Nelson Column rises from the center of the square, where the statue of Lord Admiral Horacio Nelson is also raised. Nelson was the commander of the glorious British fleet who won the Battle of Trafalgar. The statue is guarded by four bronze lions. Four large fountains were built there in 1845.
Three sculptures can be found in the square: King George IV,
Henry Havelock and Sir Charles James Napier.
Originally, the fourth sculpture was meant to be a statue of King William IV. However, due to budget problems preventing the completion of the statue, it was never made. Today, the podium is used to show specially commissioned temporary artworks. A chief activity among the visitors is feeding the pigeons in the square. Due to damage inflicted on the sculptures, efforts to prevent feeding the pigeons have been in play since 2003.
The city of Oslo sends a Christmas Tree to the city of London every year since 1947. The tree is then placed at the center of the square during the holidays. This is a token of Norway’s gratitude to Britain for its help during World War II.
In 1820, architect John Nash was hired to plan the square and turn it into a public area. His work was completed by architect Sir Charles in 1845.
The square was named in 1830, for the naval battle in which British naval forces defeated the forces of France and Spain near Cape Trafalgar. The battle thwarted Napoleon's plan to invade Britain and hence its great importance in the history of the kingdom.
One of the leaders in the battle and its victory was Admiral Horatio Nelson, who was killed in these efforts. A Nelson Column was placed in the center of the square in his memory. The height of the column is more than 50 meters tall, atop which a granite statue at an altitude of another 5 meters is erected. In 1867 bronze lions guarding the pillar were added.
on October 2, 1805. It was a battle in which the British Royal Navy,
commanded by Admiral Horacio fought against the French and Spanish navies commanded by Admiral Pierre Villeneuve. It was one of the most famous battles in history.
The battle took place during the reign of French general Napoleon, upon his decision to conquer Britain. By order of Napoleon, the French had assembled a fleet of flat invasion ships and planned to transport the French army to the British island. Nelson and his fleet pursued them through the Channel and along the Atlantic coast. Near Cape Trafalgar in Spain, not far from Gibraltar, Nelson's forces seized and defeated the French fleet.
France suffered a great defeat in Trafalgar and its fleet was
almost completely destroyed by Nelson. In so doing, the English admiral belittled the great victories of the French general Napoleon and shattered his glory. Furthermore, when Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the Spanish and French naval forces of Napoleon Bonaparte, he ensured British rule for more than 100 years. In the attempt to prevent the invasion, Nelson confirmed Britain’s naval supremacy established during the eighteenth century.
Yet the victorious battle led by Admiral Nelson was also his last. He was killed shortly after signaling the famous message to the Navy under his command: " England expects that every man will do his duty." He struggled to fight for his life for several hours. When the victory of Britain was evident, he took his last breath.
Historically, the results of the battle ensured the naval superiority of England for many years. Nelson, after a series of spectacular victories in large naval battles, became an English hero. The square in London was christened Trafalgar Square to commemorate the victory.
The battle is named after Cape Trafalgar, a cape located northwest of Gibraltar in southwest Spain, where the battle took place.