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Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
#About the Ghetto Where the Jews Were Concentrated During the Holocaust

The Warsaw Ghetto, or the Jewish Ghetto in Warsaw, was created by the Nazis, about one year after their occupation of Poland. The Germans decided to concentrate the entire Jewish population of Warsaw and the area, in a closed off and fenced area. The Nazis forced Jewish people to move into the Ghetto, and surrounded it with bricks to separate the Ghetto from the Polish side of the city.

The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest in the Jewish ghettos established during the Holocaust in Poland. At its peak, some 450,000 people lived here. It existed from the fall of 1940 until the spring of 1943.

Conditions in the Ghetto were harsh and threatening. Poverty, starvation and disease, terrible overcrowding in the small apartments where several families were crammed, the loss of privacy, more and more Jews were gradually taken to the death camps. The poverty and lack of everything brought young children between the ages of 7 and 13, who were small enough to go through holes and cracks, to sneak into Warsaw to smuggle food from the "Aryan" Warsaw in exchange for little trinkets or money, with the Gestapo soldiers following a brutal and cruel pursuit of the children.

In March 1941, the Germans decided to reduce the size of the Ghetto and closed the small Ghetto. Later they deported more and more Jews from the Ghetto to the camps. During the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising that broke out in April 1943, most of the buildings in the Ghetto streets were destroyed by the German army. The German air force, the Luftwaffe, bombed the Ghetto and destroyed most of the buildings there. The Nazis continued to wreak havoc in the Ghetto, even after they had defeated the Jewish revolt, which lasted only a month.

A Closer Look at the Ghetto - Today and Then:


How the Ghetto Looked During the Terrible War:


Documentation of Many Places Around the Warsaw Ghetto:

The Orphanage of Janusz Korczak
The Orphanage of Janusz Korczak
#About the Great Educator's Orphanage

There is not much of the original institution at the orphanage of Janusz Korczak. This is a fairly clear fact, given the tragic history that led to his death in the Holocaust.

Korczak, a Jewish educator, physician and writer, was a famous figure in Europe, with a well-balanced radio program and a well-known children's book author. At the orphanage he founded in Warsaw in 1912, he employed pioneering educational methods and examined and advanced educational ideas.

In the courtyard of the orphanage stands a monument to Korczak. It commemorates his death in the gas chambers, together with his students, but also the educational life of the "old doctor," as they called him in better times.

The orphanage operated here until the establishment of the Jewish Ghetto. With the issuance of the Nazi order, which required all Jews to move into the Jewish Ghetto, the entire orphanage moved to 33 Chlodna Street, where it worked for some time before moving to its last residence on Sliska Street.

From the orphanage in the Ghetto, the children were taken in early August 1942 together with their teachers to the Umschlagplatz. Korczak himself, a famous man of international standing, refused the Nazi proposal to be released from death and went with his students to Treblinka extermination camp. There, they were all murdered in the gas chambers.

In the last place of the orphanage, on Sliska Street, nothing can be seen. In its place, there is today a green park, which was created after the war. In fact, the park was built on the ruins of the building and adjacent buildings, all destroyed when the Nazis liquidated the entire Jewish Ghetto.

#Lines for the Character of Janusz Korczak

The Jewish educator Dr. Janusz Korczak was the director of a Jewish orphanage in Warsaw and an admired educator. Before the war he was a real radio star who hosted a regular program on education and children. The Nazis, who recognized his name, freed him from having to go on the trains to the concentration camp, but Janusz Korczak refused and decided not to leave his students even in their deaths, and he accompanied them in a long convoy to the trains, which led them all to their deaths.

And not only his courage and love for his students and the children of his orphanage stand in the merit of this great educator. Korczak was one of the first educators in the world to introduce democratic education. His orphanage gave the children a sort of self-administered automaton. The orphanage included a parliament, a legislative committee, a weekly newspaper and even a rabbinic court, headed by child judges, who changed every week. Every Saturday, the children's courts met to discuss complaints that were filed that week against children and adults alike, teachers and other workers. The children had the right to prosecute even Korczak himself, who was very often tried ...

