On the second floor is an exhibit of Jewish children drawings from the Theresienstadt Ghetto, between 1942-1944. Back then the Ghetto was used as a last stop for the Czech Jews, before being taken in masses to death camps, and most of the children who drew the drawings did not survive the Holocaust.
About 100 years later in 1625, another wing was added to the synagogue, in the Renaissance style. In the following century (18th), additions were made to the building in the Baroque style.
At the end of World War II the synagogue became a memorial center, dedicated to the Jews of Moravia and Bohemia that were murdered by the Nazis.
During the Communist rule some construction and renovations took place here, and in 1968 a vaulted cavity that contained an ancient Jewish ritual bath ("Mikveh" in Hebrew) and a water well were discovered beneath the building.
This is when the names of the victims were erased from the walls, with the excuse that the dampness in the walls caused the damage. However after the end of the Communist rule over the Czech, the names we re-written on the walls of the synagogue, and were not erased again. With time this synagogue has gone on to become part of the Prague Jewish Museum.