghetto walls, to be used as a way to move around supplies, and better control the "city."

Today, in memory of the wooden bridge from the Holocaust, there is a site called "Memorial Bridge," that displays the tragic events that occurred here during the Holocaust with multimedia.

Here, on July 1942, one big tragedy happened among the many of the time. This happened when the Nazis announced the liquidation of the Ghetto, with residents being moved to a new settlement in Eastern Europe, which of course was a big lie, and the plan was to send the entire Jewish population to death camps. At a school at 20 Chlonda Street, Czerniaków, the leader of the Jewish community committed suicide. He did this after hearing the announcement, and refusing to agree to give the Nazis the names of those meant to be deported, as he was forced to do in the past.

The house was maintained in its original form, and oddly enough was not destroyed while the Nazis were burning down the whole Ghetto, when trying to stop the Ghetto Uprising.

A Closer Look at the Street:

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews
#About the Museum Named Poland

The POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich), also known as the Polish Museum, is a museum that tells the history of the Jews in Poland, from the first immigration to Poland, to present day.

The museum was built in what was the only area in the former Jewish Quarter that was left without construction. Here, in the past, the Warsaw Ghetto was situated, right at the site where the Judenrat headquarters stood during the war. It is right next to Anielewicz Street and opposite the monument of the sculptor Nathan Rapaport, in memory of the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto.

Even if the museum dedicates a significant part to the Holocaust, it also deals quite a bit with other periods in the history of the connection between the Jews and Poland. In fact, the museum tells about the history of Polish Jewry, starting in the 13th century, and does it right through innovative technology that creates interest.

Although it has an interactive part, which offers activities with computer screens, the museum is not really intended for young children.

#Museum Exhibits

The museum has a permanent exhibition that presents 1,000 years of Jewish history, formerly the largest Jewish community in the world.

The permanent exhibition is divided into 8 spaces representing different historical periods, beginning with the Middle Ages of Polish Jewry, the Jews in the Polish-Lithuanian Union, the Second Polish Republic, the Holocaust and the postwar period.

Here are the museum's wings:

Forest - the escape of the Jews from persecution in Western Europe to Poland, which was the largest house for Jews in Europe.

Middle Ages- the first Jewish settlers in Poland. Descriptions of Abraham ben Jacob, from the 10th century of the Polish state under the first ruler of Yashko, the first ruler of Poland.

Golden Age - in the 15th and 16th centuries, the rich culture of Polish Jewry, which enjoyed religious tolerance, and developed. It ended with the pogroms of the Khmelnytsky revolt, which is represented as a symbolic flame of fire.

Towards a State - In the 17th and 18th centuries, typical suburbs develope near cities with a Jewish majority.

Modernity - Polish Jewry divided in the 19th century succeeds in the industrial revolution in Poland, developing and meeting modern anti-Semitism, which will accompany them from here.

The Street - Between the two world wars, the second golden age of Polish Jewry was created, and a developed Jewish culture was created in Poland.

Holocaust - the horrors of the Holocaust, which puts the Jews of Warsaw in Ghettos and annihilates 90% of Polish Jewry.

Post-War - after 1945, with the departure of most Holocaust survivors from Poland, the Soviet takeover and the anti-Semitic campaign sponsored by the Communist authorities, until the end of communism and the revival of the small Jewish community in Poland.


Admission to the museum on Thursdays is free.

Entrance is until 4:00 pm.

The tour lasts about two hours.

A Closer Look at the Museum:

Old Town Market Place
Keret House
Grzybowski Square
A Section of the Ghetto Wall
All Saints Church

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

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אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

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