In the orphanage he led, each child received an older mentor. Thus the young children drew a personal example and constant instruction, while the older ones assumed responsibility and became young and thoughtful teachers. This method is currently implemented in educational institutions throughout the world. Korczak conceived it.

Video Presentation on Janusz Korczak:

SS and Gestapo Headquarters
SS and Gestapo Headquarters
#About the Terror Center of the Nazi Gestapo in World War II

The building where you are standing hosted the headquarters for the Gestapo and SS until the end of World War II. Initially, this headquarter connected the Jewish Ghetto with the Polish part of Warsaw. From here the orders were issued and here the Jewish suspects were interrogated.

When the termination of the Jewish people started, what was called the "Final Solution," the Nazis were able to observe high up from their windows, onto Umschlagplatz Square. From there the SS oversaw the loading of thousands of Jews onto train cars and to their deaths, towards Treblinka Death Camp.

At the end of the war, the Nazis destroyed the entire Ghetto and its buildings, besides a few buildings used by the Gestapo. This is how this building was not damaged at all, being the headquarters.

Since the war and until now, the building was used as research labs for the University of Warsaw. At the entrance is a sign in memory of the history of the place.
Prozna Street
#About the Warsaw Ghetto's Memorial Street

About one year after taking control of Poland in a lightning war, the Nazis established the Jewish Ghetto in Warsaw. Prozna Street (Próżna), where you are now, was part of the Warsaw Ghetto, also one of the few streets where Jews lived even before the war and the establishment of the Ghetto.

Prozna Street survived the destruction sown by the German planes on Warsaw towards the end of the war. Even today, the atmosphere of the old Jewish Warsaw has been preserved. On the street, a Jewish cultural festival called "Singer's Warsaw" takes place every summer, named after the Jewish writer Isaac Bashevis Singer.

During the festival, aiming to restore the historical and cultural heritage of Warsaw Jewry, Jewish music and Klezmer music are played, theater plays are performed in Hebrew and Yiddish, alongside traditional dance performances, exhibitions, films and discussions on Jewish subjects. Kosher food stands offer much of the Jewish food that is identified with Polish Jewry to this day.

Particularly interesting is the annual performance of the festival, under the name "And I Still See Their Face." In the exhibition, scenes of Jewish life in Warsaw from the days before the war are projected on the facades of buildings on the street, especially on the facade of the house that was left as it was during the war. Here and there you can see on the street pictures on the buildings, which bring back the Jewish people of the past, to today's streets.

#The House on Prozna Street

One of the buildings that survived the pre-war period, has been left behind since World War II, without being renovated. The old brown building is located in Grzybowski Square, right at the exit from the Jewish area, to the Polish area of ​​Warsaw. The pictures hanging on the building belongs to families who lived there in the early 20th century, most of them, Jewish families.

A Closer Look at the Street - Then and Now:


A House from the Ghetto Days:


Warsaw Ghetto

Chlodna Street
Chlodna Street
#About the Street that Separated the Two Ghettos

During World War II, Chlodna Street symbolized the separation between the "big" Ghetto and the "small" Ghetto. Here on Chlodna Street the Nazis built a wooden bridge above the street that connected the two Ghettos.

The Nazis kept Chlodna Street out of the Ghetto walls, to be used as a way to move around supplies, and better control the "city."

Today, in memory of the wooden bridge from the Holocaust, there is a site called "Memorial Bridge," that displays the tragic events that occurred here during the Holocaust with multimedia.

Here, on July 1942, one big tragedy happened among the many of the time. This happened when the Nazis announced the liquidation of the Ghetto, with residents being moved to a new settlement in Eastern Europe, which of course was a big lie, and the plan was to send the entire Jewish population to death camps. At a school at 20 Chlonda Street, Czerniaków, the leader of the Jewish community committed suicide. He did this after hearing the announcement, and refusing to agree to give the Nazis the names of those meant to be deported, as he was forced to do in the past.

The house was maintained in its original form, and oddly enough was not destroyed while the Nazis were burning down the whole Ghetto, when trying to stop the Ghetto Uprising.

A Closer Look at the Street:

Rynek Starego Miasta
Old Town Market Place
#About the Old Town Square

On the western side of the river is the rectangular market square of the Old Town (Rynek Starego Miasta). It is considered the most beautiful square in the city and is built in the style that characterizes the Germans who emigrated to Poland in the 14th century. Once, by the way, stood here the Old Townhall that was demolished in 1917.

