Originally, the purpose of the church was to serve as Templar headquarters, a military order that operated during the Crusades. The Templars required a large site where they could meet. They purchased the area on which the church was located for this purpose. Buildings were erected to serve the Order: a training area, residential and leisure areas. The Knights Templar fell in the 14th century and the church became the property of the kingdom.
In 1215, negotiations were held between the nobles and King
John over the signing of the Magna Carta, the great charter of liberties. In the 14th century, after the fall of the order, the land of the church became the property of the kingdom and since then it has been the center of two of London's law offices.
Unbeknown to most, the circular structure of the church was designed in connection with the Church of the Holy Sepulcher located in the capital of Israel, Jerusalem. Graves in the church are of many familiar people, among them William Marshall and King John.
The church was completely destroyed during World War II and in the Great Fire of London in 1941, but it was renovated and restored in 1958.
Important principles that we now recognize as basic principles in civilized countries stemmed from the historical signature of the Magna Carta. For example, the fact that "no one is above the law" means that a king is not authorized to do as he pleases. He cannot attack other countries and then impose taxes on his citizens in order to finance these military expeditions. The same decision that a king cannot impose taxes at his will not only a financial matter - it is the basis of the rule of law, which was later established as a cornerstone of democracy.
The Magna Carta led to the establishment of parliaments and legislatures. Those fortunate enough to be voted in by the people are to represent the citizens and preserve their rights. The paramount right of due process – a fair trial and consequent punishment which can only be carried out after the accused has been found guilty. Furthermore, freedom of speech, freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial are all principles born of this signature and have since become the rights of all citizens. It should be noted that in the Middle Ages, they were only intended for nobility. Today, all democratic states, starting from the American Revolution and other democracies declared since then, draw from the International Magna Carta declaring a demand for freedom and the protection of human rights for every person in the world.