During the Roman Empire, the Forum was a central area in which most of the city's life took place. This was the center of the political, economic, social and religious life in the empire. There was a crowded market square with courts, temples, gates and pillars of victory, the House of Representatives, and more.
Many public issues on the Roman agenda were dealt with here. Victory parades marched through this square, eulogies and speeches by leaders and clerics, other social and political events that took place here.
The Forum is located between Capitoline Hill, the seat of the Roman emperors and nobility, and Palatino Hill, the home of the wealthy and Roman rulers.
During the Iron Age, when man's technological ability to produce iron tools was made, there were cemeteries of the local inhabitants where the city now stands.
During the Roman Empire, when the area was drained of swamps and contamination was cleared, the area became the center of the city's commerce and creative minds. The city was open to people from all over the empire.
However just like a tide rises, so does it fall; With the establishment of the religious and governmental center in the Palatine Center, the status of this Forum began to decline. The need for temples, the strengthening of Christianity and a general abandonment of the Roman lifestyle led to severe neglect of this physical place. The area and the buildings collapsed and were covered the sand, left to the decay over time. During this time the Forum had an unflattering name: "The Field of Meat" – due to animal carcasses disposed of there.
Excavations and reconstructions began in the 19th century, whose outcomes you see today. The most significant momentum took place during the reign of fascist dictator Mussolini in the 20th century.
All the buildings that were found throughout the Forum were a symbol of the victory of the Roman Empire from the various battles: they praised the conquering ruler and the fighters who won the battle and were meant to serve as a token of gratitude to the gods, who helped and supported the empire during times of war.
The selection of ancient buildings here includes:
Arch of Titus - erected after the death of Emperor Titus to mark the victory of the Romans over the Jews and the downfall of Jerusalem.
The home of Emperor Augustus - the residence of the emperor, whose restoration and reconstruction lasted no less than 40 years.
Temple of Julius Caesar
Curia (the restored Senate House)
Vesta Temple and the Vicariate
The Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius
Septimus Severus' Bow
Tro Jan's Market