At that time, the square was an important and significant center of the city, the center of commerce, economy, society and politics of the city until the 18th century. Markets, ceremonies, and show trials were held here.

Like many places in Warsaw, the beautiful square was also completely destroyed during World War II, but not long afterward it was renovated and restored. Today it is one of the most picturesque and magical places in Warsaw because of its variety of buildings, the facades of which are colorful and vibrant.

If you look around the buildings, you will see that they are characterized by Baroque and Renaissance style and there are lots of pleasant alleys for walking. They are closed to the entrance of vehicles. In the area of the square you will find many interesting restaurants, cafés, galleries and small shops. Here, by the way, there are quite a few wonderful souvenir shops, where you can buy home souvenirs and gifts at reasonable prices.

#The Siren Statue Ready to Protect the City of Warsaw

In the center of the square you will see the symbol of Warsaw - the siren. It is the mermaid holding the sword and shield and ready to protect the inhabitants of the city. Legend has it that she used to swim in the Vistula River, stopped for a rest near the Old City and captured a fisherman with to her magical singing. The latter rescued her from the hands of an evil merchant, fought and freed her. Since then, the mermaid has vowed to defend and assist the city and its inhabitants.


If you arrive in Warsaw in the winter, you will be happy to know that starting in December, the market square becomes an ice skating rink.

A Closer Look at the Square:

Dom Kereta
Keret House
#About the Narrowest House in the World on Chlonda Street

The Keret House (Dom Kereta or Etgar Keret) on Chlodna Street in Warsaw is the narrowest house in the world. It was designed by the Polish architect Jakub Szczesny. He dreamed of a house that would be very narrow but would still serve as a home. He was inspired by the stories of the Israeli writer Etgar Keret, who he says writes the shortest stories that give a full feeling.

This is a tall, multi-story house built in a space between two buildings in Warsaw. It is tall, long and bright in the sun, thanks to the transparent roof and ceiling. It has a bed, kitchen, bathroom and study (or at least a writing corner). It was especially important for the architect to keep the home at the maximum width of 122 centimeters, while making it not to feel claustrophobic, like an enclosed place, even though it was so narrow.

The house is situated at the corner of the streets between Chlodna 22 and 74 Zelazna Street, meters away from the bridge connecting the "big ghetto" with the "small ghetto."

The house is full of famous branded electronics donated by sponsors and commercial financiers who decide to give away for free. They do this for advertising purposes and also prove that their products are suitable for small apartments.

The house belonged to the Warsaw municipality and artists from around the world have been invited to stay here from time to time, or rent it for short periods. Of course, Keret was the first of them invited to stay there.

Why Etgar Keret? - Beyond his most popular works in Europe, the house was dedicated to the Israeli writer because it was built in the area that was the Jewish ghetto of Warsaw during World War II. This is the same ghetto where Keret's mother lived with her family during that terrible period. She is the only survivor of her family.


You can visit the house only at certain times, which must be checked out before at the website linked below.

Inside the Keret House:

A Section of the Ghetto Wall
A Section of the Ghetto Wall
#About the Surviving Jewish Ghetto Wall

When World War II was over, Warsaw was left in pieces, with ruins as symbols of the old Jewish Ghetto. The wall has remained the same up to today, on Zlota Street behind a house on 55 Sienna on Walicow Street, where remains of destroyed houses can be seen from the war, as evidence to the horrible historic atrocities to the Jewish community.

On the sidewalks, in many of the points where the Ghetto wall once stood, metal plates can be seen with historical explanations maps and photos.

A Closer Look at the Jewish Ghetto Wall Remains:


Plac Grzybowski
Grzybowski Square
#About the Square that Revived Jewish Life

Grzybowski Square (Plac Grzybowski) was established in the 17th century, where the junction between the government fortress and the rural community surrounding it was located, and the old center of Warsaw. Later on, in the 17th century it became a market square and in the 18th century a square in the city of Warsaw, to which it was annexed. At that time, the municipality building was also built there and the building was built in the square. In the middle of the 19th century, Jewish merchants began to enter the square and open shops and residents.

At the beginning of the 20th century, electric-powered streetcars arrived and lighting was added. Progress also brought about a change in the appearance of the square and the evacuation of the market to another square. This was before World War II when the square became the center of Jewish life in the city. Here was the Jewish market, where the Jews of the city came to buy the things they needed before the holidays, like a chicken before Yom Kippur or the fruits for Sukkot.

When the Jewish Ghetto was created, during the Nazi occupation of Warsaw, the square was included within the boundaries of the small Ghetto. Here, too, stands the Church of the Assumption of Mary, which served the converts in the Ghetto, Jews who converted to Christianity in the past, but the Nazis saw them as Jews and put them in the Ghetto. Nazi racial theory, it should be noted, regarded Judaism as a race, that it was impossible to change, and not a religion, that it could be changed. Therefore, the change of religion did not change the fate of the converts.

Today, Grzybowski Square is still paved with stones and has not undergone significant changes since the war.

In 1941, when the Nazis liquidated the small Ghetto, the square remained closed to the citizens of Warsaw, and when the Polish underground uprising broke out in 1944, it became part of the area of ​​battle. When the underground was defeated, the Germans destroyed and burned the western part of the square, the Arona Serdynera Jewish Synagogue and the church where the rebels had barricaded themselves.

A Closer Look at the Square that was Once the Center of Jewish Life in the City:

Miła 18
#About the Location of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Bunker

You are located at 18 Miła Street, near a hill marking the site where the underground bunker of the Jewish Ghetto was buried. From here the Jewish underground ran the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising against the Nazis, and here most of the fighters were killed.

The decision to rise up and fight against the Nazis was made after the great expulsion from the Ghetto, when the Jews in the ghetto reached the conclusion that the fate of all would be death. Only a few tens of thousands of Jews remained in the Ghetto. Some hid in hiding places and decided to fight the Nazis.

The underground soldiers waged a courageous and hopeless war, almost without weapons, against the Nazi army, which was full of well-equipped soldiers. On May 8, 1943, after the great fires that the Nazis had started in the ghetto and the destruction of the other rebel bases, members of the underground were discovered in a bunker that was here. When it became apparent that they had lost their chance to survive, the bunker being surrounded by soldiers (many of the rebels had been poisoned and died by German gas bombs), the rebels of the Jewish Fighting Organization put an end to their lives in the bunker on Mila Street. Only remnants of the bunker remained, and after the liberation of Warsaw from the time of the Nazis, a memorial was erected here.

#The Story of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the largest uprising of Jews, mainly young people, against the Nazis. This is also the first Jewish revolt in the history of the Holocaust. The revolt broke out after news began to be received about the murders by the Nazis in the Chelmno extermination camp, and in the East in general. Then, the Jews first realized that the trains that the Germans were bringing to them led to extermination rather than to work camps.

Many young people in the Ghetto decided to preserve their dignity and die in the struggle and resistance of the Nazis and not in submission to them. The Nazis, who failed to overcome the rebels and capture them, decided to burn house after house in the Ghetto, until the rebels were subdued. The fires spread throughout the ghetto, and when the large area made it difficult to continue the fighting in the bunkers where the fighters were hiding, they began to go out and fight outside their hiding places and were killed or fell into the hands of the Nazis.

In the basement of the building on the corner of 18 Mila Street was where the main bunker of the rebels was located. Here was the headquarters of the Jewish resistance movement and it was sheltering more than 100 people. When the hiding place was discovered by the Germans, they began to throw in lethal gas bombs, most of the rebels in the bunker, commanded by Mordechai Anielewicz, decided to end their lives, just as the Masada fighters had done about 2,000 years before, in order not to fall into the hands of the Romans.

A Closer Look at the Site:


Former Prime Minister Rabin Visits 18 Mila Street:

Monument to the Ghetto Heroes
#About the Monument in Memory of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The Monument to the Ghetto Heroes (Pomnik Bohaterow Getta) is the main memorial monument in the city, that was dedicated to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. In the uprising were young Jews, who were using guerrilla warfare against the Nazis, against all odds. The Nazi oppressor, shocked by their daring and actions, burned and destroyed the Ghetto in order to subdue them, and knocked down whole buildings on the heads of the last rebels who had barricaded themselves in the basements and swore not to surrender.

The monument was presented to the public in 1948, on the fifth anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. It was sculpted by the artist Natan Rapaport, who was assisted by its founder, architect Suzanne. Rapaport was a Jewish sculptor, painter and photographer who was born in Warsaw and lost all his family in the Holocaust. Throughout his life, after the war, he devoted his most important and best-known works to commemorating those who perished and fought the Nazis.

Next to the monument, the German Chancellor Willy Brandt knelt down in 1970 to commemorate the victims and begged forgiveness for the German crimes against the Jewish people. The Poles thanked him by naming the square in front of the monument after him.

A replica of the monument is also in the Warsaw Ghetto Square, on the Yad Vashem plaza in Jerusalem. Many see it as one of the most important symbols of the Holocaust and heroism heritage.

#What To See at the Monument?

The monument manages to present the amazing contrast between heroism and the inconceivable walk, like sheep to the slaughter, to a fate of unparalleled cruelty.

On one side of the monument, statues of heroic soldiers are displayed against the backdrop of the Ghetto in flames and Jews being sent to extermination. They hold hand grenades, rifles and Molotov cocktails, as symbols of their heroism. This side is called "The Struggle."

On the other side of the monument is the "March to Death," where you can learn about the suffering, torture and killing of the victims, by a group of religious Jews walking head down to their deaths.

The monument is made of blocks of stone that were brought by the Germans from Sweden and originally designated for the establishment of the memorial monuments of Hitler and the Germans.

#Jewish Heroism in the Holocaust

From the Monument to the Ghetto Heroes begins a tour in the wake of the Ghetto rebels. The trail, called "The Path of Heroism," was inaugurated in 1988 on the 45th anniversary of the uprising.

The trail, which begins here on Zamenhof Street, has 16 memorial stones of granite - each dedicated to the memory of a character from the Jewish past of the city.

A Closer Look at the Monument:

POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews
#About the Museum Named Poland

The POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich), also known as the Polish Museum, is a museum that tells the history of the Jews in Poland, from the first immigration to Poland, to present day.

The museum was built in what was the only area in the former Jewish Quarter that was left without construction. Here, in the past, the Warsaw Ghetto was situated, right at the site where the Judenrat headquarters stood during the war. It is right next to Anielewicz Street and opposite the monument of the sculptor Nathan Rapaport, in memory of the heroes of the Warsaw Ghetto.

Even if the museum dedicates a significant part to the Holocaust, it also deals quite a bit with other periods in the history of the connection between the Jews and Poland. In fact, the museum tells about the history of Polish Jewry, starting in the 13th century, and does it right through innovative technology that creates interest.

Although it has an interactive part, which offers activities with computer screens, the museum is not really intended for young children.

#Museum Exhibits

The museum has a permanent exhibition that presents 1,000 years of Jewish history, formerly the largest Jewish community in the world.

The permanent exhibition is divided into 8 spaces representing different historical periods, beginning with the Middle Ages of Polish Jewry, the Jews in the Polish-Lithuanian Union, the Second Polish Republic, the Holocaust and the postwar period.

Here are the museum's wings:

Forest - the escape of the Jews from persecution in Western Europe to Poland, which was the largest house for Jews in Europe.

Middle Ages- the first Jewish settlers in Poland. Descriptions of Abraham ben Jacob, from the 10th century of the Polish state under the first ruler of Yashko, the first ruler of Poland.

Golden Age - in the 15th and 16th centuries, the rich culture of Polish Jewry, which enjoyed religious tolerance, and developed. It ended with the pogroms of the Khmelnytsky revolt, which is represented as a symbolic flame of fire.

Towards a State - In the 17th and 18th centuries, typical suburbs develope near cities with a Jewish majority.

Modernity - Polish Jewry divided in the 19th century succeeds in the industrial revolution in Poland, developing and meeting modern anti-Semitism, which will accompany them from here.

The Street - Between the two world wars, the second golden age of Polish Jewry was created, and a developed Jewish culture was created in Poland.

Holocaust - the horrors of the Holocaust, which puts the Jews of Warsaw in Ghettos and annihilates 90% of Polish Jewry.

Post-War - after 1945, with the departure of most Holocaust survivors from Poland, the Soviet takeover and the anti-Semitic campaign sponsored by the Communist authorities, until the end of communism and the revival of the small Jewish community in Poland.


Admission to the museum on Thursdays is free.

Entrance is until 4:00 pm.

The tour lasts about two hours.

A Closer Look at the Museum:

All Saints Church
#About the Church that Converted Jews

During the Nazi era, the remaining churches in the area of the Jewish ghetto, to which the Nazis forced the Jews to move to, served the converted Jews who lived in the ghetto. There were Jews who left Judaism in the past and converted to Christianity, but from the Nazi point of view they were Jews for all intents and purposes. This is because Nazi ideology saw Judaism as a race, and a race cannot be changed.

There were two converted churches in the Jewish Ghetto where they prayed during the Holocaust. The two converted churches in the Jewish Ghetto were large and impressive. One of them was the "All Saints Church" (Kościół Wszystkich). This church served part of the converted Jews in the Ghetto and the other, in Grzybowski Square, was the Church of the Birth of Mary, located on one of the bustling streets of the Jewish Quarter. But the relations between the converts and the Jews in the ghetto, it is important to remember, were not simple. Their hatred towards Judaism was great. According to testimonies from this period, the children of Janusz Korczak's orphanage asked in a letter to the priest of the church to visit the garden of the church, but he refused them. It was the only garden in the Ghetto.

#Church of the Birth of Mary

In the Jewish Ghetto, the Church of the Birth of Mary was placed in Grzybowski Square, in favor of those who converted from Judaism and wanted to fulfill their Christian commandments.

The Nazi anti-Semitic ideology in its modern incarnation saw Judaism as no longer a "religion," but a biological race, and even those who converted from Judaism remained Jewish.

At the end of World War II, the structure of the church was damaged and partially destroyed, mainly by the wounds sustained by the Germans during the heroic uprising of the Polish underground in 1944.

Over the years, the church has been relocated to make way for the expansion of a road. In a complex engineering operation in which the foundations of the structure were sawed, the church was moved 17 meters from its place, on a rail that was installed to drag it into its new location and connect it to new foundations.

#Who Were the Converts?

The converts were a special victim of Nazi racial theory and its distorted logic. They were Jews who had left Judaism in the past and became Christians. Among them were renowned scientists and doctors such as Professor Ludwik Zamenhof-Zaleski, the grandson of the inventor of the Esperanto language and the famous immunologist - Professor Ludwig Hirschfeld.

Even if one does not agree with those who have decided to leave the Jewish faith and become Christians, or atheists who declare themselves non-Jewish, even if there is a bad taste in the open hostility shown by some of them to the Jews, it is hard not to be surprised by the Nazi cruelty towards them.

That the Nazis saw biology as the only thing that defines the Jew. With Jews who converted, they viewed them as Jews in every way, and therefore all the decrees and deportation fell on them - whether it was the Ghetto or the death camps.

This was the Nazi anti-Semitism, the same anti-Semitism of thousands of years, but in a new incarnation, fascist and racist without shame, anti-Semitism that says that Judaism is no longer a "religion," but a biological race in every respect.

Thus the converts were forced into the Ghetto, under the Nazis' bayonets. More than 2,000 converts were living in the Warsaw Ghetto. Against their will and despite their alienation from the Jews from which they fled, they found themselves sharing the same fate with the Jewish people to whom they had renounced.

Still, even when they were in the Ghetto, the converts hoped for German disillusionment and a special status that would enable them to leave the ghetto, to freedom, to the bulk of Warsaw. It did not happen.

#A Closer Look at the Church of the converted on Łazienki Street:

Three Crosses Square
#About the Famous Square From the Famous Book

The Three Crosses Square (Plac Trzech Krzyży) is one of the main squares of Warsaw. This is a beautiful square, that besides its central location, it is an important place for those traveling southward, to Wilanów Palace and Park and Constitution Square.

The square, located along the "Royal Road," an ancient road linking the city's palace with the Old City, is named for the three crosses that are located there. One of them is the cross at the top of the church in the center of the square and two others stand at the other end of the square.

During World War II the square was a central and busy place in the city of Warsaw. In the square was the German headquarters, that brought Jewish children here during the war. They slipped out of the Ghetto and pretended to be Polish. It was precisely here that they made their living selling cigarettes and matches. Joseph Jamian wrote the story of a group of children in the book "The Cigarette Sellers from Three Crosses Square." In 1944, towards the end of the war, the church was completely destroyed after the German planes bombed it.

#The Story of "The Cigarette Sellers from Three Crosses Square"

The book "The Cigarette Sellers from Three Crosses Square" is one of the most famous books from the Holocaust period. The children's story from the square is very interesting and real. The SS headquarters stood in front of the square during the war, and in front of it were Jewish boys and girls posing as poor Polish children and even sold cigarettes to the Nazis.

The cigarette-selling children used to get up at dawn and reach the cigarette dealers to make up their cigarette supply. From there they went to the square and throughout the day they sold their cigarettes to passers-by.

In the evenings they used to go and bathe in the public baths. In order not to be discovered circumcised, the children bribed the guards not to let anyone else in while they were in there bathing.

After bathing, the children used to go to the home of an old lady they called "Grandma." With her, they were free to unload the day's experiences and used to compare the amounts of cigarettes they sold. Beyond the sale to buyers, a simple operation in those difficult times, the children conducted a hidden competition between them, for selling and money. Each day they compared the "results" and the daily winner received a lot of respect from his friends and was crowned winner of the competition.

A Closer Look at the Square:

#About the Square Where Jews Were Sent to Death Camps

Umschlagplatz is on the Northern side of the Warsaw Ghetto, it is a square where the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto were concentrated by the Nazis, before being loaded on trains to death camps. Usually, these trains led to Treblinka, and a few went to Majdanek. From this very square, each day about 5,000 - 7,000 people were sent to the death camps - whole families, women, and babies. They were loaded onto the freight trains that were meant to move cattle around the country, about 100-200 people per car, led to their deaths. About 300,000 of the Warsaw Ghetto residents were sent to their deaths this way.

This transporting square and the school nearby are located right near the freight train station, and this is how it became the worst place of all, for the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto and the whole area. Some called this square "the square of the disappeared," those who understood that the Jews who are led out this way were not coming back.

After concentrating the people here, most of the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto were sent from Umschlagplatz to death camps. In contrasting irony, the square was located between the Jewish Hospital-who worked to save lives, and the Gestapo headquarters-the ones in charge of the killings during the Holocaust.

The word Umschlagplatz in German means a place of transfer. The square for concentrating Jews to the death camps was presented as a place to transport Jews to a new settlement around Europe, which of course was a Nazi deception.

The square was also nicknamed "Delivery Square," a name given to it before the war, since the square was the only place where Jews were allowed to hand over goods, that is, to exchange them with the rest of the city's non-Jewish residents. The trading continued into the war and in parallel to the deportation of the Jews to the extermination camps.

The site today is a wall that serves as a symbolic tombstone, written on in Polish, Yidish and Hebrew, and recognizes the historic spot. Here "the memory path for the murdered," which starts at the Monument to the Ghetto Heroes and ends in Umschlagplatz. All along the path are blocks of black stones with names of many of the murdered.

A Closer Look at Umschlagplatz Square:


אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

העולם הוא צבעוני ומופלא, אאוריקה כאן בשביל שתגלו אותו...

אלפי נושאים, תמונות וסרטונים, מפתיעים, מסקרנים וממוקדים.

ניתן לנווט בין הפריטים במגע, בעכבר, בגלגלת, או במקשי המקלדת

בואו לגלות, לחקור, ולקבל השראה!

אֵאוּרִיקַה - האנציקלופדיה של הסקרנות!

נראה שכבר הכרתם את אאוריקה. בטח כבר גיליתם כאן דברים מדהימים, אולי כבר שאלתם שאלות וקיבלתם תשובות טובות.
נשמח לראות משהו מכם בספר האורחים שלנו: איזו מילה טובה, חוות דעת, עצה חכמה לשיפור או כל מה שיש לכם לספר לנו על אאוריקה, כפי שאתם חווים אותה.